Chemistry Exam Study Guide
Chemistry Exam Study Guide Ch 1043
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Taflinger on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Ch 1043 at Mississippi State University taught by Laura Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Survey to Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chemistry Exam Study Guide Keyterms Important Scientists Groups in the Periodic Table ● Science: Primary means by which we obtain new knowledge ● Chemistry: Area of knowledge that deals with the behavior of science ● Technology: application of knowledge for practical purposes ● Alchemy: a primitive form of chemistry that flourished in Europe from about 500 to 1500 c.e. ● Green chemistry: uses materials and processes that are intended to prevent or reduce pollution at its source ● Sustainable Chemistry: Chemistry designed to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs for future generations. ● Scientific laws: Large amounts of scientific data are often summarized in brief verbal or mathematical ● Theory: represents the best current explanation for a phenomenon, but it is always tentative. ● Variable: Something that can change over the course of an experiment ● RiskBenefit analysis: involves the estimation of a desirability quotient Benefits DQ= Risks ● Applied research: work oriented toward the solution of a particular problem in an industry or the environment ○ Carries out mainly by industries seeking to gain a competitive by developing a novel, better, or more salable product. ● Basic research: the search for knowledge for its own sake ○ Conducted mainly at universities and research institutes, support coming from federal and state governments and foundation ● Matter: the stuff that makes up all material things, anything that occupies space and has mass ● Mass: a measure of the quantity of matter that an object contains ● Physical Property: a substance is a characteristic or behavior that can be observed or measured without generating new types of matter ● Chemical Property: describes how a substance reacts with other types of matter ● Physical Change: involves an alteration in the physical appearance of matter without changing its chemical identity or composition. ● Chemical change: involves a change in the chemical identity of matter into other substances that are chemically different. ● Solid: object maintains its shape and volume regardless of its location ● Liquid: occupies a definite volume but assumes the shape of the portion of a container that it occupies ● Gas: maintains neither shape nor volume, it expands to fill completely whatever it occupies. ● Substances: defined as having a definite, or fixed, composition that does not vary from one sample to another ● Element: one of the fundamental substances from which all material things are constructed. ● Compound: a substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio. ● Atom: the smallest characteristic part of an element ● SI Units: a modernized version of the metric system ● Energy: ○ Required to make something happen that wouldn’t by itself ○ Energy is the ability to change matter, either, physically or chemically ● Heat: energy on the move, the energy that flows from a warmer object to a cooler one ● Temperature: ○ A measure of how hot or cold an object is ○ SI Unit kelvin ● Density: a substance is the quantity of mass per unit of volume Mass sound Density = Volume Solid ● Kinetic molecular theory: Proposes that a liquid is composed of tiny particles called molecules ● Law of Conservation of Mass ○ Matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change ○ Cannot create materials from nothing, only by changing the way atoms are combined ● Law of Definite Proportions ○ A compound always contains the same elements in certain definite proportions and in no others ○ All samples of water will have 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen ○ The ratio of atoms yields a constant 2:1 volume ratio Mass of copper oxide − mass of copper = mass of oxygen in copper oxide ● Law of Multiple Proportions ○ Stated that elements might combine in more than one set of proportions, with each set corresponding to a different compound ● Molecule ○ Combined of two or more atoms ○ When two or more atoms of the same element combine, a homogeneous compound is formed ○ When two or more atoms of different elements combine, a heterogenous compound is farmed ● Atoms ○ The basic building blocks of matter and control the behavior of all matter ● Elements: Composed of only one kind of atom ● Compounds: made up of 2 or more kinds of atoms chemically combined in definite proportions ● Isotopes: classified the elements with grouping of similar elements together and organizing by increasing atomic mass ● Electrolysis: chemical reactions caused by electricity ● Electrolyte: Compound that conducts electricity when melted or dissolved in water ● Electrodes: Carbon rods or metal strips inserted into a molten compound or a solution to carry the electric current ● Anode: The electrode that bears a positive charge ● Cathode: Negatively charged electrode ● Ion: an atom or a group of atoms bonded together that has an electric charge ● Anion: an ion with a negative charge ● Cation: A positively charged ion ● Cathode Ray: a beam of current produces a green fluorescence ● Electrons: negatively charged units in atoms ● Electromagnetic radiation: energy with electric and magnetic components ● Radioactivity: spontaneous emission of radiation from an atomic mass ● Alpha particle: mass four times that of a hydrogen atom and a charge twice the magnitude of, but opposite in sign, to that of an electron ● Beta particle: an electron, although it has much more energy than an electron in an atom ● Gamma rays: A form of electromagnetic radiation, much like the xrays used in medical work but even more energetic and more penetrating Name Mass Charge Alpha 4 2+ Beta 1 w2222 1 1837 Gamma 0 0 ● Nucleus: all the positive charge and nearly all the mass of an atom are concentrated at the center of the atom in a tiny core ● Proton: has a charge equal in magnitude to that of the electron and has nearly the same mass as hydrogen atom ● Neutron: particle with about the same mass as a proton but with no electrical charge. ● Isotopes: having the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons Symbols for Isotopes Z is the nuclear charge, A is the mass number ● Nucleons: two main nuclear particles, protons, and neutrons ● Quantum: a tiny unit a energy whose value depends on the frequency of the radiation ● Energy level: a specified energy value for an electron ● Ground state: atoms with their electrons thus situated ● Excited state: electron jumps from the lowest possible level to a higher ● Orbitals: variously shaped volumes of space ● Subshell (sublevel): orbitals in the same shell that have the same letter designation ● Levcippus’ idea ○ Atomos (“cannot be cut”) ○ Modern name atom ( tiny, discrete particular) ● Aristotles’ idea ○ Matter was continuous rather than discrete ○ Seemed more logical and reasonable for 2000 years ● Lavoisier ○ First to weigh all substances present before and after the reaction ○ Found that matter was conserved ○ Consider the father of modern chemistry ● Dmitri Mendeleev ○ Linked the atomic mass of elements to chemical properties and created periodic law and thus the first form of the periodic table ○ Classified the elements with grouping of similar elements together and organizing by increasing atomic mass ● Boyles’ contribution to modern chemistry ○ Proposed that element were made up of various types and sizes of “ corpuscles” ○ Stated that is a substance could be broken down into simpler substances, when it was not an element ● Dalton’s atomic theory of matter ○ Assumes that matter is made up of small unit particles that cannot be further subdivided and still be the same kind of matter ● Michael Faraday developed electrolysis ● James Chadwick discovered the neutron ● Ernest Rutherford proposed the nuclear theory of the atom ● J.J. Thompson discovered the electron and calculated the masstocharge ratio of the electron ● William Crookes developed the cathode ray tube ● Eugen Goldstein discovered the proton ● The Modern Periodic Table has horizontal rows and vertical columns ○ Each vertical column is a group or family. Element in a group have similar properties ○ A horizontal row of the periodic table is called a period. The properties of elements change in a recurring manner across a period ● In the U.S, the groups are often indicated by a numeral followed the letter A or B. ○ An element in a A Group is a Maingroup element ○ An element in a B Group is a Transition element ● Valence Electron ○ A electron in the outermost shell of an atom ● Alkali metals ○ Has one valence electron; very reactive metals n s1 ○ React vigorously with water, producing hydrogen gas ○ Group 1A hydrogen ● Alkaline earth metals ○ Have the cuter electron configuration ns2 ○ Fairly soft and moderately reactive with water ○ Beryllium is the odd member ○ Group 2A ● Halogens 2 5 ○ Seven valence electrons with the configuration n s n p ○ React vigorously with alkali metals to form crystalline solids ○ Group 7A ● Noble gases ○ Have a complete set of valence electrons and therefore undergo few, if any, chemical reaction ● Metals ○ Has a characteristic luster (shininess) and generally is a good conductor of heat and electricity ○ Solid at room temperature ○ Malleable (can be hammered into thin sheets), Ductile (can be drawn into wires) ● Nonmetals ○ Lacks metallic ○ Several are gases; others are solid ○ Bromine is the only nonmetal that is liquid at room temperature ● Semimetals/metalloids ○ Have intermediate properties that may resemble those of both metals and nonmetals. ● Areas of the periodic table ○ Periods: any horizontal row ○ Transition metals: Groups 312 (“B” group element) ○ Main groups: 12 and 1318 (“A” group element) ○ Nonmetallic elements: fall on the righthand side ○ Group: Vertical Column Avogadro’s number 6.022 x 10^23 [ Carbon 12 isotope is 12g per mole]
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