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LEGL 2700 Exam I Study Guide

by: Jessica Su

LEGL 2700 Exam I Study Guide LEGL 2700

Marketplace > University of Georgia > LEGL 2700 > LEGL 2700 Exam I Study Guide
Jessica Su
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

This is the study guide for Exam I
Legal Studies
Lara Grow
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Su on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LEGL 2700 at University of Georgia taught by Lara Grow in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chapter 1  ● Law​ is a rule, laid down by the government, and enforced by the government   ○ “Rule of Law”​ means every citizen needs to follow the law   ○ Code of Hammurabi lays the ground of law  ○ Provides certainty, predictability, and stability  ○ Common Law: ​  judges, Constitution; Ex. The U.S  ○ Civil Law​: legislation; English, Lousiana  ○ Criminal Law​­ government prosecution of citizen who commits an illegal action,  usually state violations, across borders  ■ Civil Law­ private rights between people; Ex. breach of contract, medical  malpractice; usually deal with money  ■ Case​: OJ Simpson faced both criminal and civil trials for his double  murder in LA in 1994  ● Criminal: State of CA vs. Simpson­ not guilty  ● Civil: Family of Brown v. Simpson­ guilty, $$ tort liable for wrongful  death  ● Source of Law  ○ Constitution  ■ Article I establishes the Congress  ■ Article III establishes the Judiciary   ○ Legislation  ■ Statute/Act​­ legislation passed by Congress or a state legislature   ■ Ordinance­ ​ legislation passed  by a local government   ■ Preemption­ ​ Congress pass a single law that overpower all different  state, same subject, laws  ● Con: takes the state power away   ■ Case: D.C. v. Heller (2008)  ● Heller was charged for violating the 2nd Amendment for bearing  arm at home. It was the first time justifying the 2nd amendment.  ● A big conflict between whether it was ‘the right to bear arm,” “safe  defense” or the only time to bear arm is in a militia  ● Heller won; interpret things in a different manner and setting   ○ Administrative Agency Regulations  ■ Experts who give clarity and provide enforcement of statutes, such as the  EPA  ■ Purpose  ● Notice­and­Comment Rulemaking:  ​ the process of noticing the  public, waiting for it to comment, making corrections, proposing,  and going thr. the process again until the public is satisfied   ○ These agencies are unelected. They need to make the  public happy so they can get elected   ○ Judicial Decisions, known a​ tare decis​ (precedents)  ■ Brown v. Board of Education (1995), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)   ■ Overturn their own precedents  ● Hierarchy of Laws  ○ U.S. Constitution  ○ Federal statutes  ○ Federal Administrative Regulations  ○ State constitutions  ○ State Statutes  ○ State Administrative Regulations  ○ Local Ordinances  ○ Judicial Decisions / Case Law    Chapter 3  ● Court  ○ Appellate judges do not look over the question of fact, with an exception of  manifest error​: obvious and disputable error that the judge will review the  question of fact   ○ State judges are appointed by citizens, have terms  ○ Grand Jury­ ​ determines whether the government has enough evidence to go  forward with a ONLY ​criminal ​felony prosecution  ■ 16­23 people, save time, to make sure there’s an actual case before  going to petit jury  ○ Petit Jury­​ issues a verdict (decision) in criminal and civil trials (12ppl)  ■ Unanimous verdict  ■ Only one trial  ■ If one disagrees, then it’s a mistrial  ● Organization of the State Court System  ○ GA Superior Court: trial court where testimony is heard   ○ GA Court of Appeal (12 judges, only 3 will listen to your appeal)  ■ Mandatory appeal  ○ GA Supreme Court   ● Federal Court  ○ GA District Court  ○ 11th Circuit Court of Appeals  ○ U.S. Supreme Court  ■ has a ​discretionary rev​  meaning they choose what to hear   ​ ​ ■ Must grant a ​writ of certiorari before taking an appeal  ■ Commonly hear c​ ircuit sp​ cases where two circuits interpret federal  laws differently     Chapter 4  ● Appellant​­ the party challenging the lower court ruling, the one who lost the trial  ● Appellee­​ the party that was successful in trial court   ○ Appellant v. Appellee  ● In Supreme court, ​petition​ is the party challenging the lower court ruling, and  respondent​ is the party that prevailed in the court of appeals  ● Class Action  ○ Contingency Fee­ ​  the plaintiffs do not need to pay the lawyer unless they won  the case; but if the case is won, the lawyer gets ⅓ of the settlement   ○ Case: ​Dukes v. Walmart   ■ Dukes claimed 1.5M females were discriminated from Walmart   ■ Walmart went to U.S. Supreme Court and won, explaining that this case  should be an individual lawsuit and not a class action, bc the facts are  different for every plaintiff  ● Requirements for bringing suit   ○ Standing to sue   ■ Actual case or controversy  ■ Personal stake in the resolution of the case meaning the plaintiff was  actually influenced by it   ○ Subject matter jurisdiction​  the power of a court to hear and determine lawsuits   ○ Personal jurisdiction­​ the power of a court to hear and determine a lawsuit  involving the parties before it   ■ The plaintiff needs to consider which court to file, location of case, and the  citizenship   ■ If it’s from a different state, that court needs to have a power called  long­arm jurisdiction  ■ The court obtain personal jurisdiction over a defendant if…  ● The defendant is served outside the state, and committed a tort in  the state/ owns property in the state that’s subject matter of the  suit/ entered a contract or transacted business that’s subject  matter   ● Pretrial procedures  ○ Pleadings­​ the formal presentation of claims and defenses by parties to a lawsuit   ■ Complaint­ ​ filed by the plaintiff initiating a lawsuit  ■ Answer​­ filed by the defendant, admitting or denying each allegation  ● May include any counterclaims  ● Only 20 days​ to file an answer  ■ Reply­​ the plaintiff’s response to defendant’s counterclaims, if any  ■ If pleadings, defendant can have an answer, counterclai​ ffirmative  defense ​ (admits it but has a legal excuse to adjust it), and no response   ○ Motions­​ written request made to a court or judge to obtain a ruling directing that  some act be done in favor of the applicant   ■ Ex. motion to postpone the trial, motion to expand the trial time  ■ Motion for summary judgement­  ​ telling the judge there is no need of  having a jury, it just needs a ruling of the law   ● Ex. A woman is pregnant and requested an accommodation, but  the employer denied it. She then sued the employer for violating  her right. The company filed a motion for summary judgement,  because both parties have common knowledge of what already  happened, it just need a ruling of the law.   ○ Discovery­ ​ the procedure by which each party requests the information needed  to prepare its case  ■ Longest part of litigation  ■ Interrogatories­​ ritten questio​ which must be answered by the other  party  ■ Requests for Production of Documents­  ​ written requests for certain  categories of documents in the possession of other party   ● Takes the longest time bc the process to get the documents,  receives, and reviews them  ■ Depositions­ ​ oral questioning by an attorney of a witness who must  answer under oath   ● Done in the attorney’s conference room, similar to a testimony  ● A way to preserve memory and learn which witness is good and  bad for the case  ■ Requests for Admission­​ written questions asking the other party to  specifically admit or deny a certain fact   ● Ex. Admit or deny that the light was red when you crashed into  Plaintiff’s car  ● Trial  ○ Jury Selection  ■ Voir Dire­​ examination of prospective jurors to determine if they are  qualified to serve on the jury  ● The right is under the 6th and 7th amendment  ● Ex Questions: What is your occupation?  ■ Challenges­​  don’t give a reason to get rid of a juror, but cannot be  gender or race  ● 4­10 challenges   ■ Burden of Proof­​  the level of proof necessary to prevail (win) at trial  Beyond a reasonable doubt      Clear and convincing proof        Preponderance of the evidence  100% (Criminal cases) 75% (civil cases) 51% (civil cases)   ○ Opening statement  ○ Presentation of evidence  ○ Closing statements  ○ Verdit   ● Appeals  ○ Remember you can only challenge the facts only if there is​ anifest error    Chapter 5  ● Alternate dispute resolution­ resolve the litigation on your own, common in both civil and  criminal cases  ○ Over 90% of cases are settled before trial   ○ Settlement / Negotiation  ■ Resolution reached through direct negotiations between both parties  ■ Once an agreement is done, a contract is written, and both parties sign it  (to leave a public record)  ■ Adv.: no public record   ■ Enforced by contract   ○ Mediation­​ a third party who works with both parties and try to come with a  mutual solution  ■ Ex. divorce mediation  ■ Not a binding process, parties do not have to agree with   ■ Parties have more power to choose whether and when to settle  ■ Enforced by contract   ○ Arbitration­​ submitting a dispute to a neutral third­party who is​ inding  decision  ■ Both parties have to agree on that arbitrator  ■ Decision is final and cannot be repealed, bc arbitrators are experts and  the whole point of arbitration is to avoid the court   ■ Enforced by courts    Chapter 6 & 15  ● Federalism­​ a system of govt in which power is divided between the national govt and  state govts  ○ Article I section 8  ● Preemption ​occurs when the federal government has claimed the exclusive right to  regulate a particular area, or a state law that conflicts with a federal law   ○ ONLY the federal govt can regulate this area   ○ “Feel Preemption”  ​ means it’s not that states cannot regulate such issues, but it  is more clear and better if the federal regulates it   ■ Ex. ​Immigratio​  so it is uniformed for immigrants to become citizens;  police power​  different states have different ruling for immigrants; one can  arrest suspicious illegal immigrants for not carrying a certain paperwork,  but other states do not require that. In this situation, the federal govt can  come in and say that this ruling/power is preempted from the immigration  law  ● Contract Clause­ ​latter contract cannot change the ruling on previous ones, only the  future ones  ● First Amendment  ○ Freedom of Speech  ■ Exception: ​ efamation​  saying something wrongful that harms a  business’s reputation​ elling Fire in Crowded theate​  ​Obscen​  a  certain things cannot be said on the air   ■ Remember: ​  ​the Constitution governs the federal govt, not private  companies  ● Ex. you cannot sue Starbucks for violating freedom of speech bc  Starbucks is not regulated under the Constitution. You can sue it  for violating a civil right  ○ Freedom of Religion  ■ Establishment Clause­  ​ “Congress shall make no law… respecting an  establishment of religion”  ● Prohibits govt from endorsing one religion over another / religion  over nonreligion  ● Nor be a law that gives preferential treatment to a religious group   ● Ex. “Christmas tree”  ■ Free Exercise Clause­ ​ “Congress shall make no law… prohibiting the  free exercise” of religion   ● Prevents the govt from enacting laws or policies that prevent  people from freely expressing their religious beliefs  ■ Know the diff. between the two for the exam!  ● Due Process­​ the requirement that all legal proceedings be fair   ○ 5th limits to the federal govt  ○ 14th limits to the state govt  ■ Equal Protection Law­ ​ treats all citizen equally   ● But a lot of laws treate citizens differently, ex. Alcohol age  ● Suspect reason: ​  race, religion, and national origin; if the court  sees a state is discriminated for one of these three reasons, then  the court uses​ trict scrutiny revi​  which most cases do not  survive   ● Quasi strict scrutiny​ gender discrimination  ○ Ex. men used to not allow to go to nursing schools  ● Rational Basis Review: ​ age discriminate   ○ Ex. Alcohol age, most classifications survive  ● Commerce Clause­  ​ Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations  and interstate   ○ Historically, if a company is exclusively within that one state, then only the state  can regulate it, but during the Great Depression, the federal govt passed a quota  on wheat production  ■ This farmer in Midwest exceeded the wheat production, and he was fined  ■ He challenged the authority of the federal law crime against him.   ■ He said he was growing wheat for his family, not for sell; therefore the  federal govt does not have the authority   ■ He lost and the fed won, bc by growing more wheat, he was buying less  and feeding the excess to animals, which affected the market   ■ This dramatically increased the regulatory power of the federal  government    


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