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UGA / Legal Studies / LEGL 2700 / What is a rule, laid down by the government, and enforced by the gover

What is a rule, laid down by the government, and enforced by the gover

What is a rule, laid down by the government, and enforced by the gover


School: University of Georgia
Department: Legal Studies
Course: Legal and Regulatory Environment of Business
Professor: Lara grow
Term: Spring 2017
Cost: 50
Name: LEGL 2700 Exam I Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for Exam I
Uploaded: 09/07/2016
7 Pages 180 Views 2 Unlocks

Chapter 1

What is a rule, laid down by the government, and enforced by the government?

● Law​ is a rule, laid down by the government, and enforced by the government ○ “Rule of Law”​ means every citizen needs to follow the law

○ Code of Hammurabi lays the ground of law

○ Provides certainty, predictability, and stability

○ Common Law:​ judges, Constitution; Ex. The U.S

○ Civil Law​: legislation; English, Lousiana

○ Criminal Law​­ government prosecution of citizen who commits an illegal action, usually state violations, across borders

■ Civil Law­ private rights between people; Ex. breach of contract, medical malpractice; usually deal with money

■ Case: OJ Simpson faced both criminal and civil trials for his double

What is the meaning of “rule of law”?

murder in LA in 1994

● Criminal: State of CA vs. Simpson­ not guilty

● Civil: Family of Brown v. Simpson­ guilty, $$ tort liable for wrongful


● Source of Law

○ Constitution

■ Article I establishes the Congress

■ Article III establishes the Judiciary

○ Legislation

■ Statute/Act​­ legislation passed by Congress or a state legislature

■ Ordinance­​ legislation passed by a local government If you want to learn more check out Where is the alpha carbon in an amino acid?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is disagreement belief?

■ Preemption­​ Congress pass a single law that overpower all different state, same subject, laws

● Con: takes the state power away

■ Case: D.C. v. Heller (2008)

● Heller was charged for violating the 2nd Amendment for bearing

What is the meaning of legislation in law?

If you want to learn more check out What was the conflict between athens and sparta?

arm at home. It was the first time justifying the 2nd amendment.

● A big conflict between whether it was ‘the right to bear arm,” “safe

defense” or the only time to bear arm is in a militia

● Heller won; interpret things in a different manner and setting

○ Administrative Agency Regulations

■ Experts who give clarity and provide enforcement of statutes, such as the EPA

■ Purpose

● Notice­and­Comment Rulemaking:​ the process of noticing the

public, waiting for it to comment, making corrections, proposing,

and going thr. the process again until the public is satisfied

○ These agencies are unelected. They need to make the

public happy so they can get elected

○ Judicial Decisions, known as stare decisis​ (precedents)

■ Brown v. Board of Education (1995), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

■ Overturn their own precedents

● Hierarchy of Laws

○ U.S. Constitution

○ Federal statutes

○ Federal Administrative Regulations

○ State constitutions If you want to learn more check out What happens when atoms share electrons equally?

○ State Statutes

○ State Administrative Regulations

○ Local Ordinances

○ Judicial Decisions / Case Law We also discuss several other topics like What does have a plasma membrane and a cell wall composed mainly of cellulose and a polysaccharide?

Chapter 3

● Court

○ Appellate judges do not look over the question of fact, with an exception of manifest error​: obvious and disputable error that the judge will review the question of fact Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of stereoscopic vision?

○ State judges are appointed by citizens, have terms

○ Grand Jury­​ determines whether the government has enough evidence to go forward with a ONLY criminal felony prosecution

■ 16­23 people, save time, to make sure there’s an actual case before going to petit jury

○ Petit Jury­​ issues a verdict (decision) in criminal and civil trials (12ppl) ■ Unanimous verdict

■ Only one trial

■ If one disagrees, then it’s a mistrial

● Organization of the State Court System

○ GA Superior Court: trial court where testimony is heard

○ GA Court of Appeal (12 judges, only 3 will listen to your appeal)

■ Mandatory appeal

○ GA Supreme Court

● Federal Court

○ GA District Court

○ 11th Circuit Court of Appeals

○ U.S. Supreme Court

■ has a discretionary review, meaning they choose what to hear

■ Must grant a writ of certiorari before taking an appeal

■ Commonly hear circuit split​ cases where two circuits interpret federal laws differently

Chapter 4

● Appellant​­ the party challenging the lower court ruling, the one who lost the trial ● Appellee­​ the party that was successful in trial court

○ Appellant v. Appellee

● In Supreme court, petitioner​ is the party challenging the lower court ruling, and respondent​ is the party that prevailed in the court of appeals

● Class Action

○ Contingency Fee­ ​ the plaintiffs do not need to pay the lawyer unless they won the case; but if the case is won, the lawyer gets ⅓ of the settlement

○ Case: Dukes v. Walmart

■ Dukes claimed 1.5M females were discriminated from Walmart

■ Walmart went to U.S. Supreme Court and won, explaining that this case should be an individual lawsuit and not a class action, bc the facts are different for every plaintiff

● Requirements for bringing suit

○ Standing to sue

■ Actual case or controversy

■ Personal stake in the resolution of the case meaning the plaintiff was actually influenced by it

○ Subject matter jurisdiction­ ​ the power of a court to hear and determine lawsuits ○ Personal jurisdiction­​ the power of a court to hear and determine a lawsuit involving the parties before it

■ The plaintiff needs to consider which court to file, location of case, and the citizenship

■ If it’s from a different state, that court needs to have a power called long­arm jurisdiction

■ The court obtain personal jurisdiction over a defendant if…

● The defendant is served outside the state, and committed a tort in the state/ owns property in the state that’s subject matter of the

suit/ entered a contract or transacted business that’s subject


● Pretrial procedures

○ Pleadings­​ the formal presentation of claims and defenses by parties to a lawsuit ■ Complaint­​ filed by the plaintiff initiating a lawsuit

■ Answer​­ filed by the defendant, admitting or denying each allegation ● May include any counterclaims

● Only 20 days to file an answer

■ Reply­​ the plaintiff’s response to defendant’s counterclaims, if any ■ If pleadings, defendant can have an answer, counterclaim, affirmative defense​ (admits it but has a legal excuse to adjust it), and no response ○ Motions­​ written request made to a court or judge to obtain a ruling directing that some act be done in favor of the applicant

■ Ex. motion to postpone the trial, motion to expand the trial time

■ Motion for summary judgement­​ telling the judge there is no need of having a jury, it just needs a ruling of the law

● Ex. A woman is pregnant and requested an accommodation, but

the employer denied it. She then sued the employer for violating

her right. The company filed a motion for summary judgement,

because both parties have common knowledge of what already

happened, it just need a ruling of the law.

○ Discovery­​ the procedure by which each party requests the information needed to prepare its case

■ Longest part of litigation

■ Interrogatories­​ written questions which must be answered by the other party

■ Requests for Production of Documents­​ written requests for certain categories of documents in the possession of other party

● Takes the longest time bc the process to get the documents,

receives, and reviews them

■ Depositions­​ oral questioning by an attorney of a witness who must

answer under oath

● Done in the attorney’s conference room, similar to a testimony

● A way to preserve memory and learn which witness is good and

bad for the case

■ Requests for Admission­​ written questions asking the other party to specifically admit or deny a certain fact

● Ex. Admit or deny that the light was red when you crashed into

Plaintiff’s car

● Trial

○ Jury Selection

■ Voir Dire­​ examination of prospective jurors to determine if they are

qualified to serve on the jury

● The right is under the 6th and 7th amendment

● Ex Questions: What is your occupation?

■ Challenges­ ​ don’t give a reason to get rid of a juror, but cannot be

gender or race

● 4­10 challenges

■ Burden of Proof­ ​ the level of proof necessary to prevail (win) at trial

Beyond a reasonable doubt Clear and convincing proof Preponderance of the evidence 100% (Criminal cases) 75% (civil cases) 51% (civil cases) ○ Opening statement

○ Presentation of evidence

○ Closing statements

○ Verdit

● Appeals

○ Remember you can only challenge the facts only if there is a manifest error

Chapter 5

● Alternate dispute resolution­ resolve the litigation on your own, common in both civil and criminal cases

○ Over 90% of cases are settled before trial

○ Settlement / Negotiation

■ Resolution reached through direct negotiations between both parties ■ Once an agreement is done, a contract is written, and both parties sign it (to leave a public record)

■ Adv.: no public record

■ Enforced by contract

○ Mediation­​ a third party who works with both parties and try to come with a mutual solution

■ Ex. divorce mediation

■ Not a binding process, parties do not have to agree with

■ Parties have more power to choose whether and when to settle

■ Enforced by contract

○ Arbitration­​ submitting a dispute to a neutral third­party who issues a binding decision

■ Both parties have to agree on that arbitrator

■ Decision is final and cannot be repealed, bc arbitrators are experts and the whole point of arbitration is to avoid the court

■ Enforced by courts

Chapter 6 & 15

● Federalism­​ a system of govt in which power is divided between the national govt and state govts

○ Article I section 8

● Preemption ​occurs when the federal government has claimed the exclusive right to regulate a particular area, or a state law that conflicts with a federal law

○ ONLY the federal govt can regulate this area

○ “Feel Preemption”​ means it’s not that states cannot regulate such issues, but it is more clear and better if the federal regulates it

■ Ex. Immigration: so it is uniformed for immigrants to become citizens; police power: different states have different ruling for immigrants; one can arrest suspicious illegal immigrants for not carrying a certain paperwork,

but other states do not require that. In this situation, the federal govt can come in and say that this ruling/power is preempted from the immigration law

● Contract Clause­ ​latter contract cannot change the ruling on previous ones, only the future ones

● First Amendment

○ Freedom of Speech

■ Exception: Defamation­ saying something wrongful that harms a

business’s reputation; Yelling Fire in Crowded theaters; Obscenity­ a

certain things cannot be said on the air

■ Remember: ​ ​the Constitution governs the federal govt, not private companies

● Ex. you cannot sue Starbucks for violating freedom of speech bc

Starbucks is not regulated under the Constitution. You can sue it

for violating a civil right

○ Freedom of Religion

■ Establishment Clause­​ “Congress shall make no law… respecting an establishment of religion”

● Prohibits govt from endorsing one religion over another / religion

over nonreligion

● Nor be a law that gives preferential treatment to a religious group

● Ex. “Christmas tree”

■ Free Exercise Clause­​ “Congress shall make no law… prohibiting the free exercise” of religion

● Prevents the govt from enacting laws or policies that prevent

people from freely expressing their religious beliefs

■ Know the diff. between the two for the exam!

● Due Process­​ the requirement that all legal proceedings be fair

○ 5th limits to the federal govt

○ 14th limits to the state govt

■ Equal Protection Law­​ treats all citizen equally

● But a lot of laws treate citizens differently, ex. Alcohol age

● Suspect reason:​ race, religion, and national origin; if the court

sees a state is discriminated for one of these three reasons, then

the court uses strict scrutiny review,​ which most cases do not


● Quasi strict scrutiny:​ gender discrimination

○ Ex. men used to not allow to go to nursing schools

● Rational Basis Review:​ age discriminate

○ Ex. Alcohol age, most classifications survive

● Commerce Clause­​ Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations and interstate

○ Historically, if a company is exclusively within that one state, then only the state can regulate it, but during the Great Depression, the federal govt passed a quota on wheat production

■ This farmer in Midwest exceeded the wheat production, and he was fined ■ He challenged the authority of the federal law crime against him.

■ He said he was growing wheat for his family, not for sell; therefore the federal govt does not have the authority

■ He lost and the fed won, bc by growing more wheat, he was buying less and feeding the excess to animals, which affected the market

■ This dramatically increased the regulatory power of the federal


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