New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Testing Upload

by: Cody Eliason

Testing Upload SS 1010

Cody Eliason
Utah State University

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

SS 1010
Dr. Frank
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in SS 1010

Popular in Sociology

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cody Eliason on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SS 1010 at University of Utah taught by Dr. Frank in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see SS 1010 in Sociology at University of Utah.

Similar to SS 1010 at The U

Popular in Sociology


Reviews for Testing Upload


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/07/16
Cody Eliason Sister Seminario ENG 201 Merchants of Doubt Nowadays, even a kid could tell you that smoking kills. But this now well­known  fact was not such common knowledge in the second half of the twentieth century. It’s  shocking now, but plenty of people had no idea about smoking’s adverse health effects.  But did the tobacco industry itself know about its product’s dirty secret? Absolutely. In  fact, they knew that smoking was harmful as early as the 1950s when the tobacco  industry first came under scrutiny regarding the adverse effects of cigarettes. Realizing  that they had to take action, in 1953, the four biggest tobacco companies in the United  States – American Tobacco, Benson and Hedges, Philip Morris and US Tobacco –  joined forces in defense of their industry.  Their strategy? To hire a PR firm, Hill and Knowlton, to save tobacco’s  deteriorating image. This same decision would later be used as evidence in court to  prove that the tobacco industry was well aware of its product’s harmful effects, and had  thus knowingly misled their customers. The strategy itself was simple: simply cast doubt on the idea that smoking was bad for your health. So, as more research indicating  tobacco’s harmful effects began to emerge in the 1960s and ‘70s, the tobacco  companies opted for the only strategy at their disposal: challenging scientifically proven  facts by propagating doubt about their validity. For instance, in 1979, the tobacco  industry began a program that funded top universities like Harvard. They committed $45 million over six years for one purpose: to prove that smoking was not connected to  health problems. Nearly every pressing public issue, from the danger of cigarettes to  climate change, has been misrepresented by the media for political purposes. The  weapon of choice for those attacking the scientific proof behind these problems has  been the aggressive propagation of doubt and false information intended to mislead the  public.   As I ponder over the effects that propaganda has had in this country, I cannot  help but think towards the state that we are currently in.  We have shifted into a  direction where free speech is more available for more people than ever before. I can  blog, Instagram, Facebook, Tumblr, and tweet my opinions.  The key word there being  "opinions". In the sense of the book, what was so critical was the trust that we vested in  these agencies. Namely, Harvard for example. When a professor from Harvard stands  and declares that smoking is not bad for our health, we tend to believe him. Why?  Because people that teach at Harvard are correct and hold the truth.  But wait, it's,  wasn't the truth was it? Beyonce and her lyrics are they correct? What about that "out­ dated" book called the Bible? Why am I supposed to follow the teachings that lay within  its pages? While this country has progressed along, more voices have started to be heard.  That is, more platforms have been created to perpetuate the opinions ideas, and "facts". While more platforms may be the case, I can also say that more voices do not lead to  more truth. Something I have been pondering is the value that we lend to prediction  analysis, namely ESPN.  I watch as anchors and hosts argue about who the “best” in  the league is. Doing so, they are paid millions of dollars. What is the truth? There is no  truth in those conversations because it is all objective and opinion driven.  There is no  right or wrong answer. It’s just distraction and it’s just something to pass time. Then  there are real issues like abortion and human rights. More voices have just muddied the water and led to people being more creative in amplifying their voice. I have learned that there are many voices competing for attention in this world.   Some are speaking up for truth and some are a distraction. It is up to us to search  deeply in finding what is real and what is phony. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.