BY283 Test 1 study guide
BY283 Test 1 study guide 283
Jacksonville State University
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaylynn Riley Williams on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 283 at Jacksonville State University taught by Richard Watkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Health Microbiology in Biology at Jacksonville State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Gram-Positive Sporulators Name Morphology Symptoms General Added Notes Treatment Bacillus anthracisLarge block rods Cutaneous: least dangerous - spores enter the skin Pulmonary: most dangerous - inhalation of spores Gastrointestina l: ingested spores Bacillus cereus Rods 24hr duration: Location: nausea, airborne and vomiting, food, can survive abdominal cooking and cramps, diarrhea reheating Clostridium spp. Rods Anaerobic Clostridium Rod Deep wounds - Oxygen therapy, “Gas gangrene” perfringens surgical, amputation of Virulence factors: puncture, etc. area. alpha toxins*, Collagenase*, Hyaluronidase* , DNase* Clostridium Rod Normal resident Fluid & “C diff” difficile of colon, only an electrolyte Causes 10,000- issue when replacement; 15,000 deaths overgrown. probiotics; per year Antibiotic- withdrawal of associated antibiotics colitis Fecal replacement therapy Clostridium Rod Vaccine “Tetanus” tetani Antitoxin Enter through treatment - stops puncture toxin but doesn’t wounds, burns, counteract what frostbite, & already crushed body happened parts Muscle relaxers Toxin prevents release of GABA - muscle stays contracted Clostridium Rod Food poisoning Practice proper “Botulism” botulinum Double or blurred preservation and Home canning, vision, difficultyhandling of food expired food, etc swallowing, Determine Blocks the neuromuscular presence of toxin release of symptoms and discard acetylcholine (muscle contractions), Muscle stays relaxed *Alpha Toxins - RBC (red blood cell) rupture, edema & tissue destruction *Collagenase - breaks down collagen *Hyaluronidase - digests connective tissue *DNase - breaks down DNA Gram-Positive Bacteria of Medical Importance Name Morphology Symptoms General Added Notes Treatment Propionibacteri Rod Acne, pimples antibiotic Aerotolerant or um acnes anaerobic; found on the skin and in/around sebaceous glands Listeria Coccobaccilli to “Healthy” Prevention: Resistant to monocytogenes long filaments; adults show no pasteurization cold, heat, salt, 1-4 flagella symptoms; Risk and cooking pH extremes groups: and bile; pregnant Becomes an women & fetus, “actin elderly, shooter**” immunocompro mised Fever & muscle aches, nausea/vomitin g, complications in pregnancy Staphylococci Spherical/ spp Round cells arranged in irregular clusters Many have capsules 31 Species Staphylococcus Hygiene and Facultative aureus nutrition anaerobe. Opt. Temp: 37C/100F Major nosocomial infection Many virulence factors: Coagulase***, Hyaluronidase*, Staphylokinase* **, DNase*, Lipases***, Penicillinase***, Leukocidin***, Exfoliative toxin***, Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST)*** Staph aureus Cutaneous: Food poisoning: Osteomyelitis - Toxic Shock Infections: folliculitis, shows 1-6 infection is Syndrome (TSS) furuncle, hours after established in - sudden fever, carbuncle, exposure the bone low blood impetigo marrow and pressure metaphysis (shock), vomiting, diarrhea, fainting, dizziness, sunburn like rash MRSA: Vancomycin Methicillin- Prevention: resistant staph mitigation, aureus hygiene, cleaning, education,woun d care Streptococci Spherical/ ovoid spp cocci arranged in long chains Nonmotile Fastidious Faculative Streptococcus Inhabits throat, pyogenes pharynx, “strep throat” occasionally skin B-hemolytic Virulence factors: C- carbohydrates# , Fimbriae# **”Actin Shooter” - replication in the cytoplasm of cells after inducing phagocytosis. Helps avoid immune system. Endocytosis -> uses enzyme to break open phagosome -> grows/reproduces -> uses host cytoskeleton to form a pseudopod to enter another cell -> repeats cycle. ***Coagulase - located on the exterior surfaces, clotting in the surface of the bacterium (helps to avoid immune system) ***Staphylokinase - digests blood clots ***Lipases - breaks up oils ***Penicillinase - inactivates penicillin ***Leukocidin - lyses neutrophils and macrophages ***Exfoliative toxin - separates the epidermis from the dermis ***Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST) - causes toxic shock syndrome #C-carbohydrates - protect against lysozyme, an enzyme that degrades cell walls of bacteria #Fimbriae - adherence, helps the bacterium to “hold onto” surface Hemolysis Beta-hemolysis: full lysis on blood agar Alpha-hemolysis: partial lysis on blood agar Gamma-hemolysis: no lysis on blood agar
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