Social Psychology Exam Study Guides
Social Psychology Exam Study Guides 85241
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This 51 page Study Guide was uploaded by Noopur Suckhlecha on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 85241 at Carnegie Mellon University taught by Boyd in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Carnegie Mellon University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Class notes 19/1 Observational: observe and record Experimental: the most widely used Scientific observations begin with a question or hypothesis hypothesis must be testable calls for an operational definition of key terms to specify the study’s dependent variable Example: Napoleon effect short guys more aggressive short males get jealous when other guys talk to their mates how do you define tall how do you define jealousy observe facial expressions, heart rate ranges don't know how they’re gonna react aggressive response: hitting the guy operational study manipulation: bringing in an ex some would hug them dependent variable 1. Observational Research: observe and record behavior participant observation or nonparticipant (ethnography observe group from within blend in the situation participant or non participant (just stand there) Archival research document searching passive research Issues with observational research boredom interrater (interjudge) reliability extent to which observers rate behavior in the same manner biased recording Limits of the observational method Certain behaviors difficult to observe occur rarely in private like parent child relationship come home and ill beat you/ make you understand Archival analysis original may not have all information reseraches need does not allow prediction and explanation limited to description 2. Correlational systematically measure the relationship between two or more variables negative correlational covary in opposite directions positive correlation covary in the same direction problem with self report (surveys) correlation coefficient range from 1 to 1 (positive correlation) 3. Experimental able to establish causation 1. operational definition methods used to create the IV in a study independent variable controlled by the researcher ( the hug or the kiss or the handshake ) dependent variable result of the manipulation of the IV ( what was the response) 2. Random assignment assume the group of subjects do not differ before experiencing the experimental condition Inferential Statistics researchers use inferential statistics to make inference based on their data this involves testing a difference between two groups procides an assessment of a result’s statistical significance the p value 0.5 means 5 % if nothing had changed there's only 5% the lower the p value the better January 21, 2016 3. Subjects Sample subset of total population used for purposes of the study Random selection each person has an equal chance of being selected for the study Gathering Data A. Measurement reliability repeatability of a measure Validity Internal (measure what is should) through control of extraneous variable and random assignment External generalizable to other settings and populations Replication repeating a study with other populations. Tests external validity Mundane (similar to everyday behavior) vs. experimental realism (involving to participants) Choosing a setting: field vs. lab Trade Off between Internal and External Validity Internal validity: randomly assigned to condition and control for extraneous variables External validity : generalize to everyday life “Basic dilemma of the social psychologist too much control, generalizable? too much like real life? V. Bias in Research A. Subject Selection B. Experimental Bias Intentional or unintentional behavior on the part of the experimenter that influences participants responses C. Subject Bias Behavior on the part of the subject has an impact on the results. Respond to (Demand Characteristics cues in experimental setting) Ethical Dilemma : two goals in conflict 1. Create experiments that resemble the real world and are well controlled 2. Avoid causing participants stress, discomfort, or unpleasantness Ethics internal review board some primary ethical requirements informed consent: prior to the study, you have to read and consent to it. They’ll tell us before what participation you’ll do. You also have to tell me that you can stop at anytime, how long it is gonna take, what your rights are Have rights about the results of the study full nature of the study minimal risks no physical or psychological harm debriefing : explain to participants at the end of the experiment the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired Cross cultural research Issues: Researchers must: Guard against imposing their own cultural viewpoints onto an unfamiliar culture Ensure that IV and DV are understood in the same way in different cultures Evolutionary Psychology attempts to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that have evolved over time Social Neuroscience examines the connection between biological processes and social behavior Technologies used include: Electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes are places on the scalp to measure electrical activity in the brain Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in which people are places in scanners that measure changes in blood flow in their brains CHAPTER 3: Social Cognition The study of how people think about themselves and the social world how we select, interpret and use social info to make judgements Two types of thinking A. automatic: automatic, low effort thinking (mechanical) unconscious, involuntary and effortless 1. schemas mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about the social world. examples: people schema (Texans) role schema (mother) event schema ( going to dinner) Function of schemas 1. Help process and organize info (guides attention) 2. Aid in remembering infor a. memory appears to be schema consistent effortful Jan26, 2016 Function of schemas 1. when applied to members of a social group such as a fraternity or gender or race, schemas are commonly referred to as stereotypes. 2. Stereotypes can be applied rapidly and automatically when we encounter other people Weapons Effect and Race Payne and colleagues rapidly showed college students pairs of pictures Participants were told to pay attention to press one key if certain pictures showed a tool and another key if it was a gun, in only ½ second. People were significantly more likely to misidentify a tool a gun for black people as compared to white people Race and Weapons Effect 3. Fill in gaps in our knowledge 4. Help interpret and evaluate new information eg: implicit personality theory Abstract schema which involves relationship between some traits. Some traits go together, while others do not. Which Schemas are Applied? Accessibility and Priming Accessibility The extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds and are therefore likely to be used when we are making judgments about the social world. Priming The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept Something can become accessible for three reasons: Some schemas are chronically accessible due to past experience Something can become accessible because it is related to a current goal Schemas can become temporarily accessible because of our recent experiences Schema Change 1. Belief perseverance Tendency for schemas to persist in the face of disconfirming evidence. NYC story from the prof. 2. Self fulfilling prophecy People’s tendency to confirm others expectations of them The case where people Have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with people’s original expectations, making the expectations come true. Mental Strategies and Shortcuts for judgments Heuristics Availability Ease with which things can be brought to mind is used to make a judgment eg: homicide vs disease physicians with recent disease diagnosis Representative Tendency to classify something by according to how similar it is to a typical case Linda is 31 years old, single outspoken and very bright. In college she majored in philosophy and was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination bank teller? bank teller and female feminist? Anchoring and Adjustment Using a number as a reference point and then adjusting one’s answer away from the anchor Is the Mississippi River greater than or less than 500 (1500) miles? How long is it? 500 mile anchor: 908 Mile estimate 1500 mile anchor: 1950 Mile estimate Automatic Thinking and Metaphors About the Body and the Mind Metaphors can influence decisions Holding hot coffee or iced coffee Encounter a stranger Hot coffee: Primes “warm and friendly” metaphor stranger rated as friendly Iced coffee: Primes “unfriendly people are cold” rate stranger as unfriendly Controlled (High Effort) Thinking Automatic believing controlled believing People initially believe everything they see and hear (automatic processing) They access the info more thoroughly and “unaccept” it is necessary Ironic Processing Thought suppression can often lead to high levels of unwanted thoughts (Wegner) due to monitoring and detecting (not to think about a white bear) Counterfactual reasoning Mentally undoing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been. can influence emotional reactions to events leads to rumination you can’t give it up Emotional consequences of counterfactual reasoning positive negative Bias in Mechanistic Approach 1. Consistency Effects Halo Effect people who are viewed as good are perceived to have positive auras surrounding them Fork Tailed Effect People labeled as bad are seen as having all bad qualities 2. Positivity Bias Positive evaluations of people outweigh negative ones 3. Order Effects Primacy First information is given more weight than later info. Recency Effect Information coming later on has a stronger impact than earlier info. eg: American idol effect last contestant blowing up or first one? 4. Context Effects understanding of new information will depend on the context in which it is interpreted. eg: class average marks and you got an 89... 5. Central traits Traits that are highly associated with other characteristics. Imply more about individuals than some others. eg: look book up cold and warm cold and warm intelligent? Improving Human Thinking Break through overconfidence barriers ( we are not always right_ Become aware of biases and errors Teach basic statistics and methods January 28, 2016 Social Perception Chapter 4 Nonverbal behavior how people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words Examples: facial expression tone of voice gestures body position movement use of touch gaze Are facial expressions of emotion universal yes six major Anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust and sadness Other emotions develop later: guilt, shame, embarrassment, pride less universal across cultures Mirror Neurons and Nonverbal behavior special brain cells activated when we perform an action and when we see someone else perform the same action Basis of ability to feel empathy eg: when we see someone crying, mirror neurons fire automatically and involuntarily, just as if we were crying ourselves Factors that decrease decoding accuracy affect blends register different emotions on the face eyes sad but there’s a smile on the face like Miss america people often appear less emotional than they are don't show your emotions cultural differences ● faster rate of speech more honest Can contradict spoken words sarcasm “Im so happy for you” sarcastically Can substitute for verbal message the “ok” sign Other Channels of Nonverbal communication eye contact personal space emblems gestures Gender differences in nonverbal communication women are better at decoding : nurturing babies, learning to understand their expressions, more interested about social harmony men are better at detecting deception : looking for deception people trying to hurt their homes Attribution Theory Attribution search for the cause of behavior In attribution causes to behavior, people tend to be: consistency seekers cognitive misers Major Attribution Theories Heider (common sense psychology) People act as a naive scientists. They analyze behavior (in terms of locus of casuality) in order to be able to predict behavior a) internal (dispositional causes) b) external (situational causes) Kelly’s Attribution Theory Uncertainty prompts causal analysis. Are three dimensions of covariation 1. Distinctiveness Behavior is the same across different situations eg: sister cry all the time 2. Consistency Behavior is the same in the same situation eg:sister cries even when she watches commercial 3. Consensus Extent to which others respond in the same manner to the stimulus eg: no one else cried when watching Titanic you make an internal disposition Internal Attribution Occurs when consensus = low behavior is unique to the person Distinctiveness = Low person displays same behavior with different targets External Attribution Occurs when consensus = high other people behave similarly distinctiveness = high person displays same behavior with different targets consistency = high *LOOK up in book definitely on test Discounting A potential cause may be discounted if another plausible causes are present Augmenting If an inhibitory cause is overcome, a behavior may be boosted ( if you overcome something eg: a woman who graduates at the top of her class is gonna get boosted, augmented coz people will see you as better because you overcome an inhibitory character like woman in ECE gets an internal boost Belief in a just world you get what you deserve self protective type of bias eg: they were walking in a dark alley protects yourself coz then i wont be walking alone in a dark alley when its dark works more with more income discrepancy because you say you are homeless coz you deserve it i dont have to feel guilty to not give you something E. Weiner there are emotional consequences attached to the type of attributions made 1. Determinants of emotional consequence: a. locus internal vs. external b. stability does it vary from one situation to the next ( if its only one class we do bad at, thats okay if its in all classes then youre not gonna take it easy) c. controbility if you can control the situation next time or you could have Attributional Biases Fundamental attribution error Prefer internal explanations of behavior over external ones mostly for other people Actor Observer Bias Explain one’s own behavior in external terms and other’s behavior in internal terms coz we know our situations more than we know other people’s situations Salience effects Salient others as seen as having more causal influence over the environment you can look at everyone if you are at the end of the table Self serving bias Take credit for our success but blame others for our failure Self centered bias Overestimate our contribution to shared activities I do everything, coz you dont see what other people are doing Selfhandicapping bias when anticipating failure we prove a decoy external explanation when we know about an internal reason why we do it we just put a decoy of an external behavior. False Consensus Overestimate the extent to which others agree with us. Eg: how can people vote for donald trump? we know the logic about situations but you dont know, if you knew youd think the same way Correspondence Bias Tendency to believe that people’s behavior corresponds to or matches their dispositions, eg: cause corresponds effect Culture and Attribution Fundamental attribution error People prefer internal explanation of behavior in western cultures (emphasize individual freedom and autonomy), but prefer external in collectivist cultures Correspondence bias Although ….. Belief in a just world more prominent in cultures where there are greater extremes of wealthy and poor Accuracy of Judgements why are we not accurate in our judgements? eye of the beholder people impose their own perspective on things rather than use reality Fail to notice bias in information problems with gathering information use wrong or too little info swayed by case history Paper Notes: 50% experience and 50% explanation of terms get a paper copy and turn it on blackboard Chapter 13 Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice Negative or positive attitude based mainly on group membership Discrimination ve behavior towards another based solely on group membership treated differently coz of some group membership Stereotypes group schemas beliefs about the personal attributes shared by people in particular group or social class number of group of people prejudice Movie: Crash, broke ban mountain Chapter 13: Prejudice and Discrimination 3 Components of Prejudice Prejudice is an attitude with 3 components: Affective (emotional) component Type of emotion linked with the attitude (eg: anger, warmth) Extremity of the attitude (eg: mild, uneasiness, outright hostility Behavioral component how people act on emotions and cognitions discrimination Cognitive Component beliefs or thoughts that make up the attitude stereotypes Cardinal of truth generalizations we make about any social race eg: Indians dont see them as trash collectors, factory workers but more as doctors Americans 1933 industrious, materialistic The Ubiquitous Social Phenomenon Many aspects of your identity can cause you to be labeled and discriminated against: nationality racial and ethnic identity weight gender disabilities sexual orientation diseases religion hair color appearance professions physical state hobbies eg: gay men aren’t allowed to donate blood, all african americans are criminals White Privilege (Peggy McIntoch) coz belonging to majority culture Unearned advantages and entitlements Eg of privileges getting someone to do afroamerican hair, go to a supermarket and buy anything except a tiny aisle and little bit part of your cultural food. Walter Lippmann we all have images and they’re usually same as the actual stereotypes What’s wrong with having positive stereotypes? Denied individuality of person Cant all black men jump? ignore the fact that plenty of african american kids are not adept at basketball and plenty of white kids are Selffulfilling prophecy Jane Elliott's brown eyed/ blue eyed study Stereotype Threat (Claude Steele) Asian Females Math performance primed when you're female, math performance is low primed when you’re asian math performance is high Stereotype Threat (Claude Steele) african american IQ test Stereotype Threat The apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype If I perform poorly on this test, it will reflect badly on me and my race. (eg: female carrying the weight of all females on her shoulder black people are always late Stereotype threat effect found with multiple groups: Latinos lowincome people elderly More selfconscious about performance led to bad quality of performance Stereotype threat example: stone and his colleagues (1999) found that when a game of miniature golf was framed as a measure of sport Reversing the effects of stereotypes How can effects of stereotype threat be reversed? Alternative mindset “Im a good student” Selfaffirmation practice of reminding yourself of your good qualities Why are people prejudiced? The learning of prejudice focuses on socialization and norms family and peers media society Theories of Prejudice Realistic group conflict theory Direct competition for limited resources eg: like super bowl only one winner so two teams already hate each other african american women think african american men are scarce (limited resources) so anti other dating racial groups thus prejudiced attitudes tend to increase when times are tense and conflict exists over mutually exclusive goals. Economic and Political Competition When times are tough and resources are scarce: 1. in group members will feel more threatened by the outgroup. 2. incidents of prejudice, discrimination, and violence toward outgroup members will increase 3. Sherif's classic study eagles versus rattlers Relative Deprivation perception of being disadvantages relative to another one college has more money than other, you feel disadvantaged towards them you get treated better so i hate you for it eg: tepper, CS vs CFA Scapegoating when frustrated or unhappy, people tend to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless eg: latinos, indians Form of aggression dependent on what ingroup approves of or allows Social Cognition Theories of Prejudice is a byproduct of the way we process and organize information. Includes our tendency to: categorize and group information form schemas and use them to interpret new or unusual information rely on potentially inaccurate heuristics Cognitive Categorizations In group favoritism greater value and trust of the in group out group homogeneity outgroup is less variable than the ingroup. “They are all alike” eg: mother’s friend I can't stand those japanese people, they are always talking chinese they were mexicans Social Identity Theory The desire to achieve and maintain a positive selfimage motivates people to favor the ingroup over the outgroup. eg: some identity I wanna cling to. you wanna be linked to something positive try to maintain a healthy image February 16,2016 In Group Bias The major underlying motive is selfesteem: individuals seek to enhance their selfesteem by identifying with specific social groups. Selfesteem will be enhanced only if the individual sees these groups as superior to other groups Belief Dissimilarity Prejudice results from assumed dissimilarities between the ingroup and the outgroup eg: you eat dogs, and for me dogs are pets so I dont like you The JustificationSuppression Model of Prejudice Crandall and Eschleman’s model struggle between urge to express prejudice and the need to maintain positive self concept (as a nonbigot) requires energy to suppress To conserve energy, seek valid justification for holding a negative attitude toward a particular outgroup eg: come up with a reason Can then act against that group and still feel like a nonbigot avoid cognitive dissonance Modern forms of Prejudice racism asertive racism sexism Modern Racism and Other Implicit Prejudices people hide prejudice when situation becomes “safe” their prejudice will be revealed. eg: questioning President Obama’s americanism, not his race per se so you try to hide Measuring Implicit Prejudices Most people don’t want to admit their prejudices, so unobtrusive measures are necessary. Bogus pipelline participants believed a “lie detector” could detect true attitudes more likely to express racist attitudes IMPLICIT ATTITUDES TEST (IAT) measures speed of positive and negative reactions to target groups like as soon as you see Trump, and if its positive youll be slow but as soon as you see negative you’ll QUICKLY go yes...no no. Racial Discrimination Example: Blacks and whites not treated equally in the “war against drugs” African americans disproportionately arrested, convicted, and incarcerated for drug charges eg: crack and cocaine, coz crack is poor people drug and cocaine is rich people drug so some people say that they target minority Microaggressions “slights” indignities, and putdowns example: white professor compliments Asian student for his “excellent English” WRITE A PAPER ABOUT INGROUP OUTGROUP BIAS two girls same looking.. Social Distance a person’s reluctance to get “too close” to another group unwilling to work with, marry, or live next to members of a particular group example: straight student not wanting to sit next to a gay student Stereotypes of Gender Traditional Stereotypes Women more socially sensitive, friendlier, and more concerned with the welfare of others Men more dominant Hostile Sexism Stereotypical views of women that suggest that women are inferior to men eg: that they are less intelligent, less competent, and so on Benevolent sexism Stereotypical, positive views of women A Progress Report While this progress has occurred, it would be a mistake to conclude.. Stereotype, Attribution, and Gender Needless to say, the phenomenon of gender stereotyping often does not reflect reality and can cut deeply when a man is successful on a given task, observers of both sexes attribute his success to ability but for women, it is probably hard work..they say These beliefs can be influenced by the attitudes of our society in general and parents. mothers who hold the strongest genderstereotypical beliefs also believe that their own daughters have relatively low math ability and that their sons have relatively high math ability. mothers who dont hold stereotypical beliefs do not Discrimination against Homosexuals discrimination and antipathyday to day basis homosexuals are protected legal in 11 states? Researchers have found that compared to the way they interacted with non homosexuals, employers interacting with job applicants.. interactions: less verbally positive spent less time interviewing them used fewer words while chatting with them made less eye contact with them Reducing Prejudice A. Social Norms: Unfavorable normative pressure can create change B. Assessment of one’s own values and attitudes see where one stand with regard to others C. Empathy tactics that allow one to imagine or experience another’s feelings The contact Hypothesis Mere contact between groups is not sufficient to reduce prejudice Shreif’s Robbers Cave Study (1961) In fact, it can create opportunities for conflict that may increase it When Contact reduces prejudices: six conditions: 1. Mutual interdependence 2. common goals 3. equal status 4. friendly, informal setting 5. knowing multiple outgroup members 6. social norms of equality Jigsaw Classroom Why does the jigsaw work? breaks down perception of ingroup and outgroup, creates feeling of oneness people must do each other “favors” by sharing information develop empathy for others One of the most effective ways of improving race relations, improving empathy, and improving instruction Chapter 5: SelfKnowledge Who are You? Do others determine the self or does the individual? Origins of the Self Child’s selfconcept concrete references to characteristics like age, sex, neighborhood, and hobbies Maturing selfconcept less emphasis on physical characteristics more emphasis on psychological states and how other people judge us Functions of the Self Four main functions: 1. Selfknowledge a. the way we understand who we are and organize this information 2. Self control the way we make plans and execute decision 3. impression management the way we present ourselves to others and get them to see us as we want to be seen 4. selfesteem the way we maintain positive views of ourselves SelfKnowledge Determining the self Selfconcept sense of identity, set of beliefs we hold about what we are like as individuals (personality) SelfSchema organize body of information that relates to some aspect of a person’s self. SelfEsteem : how we feel about ourselves overall evaluation (positive or negative) that people have of themselves Benefits of high selfesteem: buffers against thoughts of own mortality terror management theory: almost had an accident id enjoy my life more motivates us to persevere when going gets rough Emotions and the Self helps determine how we feel about ourselves possible selves (markus & Nurius) eg: how we want to be our possible self at 30 will motivate you today selfdiscrepancy theory (higgins) actualought discrepancies may lead to guilt, fear, shame, and agitation eg: i ought to do what i do but when i dont do it go drink, smoke feel guilt, shame actualideal discrepancies may lead to disappointment, sadness, dissatisfaction, dejection eg: perfect self Chapter 5: Self-knowledge - Liz Dolinar Who are you? Do others determines the self or does the individual? Charles Cooley - looking glass self - we see ourselves and social world through the eyes of other people and often adopt those views Origins of the Self Child's self-concept Concrete References to characteristics Maturing self-concept Less emphasis on physical characteristics Most emphasis on psychological states, how others judge us Functions of the Self Four main functions Self-knowledge - Defining the self The way we understand who we are and organize this information Self-concept - sense of identity, set of beliefs we hold about what we are like as individuals (personality) Self-schema - organized body of information that relates to some aspect of a person's self Self-control The way we make plans and execute decisions Impression management The way we present ourselves to others and get them to see us as we want to be seen Self-esteem/self-protective - Overall evaluation (+ or -) that people have of themselves The way we maintain positive views of ourselves Benefits of high self-esteem Buffers against thoughts of own mortality - terror management theory - think about death with high self- esteem, reminds you of core values Motivates to persevere when going gets rough Emotions and the Self Helps determine how we feel about ourselves Possible selves (Markus and Nurius) - future selves, motivation to change behavior Self-discrepancy theory (Higgins) Actual-ought (moral) - discrepancies may lead to guilt, fear, shame, agitation Actual-idea (goals, perfect self) - discrepancies may lead to disappointment, sadness, dissatisfaction, dejection Executive Behavior - regulates our behavior, makes choices and plan for the future Self-regulation (Baumeister) - self control in one area often hinders another The self is like a muscle that must be exercised and used in order to strengthen Self-regulatory resource model Views self-control as a limited resource Like a muscle that gets tired with frequent use Rebounds in strength with practice To increase self-control Practice exerting self-control Set behavior intentions - goals/rewards Gender and the development of the self Starting in early childhood, American girls are more likely to: Develop intimate friendships Cooperate with others Focus their attention on social relationships Boys are more likely to focus on their group memberships Gender differences in self definition Women: relationship interdependence - close relationships Men: collective interdependence - memberships in larger groups Cultural differences in the self i.e. Squeaky wheel gets the grease vs. nail that stands out gets pounded down Western cultures have an independent view of the self Learn to define themselves as quite separate from other people and value independence, uniqueness Focusing on the self Introspection - look inward and examine thoughts and motives Does not always yield accurate results Even when people do introspect, the reasons for their feelings and behaviors can be hidden from conscious awareness Self-Awareness (Duval and Wicklund) - focusing attention on the self allows us to compare our current behavior against out internal standards and values (is situational) Looking at picture or in mirror can make you feel disappointed Mirror while trick or treating causes kids to take less candy - seeing yourself doing wrong causes self-awareness and can motivate to change behavior - remind you of your sense of wrong and right The results can be aversive Self-awareness is not always damaging or aversive If you have just experienced a major success, focusing on yourself can be pleasant Self-awareness theory Sometimes people go too far in their attempt to escape the self Focusing on the self can be very aversive Ways to turn off internal spotlight on oneself: Alcohol abuse, binge eating, etc. Not all means of escaping the self are damaging Religious expression, spirituality Comparing ourselves to others Social comparison - use opinions and abilities of others to evaluate ourselves Usually occurs in the absence of objective social reality Downward comparison - compare to those worse off, used to make us feel good Upward comparison - compare to those better off, used to motivate us Knowing ourselves by adopting other people's views Goal - know the furthest level to which we can aspire Upward: comparing to people who are better on a particular ability Goal - feel better about yourself Downward: comparing to people who are worse on a particular trait or ability When do you engage in social comparison? Ex. Donation program, not sure what amount would be generous, you are especially likely to compare yourself to others Social tuning - the process whereby people adopt another person's attitudes Self-evaluation maintenance model People evaluate themselves and need to feel good about those evaluations (Tesser) Cognitive and affective reasons to other's performance can be determined by: Closeness of the individuals Relevance of task Relevant area - jealously Not relevant - pride Quality of one's own and other performance Defining the self through behavior Self-perception theory (Bem) - people construct their self- definitions by observing their behavior (given weak or ambiguous situational causes) Observe behavior if you don't know about yourself - can change attitudes Knowing ourselves by observing our own behavior Infer inner feelings from behavior Only when not sure how we feel People judge whether their behavior Really reflects how we feel Or the situation that made us act that way Understanding our emotions Two factor theory of emotion - Schacter and Singer, 1962 Emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people: Experience physiological arousal, and then Seek an appropriate explanation for it Emotions are somewhat arbitrary, depending on most plausible explanation for their arousal happens to be Look at environment/situation for most reasonable explanation Attribution of emotions Misattribution of arousal - mistaken inference about what is causing people to feel the way they do (Dutton and Aron) February 23, 2016 Attributions for behavior OverjustificationExternal justification can often undermine internal interest Intrinsic MotivationEngage in task due to enjoyment or internal reasons eg: do it for enjoyment or internal reasons “I read because I enjoy it” vs Extrinsic Motivation Engage in task for external reasons “I read because I'm taking a lit class” once when i graduate, my love for reading has kinda gone so over justified Behavior over justified like i used to like swimming, but then i became a lifeguard so then later eg: if we get paid for grades, working hard becomes an extrinsic reason instead of an intrinsic reason so it is overjustified. Preserving Intrinsic Interest Conditions under which overjustification effects can be avoided: Rewards will undermine interest only if interest was initially high. The type of reward makes a difference. Performance contingent rewards might do better than taskcontingent rewards. eg: how the rewards comes in TaskContingent Rewards rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done. Performancecontingent Rewards Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task Mindsets and Motivation Fixed mindset : The idea that we have a set amount of ability that cannot change Growth mindset: The idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow Mindset affects motivation: Fixed mindset more likely to give up and do poorly on subsequent tasks after failure Evaluating and Protecting Self Misperceptions of the self ActorObserver bias Selfhandicapping helps maintain favorable selfimage eg: create an own obstacle so that you dont fail Two major ways in which people selfhandicap. 1. People may create obstacle that reduce the likelihood they will succeed on a task so that if they do fail, they can blame it on these obstacles rather than on their lack of ability drugs, alcohol, reduced effort on the task, and failure to prepare. eg: pulling an all nighter before a test. 2. People devise readymade excuses in case they fail blaming shyness or i didnt study even when i did study.. Impression Management Self monitoring Regulation of one’s behavior to meet situational demands. Techniques of positive selfpresentation ingratiation praise, flatter don't do too much Selfpromotion convey competence Intimidation or exemplification Control through fear or superiority eg: prof tries to scare you people drop class Supplication Create an impression of weakness or neediness eg: Appropriate nonverbal behavior use of display rules. Chapter 6 SelfJustification The need to Justify our Actions We have a need to preserve a stable, positive selfconcept Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger) Definition of cognitive dissonance the feeling of discomfort that arises when we encounter information that is inconsistent with our typically positive selfconcept. eg: videotaping when a child handicapped asked her to video tape the class she wanted to be helpful but still didn’t wanna be videotaped. Cognitive dissonance always produces discomfort, which increases even higher with the importance of the subject to us how strongly the dissonant thoughts conflict our inability to rationalize and explain away the conflict Three ways to reduce dissonance 1. Change behavior eg: change the behavior do the other thing 2. Justify behavior by changing one of the dissonant cognitions eg: change the behavior but put thoughts add thoughts about something 3. Justify behavior by adding new cognitions eg: smoking yea people die early but im healthy Self Affirmation Bolster the selfconcept reducing dissonance by adding a cognition about other positive attributes eg: smoker who fails to quit not very smart of me to be smoking, but if I have less self esteem then im gonna be like i am like that so oh well so they get less dissonance Dissonance and Self Concept Dissonance most painful when one of the cognitions is about the self particularly true for those with high selfesteem Temporary blows to selfesteem can lead to greater behaviors consistent with low opinion of the self (eg: cheat) People less likely to cheat when their selfconcept of “not being a cheater” is invoked higher selfesteem people care about their images more Rational Behavior vs. Rationalizing Behavior the need to maintain selfesteem causes us to rationalize our behavior People who are deeply committed to a position will never change their minds. eg: they saw the haley comet but they didn't see the spaceship behind it but still they didn't admit they were wrong but they wouldn’t change their minds Decisions, Decisions, Decisions Every time we make a decision, we experience dissonance DISTORT OUR LIKES AND DISLIKES Chosen alternative has some negative aspects Rejected alternative has some positive aspects eg: Florida has a beach so i won't pay attention, Pittsburgh doesn't so ill work hard..so you look at all the positives for the chosen one and look at all the negatives for the ones we did not select. Distort our Likes and Dislikes Postdecision Dissonance We enhance the attractiveness of the things we have chosen and devalue the rejected alternatives The permanence of the decision The more important the decision, the greater the dissonance. Deciding whom to marry is more important than which coffeemaker to buy. If its more permanent then we’re more Decisions also vary in how permanent they are how hard they are to revoke. You can ….. More important decisions = more dissonance Greater permanence = more dissonance Dissonance at Work Lowballing A salesperson convinces you to buy something for a cheap price, says it was a mistake, raises the price, and you buy it anyway, why? Behaving Immorally Dissonance reduction after a moral decision causes people to either behave more or less ethically in the future eg: both underage drinking decide that youre not gonna drink but then your friend decided to drink then later on you will be more convinced that to not drink but your friend will be more okay to drink the next time.. coz you're justifying the immoral so you dont think drinking is that bad anymore.. Personal Values kinda work the same as behaving immorally Dissonance, Culture, and the Brain Dissonant information reasoning circuits of brain shut down Dissonance is reduced emotions circuits activated Primates also show changes in what is valued after making a decision Insufficient Justification Justification of Effort We need to justify the things we work hard for. Insufficient Justification the dollar study people paid a dollar liked it more because they didnt wanna say they liked it just with 1 dollar so they thought they might have actually liked it (internal reason) vs people who were given 20 dollars said they did it for external reason Counterattitudinal Advocacy Definition: the process in which people are induced to endorse an attitude that runs counter to their own eg: the more im telling you not to smoke the more im not gonna smoke myself.. Inter vs. External Justification (Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959) Join a study group, mild initiation and harsh initiation harsh read areas of the book that from the romance novel liked it better than mild initiation Insufficient Justification Counterattitudinal Advocacy and Race Relations Hypocrisy and AIDS prevention eg: condom use study so people who made the video to tell to use condoms were shown to use more condoms eventually Insufficient Punishment harsh punishment vs mild punishment eg: sometimes mild punishment works better than harsh punishment because if they say that im getting 1 minute time out then i must not want to hit my brother (internal motivated) whereas if you get no dinner and get beaten then they’re not hitting just cos of the external factors. The permanence of SelfPersuasion Not just rewards and punishments grasshopper for a snack nice person tells you to eat grasshopper you like it more than harsh person telling you to do the same thing The Aftermath of Good and Bad Deeds 1. The Ben Franklin Effect We dont like the people who do favors for us, we like the people we do favors for. eg: when you help someone who you dont like, you start liking the person because you did something for them Why we hate out victims? derogation of our victims eg: you have to justify the people that you hate to hurt them Social Psychology in Action 2 Feb 25, 2016 Mellisa Grad student Personality, Social Psychology and Health one of the three departments How is stress defined? What do you find stressful versus same thing as others find stressful? Definition: Hans Selye Stress as the body’s psychological response to threatening events General adaptation response, non specific. ~ something in the environment 2nd definition came from Holmes and Raye 1967 Stress = degree of to which people have to change and readjust their lives in response to an external event happening in their environment is. death of a family member Do you think happy events are stressful? According to the definition, yes eg: marriage coz changes the domains of your life..social life, financial life Why is it imp to study stress? examples of link btw stress and health: when people undergo major personal upheaval, their chance of dying increases the number of people who died from a heart attack heartrate variability if low then linked to depression ~ psychological and physical problems after 9/11 attack How do we measure stress? Stress Checklist list of events that are generally considered stressful Holmes and Raye Stress Scale Events that are generally considered stressful Life change units associated with each event eg: just sitting in the traffic, really less 10 life change units but still sometimes stressful College Life Stress Inventory HIV, Rape…...even getting straight As ~ the college life stress inventory Limitations with Stress Inventories 1. Most studies use correlational studies not experimental studies a. Correlate life stress scores with health outcomes b. Dont take into account personality traits i. rumination cause both health problems and tendency to overreport problems 2. The inventories captures stress better for specific Biggest Issue These inventories measure generally agreed upon stressful events assume objectivity But, everyone perceives stress differently list of situations which are stressful for some people but not for others, test, ending a bad relationship, having a kid Lazarus and Folkman 1984 Primary appraisal: assessing the situation itself what impact does this have on me is it a threat Secondary appraisal: assesses the extent to which they feel they can cope and have the ability to cope the stressor can occur simultaneously both primary and secondary Stress defined The book’s definition of stress is the negative feelings and beliefs that arise whenever people feel unable to cope with the demands of their environment. Perceived Stress Scale Sheldon Cohen Most widely user of stress in psychology Stress and Health Cold studies: Sheldon Cohen recruit extremely healthy people and inject them with a cold virus Measure stress via PSS and see who gets sick Measure a wide variety of other variables to rule out third factor variables those who report highest levels of stress showed a 2x greater likelihood of getting sick Immune studies measure immune function after a laboratory stressor (experimental) Find markers of poorer functioning MORE STRESS~MORE COLD How we deal with stress? Resilience is a mild, transient reactions to stress followed by a quick return to normal healthy functioning One personality factor that has been identified Optimism related to higher quality of life Adjustment to chronic diseases adjustment to breast cancer, recovery from cardiac surgery In contrast pessimism is related to poor rated self health and psychological distress Important because self rated health is also related to lower immune function Cohen found that self rated health, when controlling for just about everything Perceived Control the belief that we can influence our environment in ways that can determine whether we experience positive or negative outcomes breast cancer stuff in book Cohon study Langer and Rodin 1976 perceived control in nursing home intervention to try and increase perceived control in the lives of the residents rearrage furniture with staff help choose their schedule and events plants to take care of Intervention group better quality of life and level of happiness reduced likelihood of dying over next year and a half 15% in intervention group died ` let them do what they want 30% in control group had died Schulz 1976 More perceived control in nursing homes undergrad cisited residents once a week for 2 months induced control condition: participants could choose when visit would occur and how long they would last. In the control small time it was all good and perfect but in the long term they were more likely to die sooner etc. (read book) Why different results? Explained by the feeling of induced control that endures and continues (Langer and Rodin) or is for a short amount of time and is then taken away (Shulz) One of the reasons this is so important is because of learned helplessness the phenomenon of residents learning passive behavior Learned Helplessness Marty Seligman: Research trying to determine how depression comes about A series of experiments where he had dogs in cages, and he would shock the dogs yoked pairs, where both dogs would have shock of the same intensity and duration, but one dog could press a lever to stop the schock, whereas the other dog had no control over stopping shock. He observed that the dogs in the no control condition eventually just gave up, they laid down and just took the shocks. Perceived Control: Caveats Differences in the extent to which control bothers people based on culture though control and independence is often more important to western cultures as opposed to eastern cultures If you can't control your disease (but perceive you can) then likely to blame self if you don't get better or have a relapse Coping Fight or flight the tendency in response to stress to attack the source of it or flee from it. Tend and befriend response the inclination to respond to stress with nurturing activities designed to protect oneself and ones offspring by creating social networks that provide protection from threats There are often gender differences in these coping styles, as women tend to use the tend and befriend response more often Social Support Social support is the perception that others are response and receptive to ones needs. important= perceived social support, not actual Social support not only improves mental and emotional outcomes but it actually improves immune system and outcomes Invisible vs. visible Invisible support: when support is given it is without eg: giving vitamins but putting them in a box Visible support: SelfEfficacy Self efficacy refers to the notion that a person feels capable to execute behaviors and actions to reach whatever outcome is necessary Implications for health immune system functioning disease adjustment Visible support can undermine selfefficacy, which can undermine active coping behaviors Social Support Types Instrumental support refers to the provision of tangible support to a person giving specific financial help, provisions of food, or other material goods Emotional support refers to the idea of being there for a person, and offering empathy, l love encouragement Informational support, giving information and advice to someone Matching hypothesis: where the situation necessitates different type of support Social Integration Social integration refers to the number of social roles an individual has,?
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