Chem1212K, Midterm 1 Study Guide
Chem1212K, Midterm 1 Study Guide CHEM 1212K
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bethany B. on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1212K at Georgia Gwinnett College taught by Omar Villanueva in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles Chemistry II w/Lab in Chemistry at Georgia Gwinnett College.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
9.7.16 CHEM1212K Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter9 Content: KeyTerms: Lewisstructure—arepresentation ofmolecules wherevalenceelectrons arerepresented as dots aroundthechemicalsymbol Ionicbond—a bond between anonmetaland ametal wherethetwooppositely chargedions attract; electrons transferred Covalentbond—abond between twononmetals and theelectrons areshared between thebonding atoms; electrons shared Metallicbonding—abondbetween two metals whereelectrons are pooled Octet—afullouter level/shell containseight valenceelectrons Duet—apair ofvalenceelectrons; forhelium, aduetis its moststable Chemicalbond—thesharing or transferof electrons toattain stable electron configurationsforthe bondingatoms Octetrule—thestableconfigurationis usuallyeight electronsin theoutermostlevel Bondingpair—apair of electrons thatis shared between twoatoms Lone pair—apair thatis associated with onlyoneatom Polarcovalentbond—a bondwhereapair ofelectrons is unevenlyshared between two atoms Electronegativity—theabilityofan atomto attractelectrons to itself in achemicalbond Dipolemoment—ameasureof theseparation ofpositive and negativecharge Resonancestructures—wheretherearetwo ormoreLewis structuresforthesame molecule, we representthemolecule withboth/all structures Formalcharge—thechargetheatom wouldhaveif all bondingelectrons wereshared equallybetween thebonded atoms Freeradical—moleculesandions with an oddnumber ofelectrons in their Lewisstructures;exception to theoctetrule Bond energy—theenergyrequired to break1mole of thebondin thegas phase Bond length—theaverage length ofabondbetween two particular atoms in alargenumber of compounds KeyNotesfrom Lectures: C,N, O, and Falways obeytheoctetrule B, Al,and Beoftenhaveno morethan six electrons Second-rowelements never exceed theoctetrule Third-rowand heavier elements oftensatisfythe octetrulebutcanexceed theoctetrule Theleast electronegative atomgoes in themiddle whenwriting chemicalstructure 9.7.16 CHEM1212K FormalCharges:negative chargesshouldend up onmostelectronegative atoms and tryto minimize formalchargesto zero FC=[numberofval.e onfreeatom]—[numberof “dots”]—[numberof“lines”] ForPractice: 1. Compareelectronegativity ofvarious elements onthe table 2. Beable toidentify thetypeof bondbetween to atoms 3. Practicefinding theformalcharges 4. Practicewriting outtheLewis structures(withresonancestructures) Chapter10 Content: KeyTerms: VSEPR—(valenceshellelectron pair repulsion theory)based on theideathat electrongroupsrepel one another throughcoulombicforces Electrongroups—lonepairs, single bonds,multiple bonds,andeven single electrons Electrongeometry—thegeometricalarrangementof theelectron groups Moleculargeometry—thegeometricalarrangement oftheatoms Valencebondtheory—electronsreside in quantum-mechanicalorbitals located on individualatoms (s, p, d,and f) Hybridization—amathematical procedurethatallows us to combinethestandard atomic orbitals to formnewatomic orbitals called hybrid orbitals Paramagnetic—anelement/atomthatis attracted toa magnetic field Diamagnetic—anelement/atomthatis notattracted/slightly repelled bya magnetic field Polarity: Thepolarity dependsonthemolecules geometry. Ifthedipole moments ofthepolar bonds arealigned in suchawaythat theycanceloneanother, themoleculewill notbepolar. If theyare aligned in awaythat theysum,themolecule willbepolar. Symmetric molecules tend to benonpolar, whileasymmetric molecules tend to bepolar. KeyNotesfrom Lecture: Themorepolar something is, thebetter solventit willbein water. ForPractice: 1. Determine theelectron geometryand molecular shapeof variousmolecules 2. Beable tofill in a tableof given molecules with its: Lewis dotstructure,Electron geometry, Molecular shape, Hybridization, andif it is Polar orNonpolar. Chapter11 Content: KeyTerms: Dispersionforce—theresultof fluctuationin theelectron distribution within molecules or atoms; an intermolecular force 9.7.16 CHEM1212K Miscibility—theabilityofliquids to mix withoutseparating into twophases Hydrogenbonding—polar molecules containinghydrogenatoms bondeddirectlyto small electronegative atoms (F,O,N, and S);an intermolecular force Ion-Dipoleforce—anionic compoundis mixed with apolar compoundandis especially importantin aqueoussolutions ofionic compounds Surfacetension—theenergyrequired toincrease thesurfaceareabyaunitamount Viscosity—theresistanceof aliquid to flow Capillaryaction—theabilityofaliquid to flow againstgravityupanarrowtube Vaporization—thestatetransition fromliquid to gas Condensation—thetransition fromgas to liquid Volatile—liquidsthatvaporizeeasily Heatof vaporization—theamountof heatrequired to vaporizeonemole ofa liquid to gas Dynamicequilibrium—therateofcondensationand rateof vaporizationare equal Boilingpoint—thetemperature atwhichits vapor pressureequals the externalpressure Criticaltemperature—representsthetemperatureabovewhichtheliquid cannotexist Criticalpressure—representsthepressurerequired to bring aboutatransition toa liquid atthecritical temperature Sublimation—thetransitionfromsolid to gas Deposition—thetransition fromgas to solid Meltingpoint—themolecules haveenoughthermal energyto overcometheintermolecular forcesthat hold themattheir stationarypoints, andthe solid turnsinto aliquid Fusion—thetransition fromsolid to liquid; melting Freezing—thetransition fromliquid to solid Heatof fusion—theamountofheatrequired to melt 1 molofasolid Phasediagram—amap of thestateof asubstanceas afunctionofpressure(onthey-axis)and temperature (onthex-axis) Triplepoint—representstheuniquesetofconditions atwhichthreestates areequallystable and in equilibrium Criticalpoint—representsthetemperature and pressureabovewhichasupercriticalfluid exists KeyNotesfrom Lecture: Intramolecular force—“within”themolecule Intermolecular force—“inbetween” molecules o Hydrogenbonding—strongdipole-dipole forces;H+ [F,O,N, S] o Dipole-Dipole force—molecules withdipole moments canattracteach other (2H 2 molecules) o Dispersion force—occursinallmolecules, includingnonpolarones o Ion-Dipoleforce—whenanionic compoundismixed with apolar compound Strengths: Ion-Dipole>>>H-Bonding>Dipole-Dipole >Dispersion Thestronger theintermolecular forces,thehigher the melting and boiling points. Vapor Pressuredependson theintermolecular forces(strongerforces=lowervaporpressure) and thetemperature ForPractice: 1. Review intermolecular forcesand their strengths 2. Beable tolist all of theintermolecular forcesfor amoleculeand identifythe strongest/weakest 9.7.16 CHEM1212K 3. Knowhowto order/comparetheboiling pointsof variousmolecules 4. Knowhowto identifythesubstancewith thehighestvapor pressuresin agiven list 5. Befamiliar with thephasediagramand beable to identifyspecific phases/beableto assign labels to theareas depicted on aphasediagram 6. Knowhowto usethe Clausius-Clapeyronequation forproblems involving vaporpressures InformationAboutthe Test: Therewill bethreesections—multiplechoice,fillintable,and free response. Any equations/conversions willbeprovided. TheVSEPRtablewillbeprovided(withoutthepolar/nonpolarsection). APeriodictablewillbeprovided.
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