History 121, Test 1 Study guide
History 121, Test 1 Study guide History 121
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lilly0898 on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 121 at Missouri State University taught by Prof. William Piston in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see United States to 1877 in History at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Test 1 Study Guide 1)How did Native Am. And Europeans view Freedom Differently? Europeans viewed hunting as weak and thought the women were mistreated in the Native American society. They were more materialistic where the Natives lived off the land. 2)What was “Christian Liberty” to Europeans? They view Christian conformity as public order. It was freedom from sin and to follow Jesus. 3)How did Europeans view the interaction of freedom and authority? Divine right of Monarchs. Kings are blessed by God so therefor they speak the word of God are “always right” so if you question your king you are in a sense questioning God. 4)Among Europeans what concepts of “liberties” persisted from the Middle Ages? Feudism 5)After reading the “Declaration of Josphe pg 29” why might a Spaniard of the period argue that Native Am. Had rejected liberty? The Spanish believed they were giving them the Christian liberty but Natives did not want it because they were mistreated by the Spanish and Europeans. Spanish believed they were rejecting God. 6.What freedoms did the Dutch enjoy that were not recognized elsewhere? Freedom of Press & religion. Chapter 2 1. Why did the colonists consider land ownership as the basis of liberty? Owning land gave men control over their own labor and in most colonies the right to vote. Q Why did the colonists believe the Native Americans had no real claim to land? Because the Native’s didn’t improve the land and modernize it the way the English were used to. What implications did this have for the colonists’ future in the New World? The coming of English settlers affected Indian societies because the English used Natives as guides, trading partners, and allies in war. The English introduced guns and fish hooks and the colonist achieved higher military superiority over the Indians, the profits of trade started going to the colonies and European merchants and that stimulated warfare among tribes and the Englishmen brought over epidemics that decreased a lot of the Indian population. 2. How did the Puritans define “moral” liberty? ALRIGHT, so first of all here is some back story cause without it, it is just confusing so grab a snack it is story time. The puritans in England became separatist because the Church of England switched back to Catholicism right? They were like no honey. So they separated and formed their own independent church. Later the majority migrated to America! They came in search of liberty just like many others. They wanted the right to get their worship on and govern themselves. A moral liberty is a liberty to that only which is good. (ok so what does that even mean?) Moral liberty is enforced by the government and church. It enforces proper behavior that leads people to do good instead of acts of evil. Puritans believed mankind is naturally evil so they had to put laws... I mean liberty in place to make sure everyone doesn’t turn into Satan. So in comes John Winthrop, the little Puritan colony’s governor going into detail about his opinion on liberty. What was true freedom, according to John Winthrop? He tells the difference between two types of liberty. Natural liberty “acting without restraints” which is a liberty to do evil and leads to evil doings and then moral liberty which is stated above. True freedom to him was Moral liberty because in staying a society that is conformed to do no wrong you cannot infringe on another person’s freedom or take it away. EXAMPLE shoot up a place well that ain’t good cause you took and away some one’s freedom. You follow regulations and don’t murder you are moral and did not take away anyone’s freedom. How were such beliefs reflected in the organization of the Puritan family? They believed in male authority and Children and women obeyed the men because it washts. thought his commands were to replicate what God wanted. Men were allowed to “correct” their wives behavior. Divorce was legal. Unmarried adults were seen as a danger to social fabric. Women were devoted to bearing children. 3.What did the General Court’s 1641 “Body of Liberties” reveal about Puritan understanding of liberties and the relationship between church and state? They did not want freedom of religion they wanted conformity to Puritan way of life. Again referring back to that social order 4. How might Puritans have viewed modern ideas of individualism, privacy, and personal freedom? They did not stand for individualism. They wanted to keep the conformity and to do so there was very limited privacy between neighbors. Neighbors spied on neighbors to make sure everyone was being moral. This kept everyone in check. 5.What were the “rights of Englishmen” and what were the consequences of the English Civil War? The English civil war started because of the fight for political supremacy between parliament and the Stuart monarchs. It rose from religious feuds about England’s church and Catholicism. Also conflict came from respective powers of the king and parliament this began the debate on English freedom. The English parliament accused the Stuart Kings of endangering leading the nation back toward Catholicism. Civil War broke out in 1642. Victory for parliament. In 1649 King Charles was beheaded, monarchy was abolished and England declared that they were a free state governed by the will of people. This lasted about ten years then king Charles ll took throne and the monarchy was restored. The rights of Englishmen- It was based off the Magna Carta Aka Great charter if 1215. It was a listed series of “liberties” granted by the king to “all the freemen of our realm” The freemen were a restricted group though due to peasants and serfs, they were not free and made up a large percent on the English population. The king was not above the law and everyone should enjoy to feel secure of their personal property. Chapter 3 1.How were the “liberties of Englishmen” reflected in New York’s “Charter of Liberties and Privileges” and “The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina”? First lets begin with charter of liberties. In 1683 the duke called an elected assembly and their first act was to draft the charter of liberties. It required that elections were to happen every 3 years and reaffirmed traditional English rights such as trial by jury and security of property. Religious toleration for all protestants as well just like the liberties of Englishmen. Ok now the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina. It became a thing in 1669 and proposed to establish a feudal society with a hereditary nobility, serfs, and slaves. They also adopted the idea of elected assembly and religious toleration. 2.How and why did Pennsylvania’s “Charter of Liberty” incorporate an understanding of liberty different from other colonies? Pennsylvania was the most liberal of the colonies. There was not an established church and religious freedom was William Pen’s most fundamental principle. 3.What was the Glorious Revolution? In 1688 the long struggle for domination of English Gov’t between parliament and the crown came to a halt due to the Glorious Revolution. It established parliamentary supremacy once and for all and secured the Protestant succession to the throne. The Bill of Rights that were issued after James II was deposed, What impact did they have on the colonies? It exposed fault lines in colonial society and offered local elites an opportunity to regain authority that had recently been challenged. 4.How and why did large numbers of colonists enjoy far greater opportunities for freedom than existed in Europe? The wide distribution of land made economic independence part of the lived experience of large number of white colonist. Who was excluded? Slaves and women. Why? They were not free, white, or male. Chapter 4 th 1.What were the meanings of British liberty in the 18 Century? The political struggled of the English Civil War and th Glorious Revolution made way for the 18 century Brits to believe liberty was their unique possession. They believed power and complete freedom encouraged people to act out. To balance them advocated for British freedom celebrated rule of law, the right to live under legislation and restraints on exercises of political authority and rights like trial by jury enshrined in the common law. I know this may seem confusing so if it is refer to page 146 in “Give me Liberty”. 2.How did the ideas of republicanism and liberalism differ in 18 Century British North America? Republicanism meant government without a king. It celebrated active participation in public life by economically independent citizens as the essence of liberty. Liberalism, whereas republicanism had a public and social quality, liberalism was essentially individual and private. John Locke became a big influence with his ideas on Liberalism at this time. 3.What were the limits of freedom of expression and freedom of the press? You could not question the King or your government you would either get beheaded or put in jail, your choice! The limits in freedom of press made it to where nothing could be printed or published without a government license this was because they viewed complete freedom of press extremely dangerous due to citizens were prone to be misled by others angry feelings that may be printed and wrote about. Such as someone’s bad opinion on the gov’t. Basically don’t talk crap on your gov’t or you gon’ die. 4.How did slavery transform Chesapeake society into an elaborate hierarchy of degrees of freedom? Planters enhanced the power over their human property and restricted African Am. Rights to freedom. Violence was the heart of the slave system in Chesapeake. White considered free African Am. Dangerous and undesirable. They lost the right to employ white servants and to bear arms. They had special taxes and could be punished for hitting a white person regardless of cause. In 1723 Virginia took away voting rights of African Americans who owned land AND Virginia law required that freed slaves be sent out of the colony and free blacks remained only a tiny percent of the population. Less than 4 percent in 1750. Free and White were identical terms. 5.What ideas generated by the American Enlightenment and the Great Awakening prompted challenges to religious, social, and political authorities in the British colonies? It not only broadened the range of religious alternatives available it inspired colonist to form and trust their own views. It formed bible groups and intense religious discussions and the newspaper and pamphlet wars that were inspired by all of this expanded the circulation of printed materials. Refer to pages 156 and 157 if you want more in depth! I would say this Is a very great ending for our essay test. People taking liberty and thinking for themselves!! Form your opinions good luck guys!!! Hope this helped, let me know and I will make more for every test including the final.
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