Unit One Test One Study Guide
Unit One Test One Study Guide PHI 3453
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Parker on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 3453 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Carol S Gould in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Philosophy of Psychiatry in Political Science, Philosophy, & Religion at Florida Atlantic University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Unit One Study Guide Philosophy of PsychiaProfessor Gould Key Terms Identity Relationships: When an entity has multiple names, also known as “self-sameness”. Theoretical Identities: Identities that are conceived by scientists; folk concepts that are given scientific explanations. Type-Identity Theory: The idea that if two entities have an identity relationship, then that relationship is fundamental and will always be the same. Token Identity Theory: The possibility that different states of the brain may cause the same state of mind. Descartes: (1596-1650) Scientist who proposed substance dualism. Substance Dualism: The universe is composed of two types of things: mental or material. Property Dualism: The idea that there are two levels of identity, and things can be identical at the level of substance and/or the level of property. Explanatory Dualism: The idea that two different types of explanation are necessary to fully understand humans—mental/psychological/first person and material/biological/third person. Functionalism: Mental states are defined by what they do rather than by what they are made of. Concept of Emergent Properties: New features of systems that have new capabilities emerge from higher levels of complexity. Qualia: The subjective “feel” of mind; what it feels like to conscious. DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual; A guide used by clinicians to diagnose patients. A diagnosis is determined by a cluster of symptoms. The DSM contains diagnostic codes necessary for an insurance claim. Nosology: The study of classification of diseases. Exogenous disorders: Caused by external factors, e.g. death of a family member, divorce, etc. Endogenous disorders: Internal origin, e.g. brain injury, chemical imbalance, etc. Psychodynamic model: Disorders classified in terms of purported causality, as a person’s interaction with its psychological, social, and physical environment. Emil Kraepelin: Created the dual-category system of classification of mental illness (Exogenous and endogenous); the DSM has been heavily influenced by his ideals since the 1980s. A Psychiatric Dialogue on the Mind-Body Problem The ProblemWith: - Identity Theories - Leibniz’s Law states that a true identity relationship between two entities means that both entities share all the same properties or characteristics. If one entity has a property that the other does not, it cannot have an identity relationship. The brain has physical properties such as mass, direction, and temperature, while the mind has properties such as wishes, intentions, and fears. Leibniz’s law would state that the mind-brain relationship could not be an identity relationship. - The Problem of multiple realizability is the probability that many different brain states might all cause the same state of mind. This means that various brain states might all cause the same mind state, such as depression or happiness. This would disprove the type-identity theory. - The explanatory gap, also called the “hard problem of consciousness”, explains how most people tend to view the mind from the outside. This makes it difficult to truly understand how brain activity actually feels. This is known as the qualia problem, and brings up the question of whether an identity relationship can be held between brain activity—which is in the material world—and the way an experience feels. - Functionalism - The “Chinese room problem”, developed by philosopher John Searle, explains that using software as an analogy to understand the mind is a poor example because software works without understanding what it is doing. It is programed to follow directions and produce a certain outcome, but it is incapable of understanding what it is doing or the meaning behind it. The mind, on the other hand, does understand things. - The “inverted spectrum argument” explains how from a functionalist perspective, one’s subjective experience would not be taken into account. This is described through the example of a color-discrimination task in which the color of a piece of fruit is described. The inverted-spectrum problem proposes that if the wiring from your eye to your brain was inversed and made you see green where I saw red, from a functional point of view, you would never know. - Descartes: - Descartes had the issue of the apparent bidirectional casual relationship between the mind andthe brain, which can be explained by brain damage changing mental functioning, and hearing bad news can cause a physical reaction of shaking and crying. This disrupts his theory of the brain and the mind being two separate entities as mental and material things. The DSM Overview The DSM, or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, is used by health professionals when diagnosing a patient with a mental illness. Each diagnosis has a specific code for the doctor to submit to make an insurance claim. The diagnosis must adhere to specific symptoms in the DSM, which has been cause for controversy in the philosophic and psychiatric community as some symptoms could have one of several underlying conditions. However, in order to file an insurance claim and receive financial assistance with treatment, the diagnosis must be made through the DSM. Problems with the DSM In addition to the questionable method of diagnosing patients using the DSM, some have argued that the manual contains sexist, racist, and class biases. The current DSM, called DSM 5, is under fire by members of the medical community for pathologizing normal human behavior, such as reacting to a death of a loved one through grief and mourning. This is now considered to be a symptom of clinical depression. It has also broadened some categories while limiting others, which has been criticized as well. For example, hoarding is now considered an independent diagnosis, whereas before it was a symptom of ODC. DSM History Origin The DSM derives from the 1840 United States Census, which included an option to mark someone as having “idiocy/insanity” in order to get more statistics on the population. DSM I and II DSM I was published in 1952 and DSM II was published in 1968. They were both created based on a Psychodynamic model and were strongly influenced by psychoanalysis. They contained three categories of mental disorders: Psychosis, Neuroses, and Character (now known as personality disorders). These DSMs did not have a list of symptoms. DSM III and IV DSM III was published in 1980 and was a big change from the first two versions. Classifications were now empirical, meaning they were classified by symptoms (observed and reported), rejected the psychoanalytic model, and took the genetics and physical characteristics of the patient into consideration. This DSM was influenced largely by psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, who created the dual-category system of classification. This included exogenous and endogenous disorders. Both the DSM III and IV utilized the multiaxial system, meaning it took the physical, mental, and social aspects of the patient’s condition into consideration for diagnosis and treatment. DSM 5 DSM 5 is the most recent publication of the DSM (2013) and contains many differences from the previous versions. Instead of identifying with Roman numerals, DSM 5 has transitioned to the Arabic numbering system in order to update it different aspects of it as new information is discovered. This means there will be a DSM 5.1, 5.2, etc. to keep psychiatrists and their practices up to date with the most recent findings, and new versions like this can be published though the internet. There is a new section called “Emerging Measures and Models”, which contains disorders not represented in DSM 5. Additionally, the multiaxial approach and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale are excluded from the DSM 5. It is important to keep in mind how a diagnosis may affect the patient. For instance, it may be good for something like PTSD to be recognized as a mental illness so that treatment options are made available to those who suffer, but being labeled as mentally ill may negatively affect the way a person views themself and how others view them too. Study Quiz 1. What are the three problems with identity theories? 2. Explain the mind-brain relationship through Leibniz’s Law. 3. How does the problem of multiple realizability disprove the type-identity theory? 4. Explain the qualia problem. 5. What is wrong with the software analogy, according to John Searle? 6. Why doesn’t a Functionalist perspective include one’s subjective experience? 7. What is the DSM primarily used for? 8. How does culture impact psychiatric nosology? 9. How is a diagnosis defined by the DSM? Why is this an issue among the psychiatric community? 10. How does the DSM 5 differ from previous versions? 11. What impact did Emil Kraepelin have on psychiatry? 12. How did the DSM evolve through time? 13. What aspects of the DSM have remained consistent from the beginning?
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