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Unit 1- Study guide

by: Nana Adu Adjei

Unit 1- Study guide BIOL 3611

Nana Adu Adjei
CU Denver
GPA 3.5

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These notes highlight key areas to study for the the first unit exam.
Cell Biology
Dr. Lisa Johansen
Study Guide
Cell, Biology
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nana Adu Adjei on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3611 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Dr. Lisa Johansen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology in Biology at University of Colorado Denver.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
CELL BIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE 1. What are the 3 principles of cell theory? a. All Organisms consist of one or more cells b. The cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms c. All cells arise only from preexisting cells 2. How do the following relate to each other: millimeter(mm), micrometer(um) and nanometer(nm)? a. 1000nm = 1um b. 1000um = 1mm c. 1x10 nm = 1mm 3. How many times is a eukaryotic cell bigger than a prokaryotic cell? a. A eukaryotic cell is 10x to 20x bigger than a prokaryotic. Kind of like the comparison between a soccer ball and an eyeball (10x). 4. How useful was the microscope and what limitations did it present? a. The microscope was useful in determining organelles but presented limitations which included resolving power and magnification. 5. What does immunofluorescence involve? a. Added primary antibodies are added to target molecule and secondary antibodies equipped with a fluorescent dye are added to the primary antibodies. 6. How useful is the electron microscope and what limitations does it present? a. The electron microscope uses a beam of electrons that is deflected and focused by an electromagnetic field. It has an exception power of resolution (0.1nm – 0.2nm) and a magnification of up to 100,000x. However, electron microscopes cannot be used to view living samples 7. How useful is the scanning electron microscope(SEM) and what limitations does it present? a. It is used to reveal the texture, chemical composition, crystalline structure and orientation of particles making up the sample. However, samples observed by SEM must be solid and at the same time fit into microscope chamber. 8. How useful is the transmission electron microscope(SEM) and what limitations does it present? a. TEM is used to study the fine intracellular details of cells and tissue and has a resolution of about 0.2nm. However, preparation of cells require fixation which can introduce artificial damage. 9. What are some advantages of model organisms? a. Model organisms should generally be relatively cheap, quickly reproduce and easy to store or keep. However, data and techniques associated with model organisms may not be truly representative of other similar species and there may a lot of regulations regarding animals that are much closer to humans. 10.What factors are important in an experimental design a. One variable should be changeable at a time b. Experiment has to be replicable. c. Experiment has to be repeatable. 11.What is the difference between independent, dependent and control variables? a. Independent variable: A variable that is manipulated to determine the outcome of the dependent variable (Does not depend on any other variable). b. Dependent variable: A variable that depends on the independent variable for its outcome (Variable the experimental is interested in). c. Control variable: Variable that is not changed through the experiment. CHAPTER 2 1. How is carbon an important basis or organic molecules? a. It has a valence of 4 with a low atomic weight which allows it to form stable organic compounds by forming covalent bonds (High bond energy). b. Carbon-carbon bonds are diverse and can form stereoisomers. 2. What are amphipatic molecules and how do they affect selectively permeable membranes? Amphipatic molecules are molecules which are both a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic end and are mostly significant to selectively permeanble membranes which are water insoluble barriers but readily permeable to water. They are mostly lipid bilayer molecules with embedded proteins. 3. What are some principles of polymerization? a. Macromolecules are formed by stepwise polymerization of monomers b. The addition of each monomer occurs with the removal of water (condensation reaction). c. Condensation can only occur with monomers that are activated. d. Activation is the coupling of a monomer to a carrier molecule e. Coupling energy is provided by ATP f. Directionality is when two ends of a finished polymer chain are chemically different from each other. 4. List some examples of monomers and polymers. a. Some polymers include: Enzymes, hormones, antibodies, carriers, ion channels, DNA, RNA, Starch, glycogen, cellulose and chitin. b. Some monomers include: Amino acids, Nucleotides, glucose, fructose, galactose and more. 5. What are some factors to be considered in self-assembly of proteins? a. Information required for the folding of macromolecules is inherent in polymers themselves b. Molecular chaperones are needed to prevent incorrect molecular folding and interactions which will give rise to inactive structures. c. Denaturation is the unfolding of the conformation of a protein which leads to the loss of function and structure. d. Renaturation is the return of a molecule to its 3D conformation CHAPTER 3 1. What are some important characteristics of an amino acid and polypeptide structure? a. An amino acid has an amino group one end and a carboxyl group on the other as its terminal ends (It possesses intrinsic directionality). b. A polypeptide is a polymer with amino acids as monomer. A polypeptide may also be a monomer unit part of a multimeric protein. 2. What are the four levels of protein structure? a. Primary: This is a sequence of amino acids linked by peptide bonds forming a polypeptide. b. Secondary: This involves the folding of local regions of a polypeptide into an alpha helix or a beta pleated sheet c. Tertiary: This is the 3D folding of a single polypeptide chain d. Quaternary: This structure involves multiple peptides forming a multimeric protein. 3. How do structures of amino acids relate to its polarity? a. Non polar molecules (Hydrophobic): Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, Tryptophan, Proline. b. Polar uncharged molecules (Hydrophilic): Serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, asparagine, glutamine (STC Tag). c. Polar charged molecules (hydrophilic): Aspartate, glutamate, Lysine, arginine, histidine. 4. What are carbohydrates? a. Carbohydrates also polysaccharides are made up a long chain of polymers of sugars and sugar derivatives (Monosaccharides). Examples of polysaccharides include starch and glycogen for storage and cellulose and chitin for structure. 5. What are lipids? a. Lipids are hydrophobic molecules which differ from macromolecules because they are not formed from linear polymerization. Classes of lipids include; fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, glycolipids, steroids and terpenes. 6. How are phospholipids important in the structure of a cell membrane? a. Phospholipids are classified into phosphoglycerids and sphingolipids. Phosphoglycerides are fatty acids esterified into glycerol molecules and are the predominant phospholipids present in cell membranes. b. Sphingolipids are based on an amino alcohol called sphingosine which has a long hydrocarbon chain with a single site of unsaturation near the polar end. c. Cholestrol is an amphipathic steroids mostly present in animal cell membranes and organelles. CHAPTER 4 1. Describe the importance of a cell surface area to volume ratio? a. It is important for needful exchanges between a cell and its environment at the cell surface. b. A/V ratio is increased by inward folding. c. Increased ratio increases rate of diffusion d. A/V ratio is needed to maintain adequate local concentrations of specific substances and enzymes involved in necessary cellular processes. 2. Describe the importance between exocytosis and endocytosis. a. Endocytosis is the invagination and pinching off of portion of a plasma membrane to form membrane bounded cytoplasmic vesicles containing substances previously outside of the cell. b. Exocytosis is the invagination and pinching off of portion of a plasma membrane to form membrane bounded cytoplasmic vesicles containing substances previously inside of the cell and release their contents into the outside. 3. Give a list of fuctions of the different organelles of a eukaryotic cell? a. Cell wall: For structural support in plants b. Plasma membrane: Surround the cell and regulate entrance and exit of substances in or out of the cell c. Chloroplast: Uses sunlight to produce food d. Cytoskeleton: Forms the framework of movement of organelles around the cytoplasm e. Endoplasmic reticulum: Intracellular highway for transporting all sorts of substances around the cell f. Golgi complex: Produces, processes and packages proteins. g. Lysosome: Contains digestive enzymes to break down food and other particles. h. Mitochondrion: Produce energy i. Nucleus: Contains DNA and directs cell activities j. Perioxisomes: Break down long-chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation. k. Ribosome: Produce proteins 4. What is the theory of endosymbiosis? a. Endosymbiosis describes how a large cell and ingested bacteria could become dependent on each other for survival in a permanent relationship. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have features that are similar to bacterial cells. They reproduce like bacteria, have their own genome and direct their own division. 5. What is the endomembrane system? a. The endomembrane system is responsible for trafficking of molecules through the cell and this happens via the ER, the golgi complex and secretory vesicles.


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