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Chem 111 study guide Ch 1& 2

by: Kim Notetaker

Chem 111 study guide Ch 1& 2 Chem 111

Marketplace > California State University Chico > Science > Chem 111 > Chem 111 study guide Ch 1 2
Kim Notetaker
CSU Chico

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exam 1
General Chemistry
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kim Notetaker on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 111 at California State University Chico taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Science at California State University Chico.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chemistry 111: Exam 1 Covering Chapters 1&2: Scientific Method:  • Observations: recording natural phenomena  ­ You have two types of observations:  ­ Qualitative: descriptive data ­ Quantative: measurements  • Hypothesis: Possible explanation  • Experiments: testing hypothesis  • Theory/Conclusion: Explains or predicts what was in your experiments and hypothesis. SI units:  Prefix Symbol Factor 12 Tera      T 1,000,000,000,000=10 9 Giga      G 1,000,000,000=10 6 Mega      M 1,000,000=10 Kilo       k 1000=10 3 Hecto            h 100=10 2 Deka      da 10=10 1 Deci        d 0.1=10 ­1 Centi        c 0.01=10 ­2 Milli       m 0.001=10 ­3 Micro          u 0.000001=10 ­6 Nano      n  0.000000001=10 ­9     Boiling Water ­          212 *F                 100*C                373*K   Mid Point­                   180*F                   100*C                100*K   Freezing Water­         32*F                    0*C                     273*K ­ Melting point: Solid/Liquids ­ Boiling point: Liquid/Gas Temperature and its Measurement: 9 F 0 0                                                          2 F ( 5 C o 5 C C= (9 F(oF−32 F k=o +273.15 C Significant Figures: The total number of digits recorded for a measurement ­ Generally, the last digit in a reported measurement is uncertain (estimated) ­ The exact numbers and relationships (7 days in a week; 30 students in a class, etc.)  effectively have an infinite number of significant figures  Rules for Counting Significant Figures (Left to Right) 1. Zero in the middle of a number are just like any other digit, they are always significant 2. Zeros at the beginning of a number are not significant; place holder 3. Zeros at the end of a number and after the decimal point are always significant  4. Zeros at the end of a number and before the decimal point may or may not be significant Math rules for keeping track of sigfigs Multiplication or division: The answer can’t have more significant figures than any of the  original numbers  Addition or subtraction: The answer can’t have more digits to the right of the decimal point than  any of the original numbers  Rules of Rounding off Numbers: 1. if the first digit you remove is less than 5 round down by dropping it and all following  numbers 2. if the first digit you remove is 6 or greater round up by adding 1 to the digit or the left 3. if the first digit you remove is 5 and there are more nonzero digits following, round up 4. if the digit you remove is a 5 with nothing following, round down Dimensional Analysis: a method that uses a conversion factor to covert a quantity expressed in  one unit to an equivalent quantity in a different unit Conversion Factor: Expresses the relationship between two different units Accuracy: refers to how close to the true value a given measurement is. Precision: how well a number of independent measurements agree with one another 1A: Alkaline metals  2A: Alkaline earth metals  7A: Halogen­ colorful 8A: Nobel gases­ don't react or interact with other chemicals  Intensive Properties vs. Extensive Properties   Intensive Properties: are independent of size   Ex: Color, Combustibility, hardness, density, melting point…etc.  Extensive Properties: depend on size; size matters   Ex: mass, volume, weight…etc.   Physical Properties vs. Chemical Properties  Physical Properties: does not change the chemical makeup   Ex: Color, hardness, density, mass, melting point, volume…etc.  Chemical Properties: change the chemical makeup of its properties   Ex: Reactivity w/ acid, combustibility, tendency to corrode…etc. Isotope: atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass number   Atomic Mass: the weighted average of the isotopic masses of the elements naturally occurring  isotopes  Isotopes have the same chemical properties but different physical properties        Avogadro's number (NA): one mole of any substance contains 6.022x10 to the 23rd formula unit   Molar mass: the mass in grams of one mole of any element it is numerically equivalent  to its  atomic mass    *Conversion Factors*  1 mole of formula units=6.022x 10 to the 23rd formula units   1 mole of element = atomic mass of element Diatomic Molecules: that are composed of two atoms of the same element  H2  N2  O2  F2   Cl2  Br2  I2     Ions and Ionic Bonds:   Ionic Bonds: transfer of one or more electrons ­strong electrical attraction between charged particles  Typically a metal bounded to a nonmetal Ion: a  charged particle   Cation: a positively charged particle one or more electron fewer than neutral. Metals tend to form cations   Anion: a negatively charged particle one or more electron more than neutral. Nonmetals tend to  form anions     Ionic Compound: a neutral compound in which the total number of positive charges must equal  the total number of negative charges   Binary Compound: Sodium Chloride:       Na +          Cl­              NaCl Magnesium Oxide:     Mg2+        O2­           MgO Aluminum Sulfide:     Al 3+         S2­            Al2S3   Polyatomic Ions: charged covalent bond groups of atoms   Charged molecules    Polyatomic Ionic Compound:  Sodium Hydroxide:     Na+          OH­         NaOH Magnesium Carbonate:   Mg2+    Co3 2­    MgCo3 Sodium Carbonate:     Na+           Co3 2­    Na2Co3 Iron(11) Hydroxide:   Fe 2+       OH­          Fe(OH)2 Naming Covalent Molecules Rules:  1 The first element is named first, using the element names 2  the second element is named as an anion 3  Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms  4 Mono is not used to name the first element   Don't use the prefix mono to name the first element   *Not when the addition of the Greek prefix places two vowels adjacent to one another, the "a"  (or the "o") at the end of the Greek prefix is usually dropped, e.g. "nonoxide" and "monoxide"  would be written as "monoxide." The "I" at the end of the prefixes "di" and "tris" are never  dropped     Prefix             # Indicated  Mono ­                       1 Di­                              2 Tri­                             3 Tetra­                        4 Penta­                        5 Hexa­                         6 Hepta­                       7 Octa­                          8 Nona­                         9 Deca­                         10


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