Chem 111 study guide Ch 1& 2
Chem 111 study guide Ch 1& 2 Chem 111
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kim Notetaker on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 111 at California State University Chico taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Science at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chemistry 111: Exam 1 Covering Chapters 1&2: Scientific Method: • Observations: recording natural phenomena You have two types of observations: Qualitative: descriptive data Quantative: measurements • Hypothesis: Possible explanation • Experiments: testing hypothesis • Theory/Conclusion: Explains or predicts what was in your experiments and hypothesis. SI units: Prefix Symbol Factor 12 Tera T 1,000,000,000,000=10 9 Giga G 1,000,000,000=10 6 Mega M 1,000,000=10 Kilo k 1000=10 3 Hecto h 100=10 2 Deka da 10=10 1 Deci d 0.1=10 1 Centi c 0.01=10 2 Milli m 0.001=10 3 Micro u 0.000001=10 6 Nano n 0.000000001=10 9 Boiling Water 212 *F 100*C 373*K Mid Point 180*F 100*C 100*K Freezing Water 32*F 0*C 273*K Melting point: Solid/Liquids Boiling point: Liquid/Gas Temperature and its Measurement: 9 F 0 0 2 F ( 5 C o 5 C C= (9 F(oF−32 F k=o +273.15 C Significant Figures: The total number of digits recorded for a measurement Generally, the last digit in a reported measurement is uncertain (estimated) The exact numbers and relationships (7 days in a week; 30 students in a class, etc.) effectively have an infinite number of significant figures Rules for Counting Significant Figures (Left to Right) 1. Zero in the middle of a number are just like any other digit, they are always significant 2. Zeros at the beginning of a number are not significant; place holder 3. Zeros at the end of a number and after the decimal point are always significant 4. Zeros at the end of a number and before the decimal point may or may not be significant Math rules for keeping track of sigfigs Multiplication or division: The answer can’t have more significant figures than any of the original numbers Addition or subtraction: The answer can’t have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers Rules of Rounding off Numbers: 1. if the first digit you remove is less than 5 round down by dropping it and all following numbers 2. if the first digit you remove is 6 or greater round up by adding 1 to the digit or the left 3. if the first digit you remove is 5 and there are more nonzero digits following, round up 4. if the digit you remove is a 5 with nothing following, round down Dimensional Analysis: a method that uses a conversion factor to covert a quantity expressed in one unit to an equivalent quantity in a different unit Conversion Factor: Expresses the relationship between two different units Accuracy: refers to how close to the true value a given measurement is. Precision: how well a number of independent measurements agree with one another 1A: Alkaline metals 2A: Alkaline earth metals 7A: Halogen colorful 8A: Nobel gases don't react or interact with other chemicals Intensive Properties vs. Extensive Properties Intensive Properties: are independent of size Ex: Color, Combustibility, hardness, density, melting point…etc. Extensive Properties: depend on size; size matters Ex: mass, volume, weight…etc. Physical Properties vs. Chemical Properties Physical Properties: does not change the chemical makeup Ex: Color, hardness, density, mass, melting point, volume…etc. Chemical Properties: change the chemical makeup of its properties Ex: Reactivity w/ acid, combustibility, tendency to corrode…etc. Isotope: atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass number Atomic Mass: the weighted average of the isotopic masses of the elements naturally occurring isotopes Isotopes have the same chemical properties but different physical properties Avogadro's number (NA): one mole of any substance contains 6.022x10 to the 23rd formula unit Molar mass: the mass in grams of one mole of any element it is numerically equivalent to its atomic mass *Conversion Factors* 1 mole of formula units=6.022x 10 to the 23rd formula units 1 mole of element = atomic mass of element Diatomic Molecules: that are composed of two atoms of the same element H2 N2 O2 F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 Ions and Ionic Bonds: Ionic Bonds: transfer of one or more electrons strong electrical attraction between charged particles Typically a metal bounded to a nonmetal Ion: a charged particle Cation: a positively charged particle one or more electron fewer than neutral. Metals tend to form cations Anion: a negatively charged particle one or more electron more than neutral. Nonmetals tend to form anions Ionic Compound: a neutral compound in which the total number of positive charges must equal the total number of negative charges Binary Compound: Sodium Chloride: Na + Cl NaCl Magnesium Oxide: Mg2+ O2 MgO Aluminum Sulfide: Al 3+ S2 Al2S3 Polyatomic Ions: charged covalent bond groups of atoms Charged molecules Polyatomic Ionic Compound: Sodium Hydroxide: Na+ OH NaOH Magnesium Carbonate: Mg2+ Co3 2 MgCo3 Sodium Carbonate: Na+ Co3 2 Na2Co3 Iron(11) Hydroxide: Fe 2+ OH Fe(OH)2 Naming Covalent Molecules Rules: 1 The first element is named first, using the element names 2 the second element is named as an anion 3 Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms 4 Mono is not used to name the first element Don't use the prefix mono to name the first element *Not when the addition of the Greek prefix places two vowels adjacent to one another, the "a" (or the "o") at the end of the Greek prefix is usually dropped, e.g. "nonoxide" and "monoxide" would be written as "monoxide." The "I" at the end of the prefixes "di" and "tris" are never dropped Prefix # Indicated Mono 1 Di 2 Tri 3 Tetra 4 Penta 5 Hexa 6 Hepta 7 Octa 8 Nona 9 Deca 10
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