GEOG 101 Exam 1 Study Guide
GEOG 101 Exam 1 Study Guide Geog 101
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 101 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Phillip Larson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 306 views. For similar materials see Introductory Physical Geography in Geography at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
GEOG: 101 Exam 1 Study Guide Topic: What is Geography? Definitions: Spatial interaction – how elements of the Earth system interact with one another to create spatial patterns Geography – the science that studies the distributions and interrelationships of ALL Earth phenomenon; everything at the surface or in contact with the surface Hypothesis – upon recognizing a particular pattern displayed by earth phenomenon the geographer offers an explanation as to what caused it utilizing previous research as a foundation Theory (why is it not just a guess and different than a hypothesis?) – a hypothesis that has been validated through repeated experiments and coming to the same conclusion Remote sensing – observes a medium or phenomena from a distance (space, aircraft), so without ever coming into contact with it; provides a different prospective on the relationship of earth systems; mostly used to observe climate change and its impacts “Spatial Science” – the study of the nature or character of physical space, its measurement and the distribution of the things within it Place – the human and natural phenomena that give a location its unique character Integrative science – draws on knowledge from all other disciplines to answer its questions Spatial pattern – the patterns of Earth phenomenon GPS (Global Positioning System) – system used to find your location anywhere on the Earth near the surface using radio frequency broadcasts from Earth’s satellites (there are 24 of them) Process – a set of actions or mechanisms that operate together to perform some action Human/Cultural Geography – the study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places. Physical Geography – the science concerned with the spatial aspects and interactions of the physical systems, interactions and processes that make up the environment GIS (Geographic Information System) – uses computers and software to explore the fundamental principal of geography using the numbers and words from databases and putting them on a map Key Concepts/Questions: Scientific Method Hypothesis formulation Determine methods Data collection Data analysis (testing hypothesis) Hypothesis acceptance/rejection (explanation) Report results When would a differential GPS be more useful than a handheld GPS? A differential GPS is more accurate than a handheld and thus would be more useful when being used by the Coast Guard so they can more accurately place where someone is in the water. What would a physical geographer study? Energy, air, water, weather, climate, landforms, soils, animals, plants, microorganisms The five main fields within Human/Cultural Geography historical geography, political geography, behavioral geography and economic geography, population geography What is the duality within Geography? Physical versus Human/Cultural What happens when a hypothesis is rejected? Formulate a new hypothesis using the information learned from the rejected hypothesis Subfields within Physical Geography Geomorphology Soil science/soil geomorphology Biogeography Meteorology Climatology Natural hazards What does the “geographic perspective” that distinguishes geography from other fields of study mean? The geographic perspective is a way of looking at and understanding the world. This means that geographers need to ask questions specific to their field such as where things are located on the Earth and how places differ from one another. The four spheres or six characters of place in Physical Geography Four spheres: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere Six characters of place: climate, biogeography, soils, earth materials, landforms, hydrology What makes geography special as a scientific field of study? It is an integrative science that takes knowledge from all other fields to answer its questions Topic: Tools of the Geographer Definitions: Quantitative data (and example) – information that can be written down and measured; an example might be a painting where you can measure the dimensions of the frame, its weight, surface area, cost, etc. Qualitative data (and example) – information that describes something, it can be observed, but not measured; with the painting example one could describe the color, smell, texture, the type of brush strokes, etc. Map scale – used to represent distances on a fractional or verbal scale Contour interval – any of the spaces between lines on a topographic map; represents a difference in elevation; small contour intervals are used for flat areas while larger intervals are used for mountainous terrain Map – can represent quantitative or qualitative data; used to understand geography Key Concepts/Questions: If two places have the same latitude, but different longitudes what does that mean about their relative position? They both are near the equator When using GPS what is the mathematical calculation called that calculates your position on Earth? Trilateration What would be the smallest scale map? A world map since the scale has to represent a very large amount of area What would a steep slope look like on a topographic map? (In terms of contour lines being wide or thin) Wide contour lines (ref. definition of contour lines) Dating methods used to date Earth materials Carbon 14 (Radiocarbon dating), Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), Cosmogenic Burial and Surface Exposure, Radiometric dating Conic projections preserve direction and area, but what do they distort? Shape Why are geographic factors important when considering environmental issues or when evaluating potential sites for a new agricultural area or business? Location and spatial distributions often affect environmental, social or economic behavior Zero degrees of latitude is found where? Equator Where is 90 degrees of latitude found? North and South poles When choosing a map projection which qualities are you trying to preserve? Area, scale, bearing, shape and distance What can you learn by determining isotopic ages? The age of a volcanic eruption, the age when a rock is uplifted toward the surface, the age of material from which clasts in a sedimentary rock were derived and the cooling history by using different types of isotopic ages Why do all map projections introduce at least some distortion? Trying to represent a nearly spherical planet on a flat surface Types of Isoline Maps Isotherm, Isobar and Isohyet What part of a map does a cylindrical projection distort? Near the poles Topic: Earth as a Unique System Definitions: Positive feedback process (and example) – the enhancement or amplification of an effect by its own influence on the process that gives rise to it; example would be an increase in the concentration on Carbon Dioxide, which makes the global air temperature rise, increasing the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere and finally an increase in greenhouse warming System – a complex association of interacting objects, processes, matter and energy that operates as a whole (the sum of many interacting parts) Open system – inputs of energy and matter flow into and out of the system Closed system – isolated or cut off from the environment in which they work (uncommon in nature) Gaia Hypothesis – Earth is like an organism that is a selfregulating system that keeps itself in a constant state (Why we are so special) Lithosphere – realm of solid earth (rocks, sand, sediment); driven by plate tectonics Atmosphere – realm of air; driven by unequal solar heating Hydrosphere – realm of water; partly driven by winds, which drive the ocean current; also driven by hydrologic cycle Biosphere – realm of life Coriolis Effect – horizontal deflection of fluid that occurs when a body rotates Key Concepts/Questions: How many Astronomical Units is Earth away from the Sun? 149.6 million km Did the Apollo 8 mission during the Christmas season of 1968 greatly boost the environmental movement? Yes, the view taken of Earth prompted people to think we need to protect the Earth. Before this point dumping trash and industrial waste was generally accepted Phases of water Ice, liquid and gas When does sublimation occur? Sublimation is the transition directly from solid to gas without going through the liquid phase. An example would be when snow and ice changes to water vapor. What are two ways energy is transferred within the Earth system? Solar energy is input into the system and heat energy is output into outer space Why is a planet’s mass important to life? Lowmass planets have less gravity which means less of an atmosphere and smaller planets lose energy more quickly leaving them geologically dead What role might position with respect to Gas Giants play in Earth’s history? If Earth was too close to the Gas Giants it most likely would have been destroyed What are two isolated events that eject material from the sun? Coronal Mass Ejections (CME’s) – release of massive amounts of plasma from the Sun’s Corona Solar flares – sudden release of electromagnetic radiation What is a constant barrage of electromagnetic particles from the sun? Solar wind Four main subsystems (or spheres) within Earth’s unique system Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere and Biosphere The source of energy that is input into the Earth System Solar energy The role of the ozone layer in Earth’s habitability Helps shield from dangerous solar radiation Why is Earth a unique system? It has water that is necessary for life Negative and Positive feedback; selfregulating Why is Earth’s water different from water that exists on other planets and moons in the solar system? Earth’s water exists in all three stages and liquid water allows for chemical reactions What do Earth’s ozone layer and magnetic field have in common? Both protect from the sun; Ozone takes in UV rays while magnetic field hits solar wind What does Earth’s spin produce? Coriolis Effect, energy, night and day What would NOT be severely impacted by the Coriolis Effect? Wind speed Topic: Making Earth’s Basic Configuration Definitions: Halflife – the time taken for the radioactivity of a specified isotope to fall to half its original value Convergent boundary – comes together Divergent boundary – spreads apart (driving force of plate tectonics) Transform boundary – slides past Continental hot spot – areas of volcanism located in the interior of a tectonic plate (example: Yellowstone) Key Concepts/Questions: The processes and forms that occur at midocean ridges Divergent boundaries spread the ocean floor apart causing the ocean to widen; driven by convection in the mantle; process called rifting Deep ocean trenches usually occur at what type of plate boundary where what type of process occurs? Convergent boundary through subduction or “recycling” What can a sudden movement on a fault underwater cause? Tsunami Which of Earth’s crusts is more dense, continental or oceanic? Oceanic (3.0 g/cm^3) Why do the Hawaiian Islands get older to the northeast? Islands form when they move over the hot spot and they continue to move farther and farther away Initially, did the field of geology accept or reject Wegener’s hypothesis? They rejected it because they could not accept the idea of an atmospheric scientist having such heretical beliefs about the continents moving Which layer of the Earth’s upper mantle (Lithosphere or Asthenosphere) is capable of flowing, thus allowing the more rigid layer and crust to move? The Asthenosphere is capable of flowing Allows the Lithosphere to move which fractures, faults and breaks allowing individual plates to move What type of scientist was Alfred Wegener? What theory did he propose? German meteorologist Continental drift Which types of evidence did Wegener use (or not use) to promote his theory? Coastlines fit Matching fossil records Matching rock types Matching mountain ranges Exotic animals in Australia isolated by continental drift What type of process does paleomagnetism record in the oceanic crust? Divergence Where is new oceanic crust created? Divergent boundaries – Midoceanic ridges The age of the ocean crust, originally dated through the KAr method, revealed that the crust gets older or newer as you move away from the midoceanic ridge? Older What is the Earth’s magnetic field generated by? The convective currents of the Outer Core The reversal of Earth’s magnetic field, which is recorded in the oceanic crustal rocks, provides evidence of what? Seafloor spreading Where do hot spots occur? The interior of a tectonic plate A convergent plate boundary is most likely associated with what? Volcanoes on top of mountain chains; deep ocean trenches What types of plate boundaries produce deep, intermediate and/or shallow earthquakes? Each type of plate boundary produces a shallow earthquake What type of plate boundary most commonly triggers deadly tsunamis? (Examples include the 2011 Japan and 2004 Indonesian tsunamis) Convergent boundary – oceancontinent subduction Where is the Levant Fault Zone? The eastern margin of the Mediterranean Sea; also referred to as the Dead Sea Fault What is the main fault that runs through California? San Andreas Fault With new crust constantly being created at midocean ridges, why doesn’t Earth expand forever? Crust gets subducted (recycled) at convergent boundaries or deep ocean trenches Why can hot spots form linear island chains like Hawaii? New islands form as they pass over the hot spot What do the formations of Yellowstone and the Hawaiian Islands have in common? They were both formed by a hot spot Why is Yellowstone a place where geothermal activity occurs? Lies on top of a hot spot, some people like to refer to Yellowstone as a super volcano Since the Earth’s crust is somewhat elastic, what state of equilibrium does it try to reach? Isostasy adjustment What is the process called when after a large continental ice sheet forms, it then melts and affects the crust? Isostasy adjustment Why is the Tibetan Plateau going up in elevation while the big island of Hawaii is going down in elevation? The Tibetan Plateau has a constant source of heat, while the big island of Hawaii is moving away from the hot spot Which plates are colliding to form the Himalayan Mountains? The Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate (continent on continent) Know which plate boundary is associated with each of the following: Sea Floor Spreading – divergent MidAtlantic Ridge – divergent East African Rift – divergent Benioff Zone – convergent Garlock Fault Zone – transform Himalayan Mountains – convergent Subduction – convergent Ocean Trenches – convergent Aleutian Trench – convergent PeruChile Trench – convergent Tonga Trench – convergent Plate boundary without large mountain chain – transform Island arc – convergent Cascade Mountains – convergent Andes Mountains – convergent San Andreas Fault – transform Levant Fault Zone – transform Topic: Earth’s Raw Material Definitions: Radiocarbon dating – the determination of the age or date of organic matter from the relative proportions of the carbon isotopes carbon12 and carbon14 that it contains; the ratio between them changes as radioactive carbon14 decays and is not replaced by exchange with the atmosphere Key Concepts/Questions: What type of metamorphic rock is slate and gneiss made out of? What are the original rocks they come from called? Made out of foliated metamorphic rocks Slate comes from the original rock shale Gneiss comes from the original rock granite Difference between breccia and conglomerate Breccia has angular shaped large particles while conglomerate has rounded larger particles Felsic rocks are rich in what? Feldspar and Silicon What rock is lighter in color and is most commonly found in continental crust? Rhyolite What can turn a rock into a new, metamorphic rock? High temperature and pressure deep in crust and upper mantle Of the following which rocks are felsic and which are mafic? Basalt – mafic Rhyolite – felsic Gabbro – mafic Granite – felsic Of the following, which rocks types have intrusive origins and which have extrusive? Basalt – extrusive Rhyolite – extrusive Gabbro – intrusive Granite – intrusive What distinguishes the different geological eras in geological time? Changes in the fossil record What is the difference between the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic? Life during the Mesozoic was largely reptiles, where the Cenozoic saw an up rise in mammals What rocks are formed from sediment or organic deposits? What are their layers called? Sedimentary rocks Layers are referred to as strata Quartzite and marble are what type of metamorphic rock? What are their original rocks? Nonfoliated metamorphic rock Quartzite comes from sandstone Marble comes from limestone Why do intrusive igneous rocks have large crystals that can be seen with the naked eye? Intrusive igneous rocks cool slowly within deep magma chambers resulting in large, course, interlocking crystals After the two most abundant elements, which are the next two most common elements? Aluminum and iron Which two elements are the most abundant in the continental crust? Oxygen and silicon What elements are mafic rocks rich in? Magnesium and iron Describe the two types of textures basalt flows have. Pahoehoe – smooth, undulating or ropy Aa – rough and jagged with a light frothy texture Know which sediment size goes with which rock type: Clay = Shale Silt = Siltstone Sand = Sandstone Gravel = Conglomerate Why are the fifth through the eight most common elements in the continental crust important to the biosphere? They are nutrients What can stand stone preserve that can tell us how the sediment was deposited and the direction of flow? Cross bedding What is the geochronologic dating concept that was discovered in the 1960s that helped to refine the geologic time scale? Radiometric dating
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