Anatomy and Physiology- Bio 243 Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology- Bio 243 Study Guide BIOL 243 001
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Turner on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Lewis Bowmen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Human Anat & Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Cells 1. Plasma Membrane 2. Cytoplasm 3. Nucleus -Extracellular(outside) 1. Interstitial fluid: cells SUBMERGED in this 2. Blood fluid: fluid of the blood 3. Cerebrospinal fluid: surrounds nervous sys. Organs -cellular excretions: mucus, saliva -extracellular matrix (GLUE): substance that acts as glue; holds cells together Triglycerides -glycerol -fatty acids -function: energy, insulation, protection Phospholipids -glycerol -2 fatty acids tails -charged -bilayer: BACKBONE OF PLASMA MEMBRANE. (75% phospholipids, 5%glycolipids, 20% cholesterol) Proteins -amino acids: building blocks -amino acids linked by peptide bonds -polypeptide bond: one chain of amino acids. Any length. Any sequence. Ex. Lysine -structure: primary structure, secondary structure (alpha-helix and pleated sheet), tertiary structure (3D), quaternary structure -types: fibrous-structure and globular-function (1. Hormones, 2. Antibodies, 3. Enzymes) Enzymes -25,000 genes=code for 1 polypeptide -1 enzyme=1 chemical reaction -Enzyme Action (1. Substrate: reactant.Binds to action site. 2. Active site: where reactant bonds) -proteins: 1/2 mass of cell membrane -integral protein TRANSPORTERS -have transmembrane proteins -have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions -functions as transport of proteins -peripheral protein SUPPORT -not imbedded in lipid bilayer but loosely attached to integral proteins -have filaments on intracellular surface-> used for plasma membrane support -function as enzymes, motor proteins, cell-to-cell connections Glycocalyx (“sugary layer”) RECOGNITION -Sugars or carbs that stick out of cell surface -some attach to glycolipids and some attach to glycoproteins -every cell has different pattern -function as specific biological markers for recognition -allows immune system to recognize self vs non-self Homeostatic imbalance -glycocalyx of some cancer cells can change rapidly and the immune sys. Cant recognize cell as damaged -mutated cell->not destroyed by immune sys->able to replicate Cell Junction -some are free (blood cells, sperm) -some of bound by tissues and organs Bonds: 1. Tight Junction SURROUNDS CELL/PREVENTS LEAKAGE -intergral proteins on adjacent cells fuse to form impermeable junction encircles cell -prevents fluids from moving between cells -prevents leakage 2. Desmosomes ZIPPER-SHAPED JUNCTION/BUTTONS/STRENGTH -rivet-like junction formed when linked proteins (cadherins) of neighboring cells. Like a ZIPPER. -linker proteins are anchored to cell through thickened “button like” areas on inside of plasma membrane (plaques) -keratin filaments connect plaques intercellularly for added strength -useful to counteract stress on skeletal muscle and heart 3. Gap junction TUNNELS AND SPREAD QUICKER -transmembrane proteins (connexons) form tunnels. Allow small molecules to pass from cell to cell -used to spread ions, simple sugars, small molecules between cells -allow for electrical signal to be passed quickly (used in cardiac and smooth muscles) (more effective than binding) How substances move across plasma membrane -selectively permeable (1. Passive process: NO energy. 2. Active process: energy REQUIRED) -passive transport (1. Diffusion: simple diffusion. Carrier-and-facilitated diffusion. Osmosis. 2.Filtration: transport across capillary walls -diffusion: movement of molecules DOWN their concentration gradients (HIGH->low) -collisions between molecules in areas of high concentration cause them to scatter into areas with less concentration. -energy NOT required -speed influenced by size and temperature -plasma membrane STOPS diffusion and creates concentration gradients by acting selectively permeable -non-polar, hydrophobic lipids core of plasma membrane blocks diffusion -molecules that can pass through membrane include: -lipid-soluble and non polar (hydrophobic) substances -very small molecules -larger molecules assisted by carrier molecules Simple Diffusion -non-polar lipid-soluble(hydrophobic) substances diffuse directly through phospholipid bilayer ex. Oxygen, CO2 Facilitated Diffusion -certain hydrophobic molecules (glucose, amino acids, ions) are transported passively down gradient by: 1. Carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion: substances bind to protein carriers -transmembrane integral proteins -transport specific polar molecules (sugar and amino acids) that are too large for membrane channels ex. Glucose carriers only carry glucose molecule -binding of molecule changes shape, moving molecule in process -carriers are saturated when all are bound to molecules and are busy transporting 2. Channel-mediated Facilitated diffusion: substances move through water-filled channels -transport molecules such (ions or water-osmosis) DOWN their concentration gradient -specifically based on pore size and change -water channels: aquaporin -2 types: (1. Leakage channels: always open. 2. Gated channels: controlled by chemical and electrical signal) Osmosis: movement of solvent (water), across a selectively permeable membrane -water diffuses through plasma membrane: (1. Through lipid bilayer. 2. Through specific water channels (aquaporin)) -flow occurs when water concentration is different on 2 sides of membrane Osmolarity: measure of total concentration of solute particles -water concentration varies with # of solute particles b/c solute particles displace water molecules (when water concentration goes down, solute concentration goes up) -water moves by osmosis from areas of low solute (HIGH water) concentration to high areas of solute (low water) concentration -solutes and water cross membrane until equilibrium is reached Movement of Water Pressures 1. Hydrostatic Pressure: pressure of water inside cell push on membrane 2. Osmotic Pressure: tendency of water to move into cell by osmosis -more solutes inside a cell, higher the osmotic pressure -living cell has limits to how much water can enter -Tonicity: ability of a solution to change shape or tone of cells by altering cell’s initial water volume 1. Isotonic Solutiosame osmolarity as inside cell, volume remains unchanged 2. Hypertonic Solutionhigher osmolarity than inside cell, so water flows out of cell, shrinkage (crenation) 3. Hypotonic Solutionlower osmolarity than inside cell, so water flows into cell, swelling (lysing) Active Transport -requires carrier proteins -bind specifically and reversibly with substance being moved -some carrier transport more than 1 substance: 1. Antiporters: transport one substance into cell while transporting a different substance out of cell 2. Symporters: transport two different substances in same direction -moves AGAINST concentration gradient (low->HIGH). REQUIRES ATP 2 types: 1. Primary Active Transport: require energy comes directly from ATP hydrolysis 2. Secondary Active Transport: required energy is obtained indirectly from ionic gradients created by primary active transport
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