POLS 2311 EXAM 1 PART 1
POLS 2311 EXAM 1 PART 1 2311
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katherine Valentine on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2311 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Richard E Millsap in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see GOVT OF U S in Political Science at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
1. General philosophy why studying government in a structured academic way is so important: to understand objective facts rather than illfounded beliefs regarding: 1) the U.S. Constitution 2) philosophies of governments 3) institutional structures and procedures of government 4) government’s impacts 5) how to improve governments 6) citizens’ responsibilities To maximizes liberty & freedom & human rights; a better world, get needed and desired services. 2. Famous leaders/philosophers: a. Burke "All the forces of darkness need to succeed ... is for the people to do nothing." b. Clay "Do not despise compromise, for it is the cement that keeps this country together." c. Jefferson "In questions of power, then let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him from mischief by the chains of the Constitution." d. Jordan "Government is too important to be a spectator sport." e. Holmes "Taxes are what we pay for civilized society." f. Kennedy "... and so, my fellow Americans, ask NOT what your country can do for you; ask what YOU can do for your country." g. Lincoln "The legitimate object of government, is to do for a community of people, whatever they need to have done, but can not do, at all, or cannot so well do, for themselves in their separate, and individual capacities." h. Madison "If the people are to be our governors, they must arm themselves with knowledge." "A popular government, without popular information, or the means of acquiring it, is but a prologue to a farce or a tragedy... a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives," i. John Stuart Mill "A man who has nothing for which he willing to fight; nothing he cares about more than his own personal safety, is a miserable creature who has no chance of being free, unless made and kept so by the exertions of better men than himself." j. Santayana "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” k. Roosevelt "It is not the critic who counts: not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles or where the doer of deeds could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes up short again and again, because there is no effort without error or shortcoming, but who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions, who spends himself for a worthy cause; who, at the best, knows, in the end, the triumph of high achievement, and who, at the worst, if he fails, at least he fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who knew neither victory nor defeat." " I have never in my life envied a human being who led an easy life; I have envied a great many people who led difficult lives and led them well." 3. 7 most important documents about understanding America and its government 1. "Democracy in America” – Tocqueville about democratic revolution in hundred years ago. 2. "Declaration of Independence" Jefferson 3. "Federalist Papers” – urged US citizens to ratify the new Constitution. 4. ”U.S. Constitution" – US national gov’t, fundamental laws, citizens’ basic rights. 5. "Bill of Rights” – amendments. 6. ”Gettysburg Address" Pre. Lincoln 7. 2nd Inaugural address –Pre. Lincoln 4. Definition a. Classical liberalism: belief in a minimal role for government and maximum individual rights and protection of property rights; government that governs least governs best (ex: Jefferson, Constitution’s authors, and Jackson, opposed slavery and fought for women’s equal rights, civil liberties) b. Modern or contemporary liberalism Belief in big enough government to solve people problems relating to justice and social issues and to blunt defects in capitalism. (ok w/ economic regulation, wealth redistribution, civil liberties) c. Progressive liberalism They want government to solve social problems caused by industrialization because they believe no one else will and that if government does not intervene people will be hurt. d. Neoliberalism: seek creation of wealth, not redistribution, and they are for reform of entitlement programs, and they are for free trade (some jobs may go over seas) and they are for a strong national defense in the most cost effective manner. e. Populism: in the 1880s wanted more citizen voter involvement in decision making, and they wanted economic reforms that would strengthen government, (today is more about acting on their concerns). f. Traditional conservatism belief in a minimal role for government; they distrust government and believe private efforts are more likely to improve society (powerless and inactive gov’t, low taxes, no wealth redistribution, slavery, and no woman’s equal rights, no business regulations). g. Social conservatism: (religious/ radical right), emphasis on moral value. They want to regulate individual behaviors (Stop pornography, illegal drugs, abortion, homosexuals, affirmative action, school busing, job quotas, religious schools, no contraception, censor media content, Christianity, no civil liberties) h. Neoconservatism is skeptical of government's ability to solve social and economic problems. It believes in strong defense and aggressive foreign policy, and is opposed to racial affirmative action. It focuses on creating wealth and is opposed to redistribution of wealth through welfare programs i. Libertarianism: little to no government and opposed laws. j. Anarchism: objects laws and government. k. Communism : a belief that government should own business and totally control the economy (Karl Marx) Authoritarianism: belief there is no limit to a leader's power Totalitarianism: belief that leaders should assert complete dominance over all individuals and institutions even religions and the press. Socialism : an economic system grows directly from Communism’s ideal. m. Capitalism: an economic system where most property and businesses are privately owned and people work where ever they want and for whoever they want your choice, but government can interfere the businesses. th The Logic of American Politics, 7 Edition Test Bank Chapter 1 Review (some questions missing because I deleted some) 22 questions 3. The statement “War is politics by other means” suggests which of the following? A. War happens when the bargaining of politics fails. b. War is no different from an election because the outcome is driven by the consent of the governed. c. Political disputes are like wars because no rules can ever apply to those contests. d. The ends justify the means. 4. Which of the following is a good formal definition of politics? a. A controlled study of the impact of an independent variable on a dependent variable B. The process through which individuals and groups reach agreement on a course of common action even as they continue to disagree on the goals of the action c. Any system where the governed make all important decisions regarding governance d. A twoparty system that governs nationally 6. Politics occurs whenever a solution to a problem requires cooperation even when that cooperation is which of the following? a. Achieved through force alone B. Costly or difficult c. Irrelevant to the success of the course of action d. Already what everyone agrees on 7. Bargaining and compromise a. rarely leads to successful political outcomes. B. is essential for producing successful political outcomes. c. usually results in disappointment from political actors unable to achieve the ideal policies. d. generates bad policies that make society worse than if no political action had occurred. 9. One of the fundamental problems for government is reconciling preferences because a. our preferences are always closely linked to selfinterest. b. the preferences most Americans hold are based on religious values. C. a diversity of preferences is natural among men. d. there are usually only one or two dominant interests in society. 10. The fear that a party to a political negotiation may renege on or fail to abide by any agreement may lead to which of the following? a. A quick and mutually acceptable resolution b. A clear agreement enforced only through the good faith and trust of the parties C. War as the preferred alternative d. A complete capitulation by one side on all issues 11. Political institutions include which of the following? A. A set of rules prescribing a political process for reaching and enforcing collective agreements b. The places where the former Yugoslav government put dissidents c. Training centers for party operatives and campaign workers d. The official buildings where government employees work 1 12. Without rules and procedures for promoting successful collective action, as participants and preferences multiply a. government grows more efficient. b. broadly acceptable collective decisions are made more rapidly. C. unstructured negotiation rarely yields a collective decision all parties can accept. d. the institutions of governance become less important. 15. Constitutions, charters, and bylaws all serve which of the following purposes? a. Inhibiting the whims of the majority b. Resolving every conceivable conflict in an organization C. Guiding the organization’s members in making essentially political decisions d. Avoiding any disputes that could ever arise in any political decisionmaking process 16. Because of the large size of populations and the complexity of the issues to be resolved, the degree of success populations in nations have in politics depends largely on which of the following? a. Whether they are capable of engaging in politics on a daytoday basis B. Whether they have developed constitutions and governments that work c. Whether they pay absolutely no attention to their nation’s politics d. Whether they fail to be interested in policy in a meaningful way 17. Which of the following is true of the constitution of a nation? a. It is always written. b. It is divinely inspired and theologically grounded. C. It creates the governing institutions and the set of rules prescribing the political process these institutions must follow to reach and enforce collective agreements. d. It creates barriers to collective agreements so as to ensure that the political process does not get captured by special interests. 18. The U.S. Constitution was intended to do which of the following? a. Permanently advantage some economic interests over others b. Rarely impact the actual decisions made by government c. Resolve a contested election that occurred under the Articles of Confederation D. Reassure diverse interests that they would be better off under the new system 19. Which of the following is a formal definition of a government? A. Those institutions created by a constitution and the legally prescribed process for making and enforcing collective agreements b. Only those systems that elect a prime minister and parliament c. Only those systems that elect a president and congress d. Any institution that relies on force to implement its decisions 20. Government institutions consist of which of the following? a. Only wellknown popular icons b. The mechanisms through which revolutions are always planned c. The rules of government that exist apart from the roles of government D. Offices that confer on their occupants specific authority and responsibilities 2 21. The difference between authority and power is which of the following? A. Authority is the right to make a particular decision and power is the actual influence the institution has over that action. b. Authority is seized and power is given. c. There is no difference; they are perfectly interchangeable. d. Power describes the formal parameters of influence while authority describes the informal parameters of influence. 24. “Collective action” refers to which of the following? A. The efforts of a group to reach and implement agreements b. Action by an individual on behalf of the collective, usually without the collective’s permission c. The decisions made by absolute dictators d. Whether people participate in their government 43. A simple majority is defined as a. onehalf. B. onehalf plus one. c. onehalf plus two. d. more than anyone else. 44. Assigning authority to make and implement decisions to a smaller number of persons who are expected to act on behalf of the larger group’s interest is an example of which of the following? a. A conformity cost b. An example of an institution c. A prisoner’s dilemma D. Delegation 46. Modern democracies blend delegation and majority rule together into what is known as which of the following? a. A monarchical government b. A fiefdom C. Representative government d. Divided government 47. Which of the following is true about direct democracy, where citizens participate directly in collective decision making? a. It typically occurs in large communities and organizations. B.It typically is reserved for small communities and organizations. c. It is a dangerous idea that has always been rejected by communities and organizations. d. It relies heavily on delegation and representation. 48. A parliamentary system is different from a presidential system primarily for which of the following reasons? a. In a parliamentary system, the executive and legislative branches are separate. B. In a presidential system, the executive and legislative branches are separate. c. There is no difference; they are essentially the same. d. In a parliamentary system, there must be a monarch. 3 52. Why do citizens often look to government to provide public goods? A. Government has coercive authority to prevent free riding and the necessary resources to undertake expensive projects. b. Only the government can be trusted not to exploit citizens. c. Government charges fair prices and the coercive authority to prevent the tragedy of the commons. d. Government regulations are sensible and the government has decided to privatize all but a few essential functions to promote greater efficiency. 4
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