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GWU / Anthropology / ANTH 1005 / What are our closest living relatives?

What are our closest living relatives?

What are our closest living relatives?

Description

School: George Washington University
Department: Anthropology
Course: The Biological Bases of Human Behavior
Professor: Carson murray
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biological, basis, Human, and behavior
Cost: 25
Name: Biological Basis of Human Behavior Weekly Notes
Description: These notes include lecture slide, helpful visual aids, and Professors notes directly from the day of each lecture!
Uploaded: 09/08/2016
25 Pages 156 Views 2 Unlocks
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Primates and the Human Body


What are our closest living relatives?



Monday, September  5, 2016 6:39 PM

*NOTE: Primates are our closest living relatives, Humans are primates, we lump in the GrePan species like Bonobos

Enormous variation in terms of mating rituals, tool use, and trying to understand the f

allow us greater insight into human social behavior

Characteristics of Primates

Forward facing eyes  

– Stereoscopic vision  

• Reduced olfaction  

• Several types of teeth  

• Nails instead of claws  

• Grasping hands and feet  

• Relatively long lifespans  

• Relatively large brains

*NOTE: Safe to say that any kind of common human ancestor shared these traits


What are the main characteristics of primates?



Stereoscopic Vision-- results from the fact that our eyes are forward facing, we can see 3-depth perception

--Helps with feeding, BUT it makes us poor in dealing with predation, so social groups can predators (greater vigilance)

t Apes species, and the  ctors that drive that  

 images and we have  elp protect from

Color Vision


What is the meaning of stereoscopic vision?



We also discuss several other topics like How is mathematics shown in nature?

Trichromatic vision (def.) the ability to see a full range of color

--colors can indicate what is and is not safe to eat. You can use color to tell us rightness of

Reduced Reliance on Olfaction  

• Shorter snouts (in most species)  

• Reduced olfactory bulb in brain

--different types of cones

Types of Teeth  

1. Tell us about the dietary tendencies of different species

2. Tell us something about the species

3.Don't forget about the age old question of Where is stratified squamous epithelium found in the body?

Hang around forever and they have enamel and they are very prevalent in the fossil rethan not, you are able to find teeth as opposed to a full skeleton

ods

ord, and more likely

1. Tell us about the dietary tendencies of different species 2. Tell us something about the species

3.

Hang around forever and they have enamel and they are very prevalent in the fossil rethan not, you are able to find teeth as opposed to a full skeleton

Grasping Hands and Feet

*Opposable thumbs are "Really Freakin' Awesome"--Answer to XC Midterm Question

Long Development and Lifespan  

• Primates tend to live a long time given their body size  

•Primates tend to have long in fancy and juvenile periods before they begin reproducing *Period of childhoods, reproduction, and gestation, reproductive period,  

*NOTE: All species share linger lifespan and longer periods of development --takes longer to reproduce, and there are relative risks to having a long delay to reproductio--What are we doing for the 15 years that we don't reproduce? If you want to learn more check out What are passive leg exercises?

1. Humans have enormous brains per their body size

2. Learning survival skills, foraging skills, social skills  

Large Brains Relative to Body

ord, and more likely  nDon't forget about the age old question of How have humans evolved as part of the natural world, how have environmental changes affected human development?

Non-Human Primate Range

--Most primate species live in equatorial regions, but there is enormous variation in where

Primate Phylogeny

*NOTE: We care about the Pan s

apes because through phylogeny,

closest to humans compared to ot

Pan species and ChimpanzeDon't forget about the age old question of How does the criminal justice system respond to crime?

Bonobos

Sexual Dimorphism--differe

appearance based on sex-- hdimorphism between males and bonobos, females are thsex, and they food share far chimps, and bonobos do notlethal warfare there are prosbehaviors

• In Chimps, there are infanti

Differences from Other Primates?

1. Bipedalism 

Advantages of Bipedalism  

• Efficient terrestrial locomotion  

• Freeing of hands  

– Carry things (i.e. babies), make and use tools  • Efficient foraging  

• See distances--predation, food

• Keep cool

Disadvantages of Bipedalism  

• Slower--puts us at risk of predation

Reduction in aggression in compared to Chimps

rimates live!

ecies and  they are  

er primates s and  

ce in  

igh sexual  and females   dominant  more than  conduct  

cial  

ide and a  onobos

–   .. ,      

• Efficient foraging  

• See distances--predation, food

• Keep cool

Disadvantages of Bipedalism  

• Slower--puts us at risk of predation

• Less stable--because we only have 2 feet

• Limited climbing ability  

• Back problems because of S-shaped spine Don't forget about the age old question of What does the thermodynamic variable mean?

• Obstetrical dilemma  

– Pelvis size and shape constrained by bipedalism

Why Did Bipedalism evolve?

--What hypotheses are discussed in The Story of the Human Body?

1. Ecological adaptation geared towards getting food (move further distance for food) 2. Carrying tools/food--free hands to make tools--tech and material culture are important a. Dismissed this because: bipedalism was not a result of making tools or vice vers 3. Male Provisioning--sexual Division of labor suggest competition between males and a. Dismisses this because: there is still a lot of sexual dimorphism

4. Bipedal because they have to walk through water--wade through water--aquatic  ape hypothesis which surrounds become bipedal to navigate through water(dismisses --Which has the best support (according to Lieberman)?

A: Socioecology Theory: Ecological adaptation geared towards getting food (move ffood)--landscape of food patches that primates have to move across, but when you haand a change in landscape=changing resource distribution to get the food to meet their

5. Skin 

• Hairless

• Sweat glands--dilute compared to other mammals

3. Human Skull  

• Large, rounded skull  

– High forehead, no brow-ridge

• Small, flat face with protruding chin  

• Smaller teeth

4. Large Brains Relative to Body Size 

Allometry (def.) the growth of body parts at different rates, resulting in a change of body pr*NOTE: This will be an exam question--draw a diagram to exhibit understanding

ot wooing females

his)

rther distance for  e a change in climate  needs

portions--body size.

*NOTE: This will be an exam question--draw a diagram to exhibit understanding

------: What you need to know

Trans 1: Beginning of Bipedalism

Orrorin tugenensis ~6 mya

Ardipithecus ramidus ~4.4 mya

Trans 2: Australopithecine Diet

• Gracile (A. africanus, ~3.3-2.1 mya)

– Rounder skull  

– No Sagittal crest  

– Prognathous jaw  

• Robust (P. boisei, ~2.3-1.2 mya)  

– Sagittal crest--occurs in carnivores, and attached to jaw bone

– Flatter face  

– Massive cheekbones and jaw

*NOTE: Each species does things differently than one another

--diversification of dietary strategies because of sparse environment

Dietary Shift

Trans 3: Towards More Modern Bodies

• Homo habilis (~2.3-1.4 mya)

– Larger brain and flatter face than australipiths  

– Small, australipith-like body  

• Homo erectus (~1.89 mya - 143,000 ya)

*NOTE: Modern humans existed with these species

– Shorter arms and longer legs  

– Modern feet  

– Smaller teeth  

– Larger brain  

– First to leave Africa

Niches(def.) ecological niche space that you use, so you could have had a different niche th

Trans 4: Anatomically Modern Humans

• Lighter skeletons

• Larger brains  

• Thin walled, rounded skull  

• Less (if any) browridge or prognathism

• Small jaws with smaller teeth  

• Likely evolved in Africa Homo heidelbergensis ~700,000-200,000 ya  

Out of Africa  

1. Homo erectus (left ~1.8 mya)  

2. Homo heidelbergensis (left ~500,000 ya) --DIRECT HUMAN ANCESTOR --not behavioral, but more genetic (i.e. body size)

3. Homo sapiens (left ~60,000 ya)

What about Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis)?

• ~400,000-40,000 ya

--brain is larger per body size when compared to humans

--had burials of indiv. with flowers, very sophisticated art and rituals

Hominin(def.) group of humans direct ancestors, particular those that are named Homo Hominid(def.) tax including the Great Apes

n another species

Hominin(def.) group of humans direct ancestors, particular those that are named Homo Hominid(def.) tax including the Great Apes

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