CMCN 100 - 001 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (LECTURE 1 & 2 NOTES)
CMCN 100 - 001 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (LECTURE 1 & 2 NOTES) CMCN 100
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrew Guidroz IV on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMCN 100 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by William A. Says in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Human Communication - 001 in Human Communication Studies at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
STUDY GUIDE FOR CMCN 100 – 001 EXAM 1 (9/14/16) Lecture 1: Communication Defined, Listening and Perception (Interpretation of Lecture 1) 1) Communication as a PROCESS: a process in which meaning is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs and behavior. 2) Communication is EVERCHANGING: It is a process because communication is an everchanging activity, the end result of which never stays the same, never remains stagnant. 3) Communication’s SHARED MEANING: What is shared is meaning, which is defined as the shared understanding of the message. 4) Communication as COMPLICATION: is sometimes referred to as being complicated. Indeed, if this were not true, we likely would not be here tonight, as there would be nothing to study or theorize. I prefer to say that communication is complex, not simple. Complication infers that communication is a negative activity, but complexity simply infers the need to think and require effort. 5) Communication is Inevitable, Irreversible and Unrepeatable. INEVITABLE: By Inevitable we mean that you cannot help but communicate, unless you live in solitary confinement, and even then you would communicate with yourself. IRREVERSIBLE: Once a communication has occurred, you cannot take it back. It is Irreversible. For example, you may say something hurtful to someone, and though you may not have intended to communicate a negative message, and you may apologize for your carelessness, you cannot just hit "delete" and have it go away. Often attorneys in court use this to their advantage, placing seeds of ideas in the minds of jurors, knowing full well that a particular question or statement will be ruled objectionable. The judge may tell the jury to disregard a statement, but in the real world, it is not that easy. UNREPEATABLE: We also cannot repeat with exacting results a communication, no matter how positive and effective it is. Not even with identical circumstances, since, while we may be able to duplicate physical conditions, our state of mind can never be duplicated, and our state of mind is key in how we accept a message and assign it meaning, making it Unrepeatable. 6) Some terms you will need to know: a. Source: The person who initiates a message. b. Receiver: The person who is the intended target of a message. c. Message: The verbal or nonverbal form of the idea, thought or feeling that one person (the source) wishes to communicate to another person or group of people (the receivers). d. Channel: The means by which a message moves from the source to the receiver of the message. Television, radio, print, the air, etc. are channels. e. Feedback: The receiver's verbal and/or nonverbal response to the source's message. f. Code: A systematic arrangement of symbols used to create meanings in the mind of another person or persons. In other words, the components that make up the message. g. Encode: The act of putting an idea or a thought into a code. h. Decode: Assigning meaning to a received code. i. Noise: Any interference in the encoding and/or decoding processes that reduce the clarity of a message. Noise can be external, or physical, like a plane flying over that makes it difficult to hear or like this where it is difficult to see the source. It can be internal or psychological. In this case we are not able to concentrate and focus on a received message. 7) The Three Models of Communication a. Communication as Action (also referred to as linear). In this model one person sends a message and another receives it and thus ends the communication between the parties. This might include an email that is not responded to (especially spam) or reading a newspaper or magazine article. S => R (ONE WAY COMMUNICATION) b. Communication as Interaction. Here one person sends a message to a second person who receives it and responds with another separate message. An example of this might be a telephone conversation, or a conversation on Internet chat, where a response is not possible until the original message is fully received. (TWO WAY COMMUNICATION) S <=> R c. Communication as Transaction. Here we see source and receivers acting out both roles simultaneously. As I tell you this some of you are providing me immediate nonverbal feedback. In turn I may change or adapt my message instantly to your perceived message to me. 8) CONTEXT: Communication is dependent on the circumstances or situation in which it occurs. These are called contexts. 9) Four contexts to consider are: a. Intrapersonal: The process of understanding and sharing within the self. When we give thought and consideration to something, when we plan out how we will discuss a situation with the boss or our spouse, this is intrapersonal communication. b. Interpersonal: The personal process of coordinating meaning between at least two people in a situation that allows mutual opportunities for both speaking and listening. A dyad is interpersonal. Small group communication, the interaction between a small group of people, usually 310 people, to achieve an interdependent goal, is also interpersonal. Note that the text refers to group communication as a separate level, however for our purposes we will consider it a part of interpersonal. c. Public Communication: The process of generating meaning in a situation where a single or small number of sources transmits a message to a larger number of receivers who give either non verbal feedback or question and answer feedback. A key component in differentiating interpersonal and public is that in a public situation there are not mutual opportunities for both speaking and listening, as there are in interpersonal. d. Mass Communication: While we will not go into any detail on this level, which the text does not address in this chapter, it is important to consider, since all of us take part in this level. Mass Comm is what we call a mediated format, where the channel, or media, has a direct affect on how a message is encoded and decoded. 10) The Goals of Communication Study include effective communication, the ability to effectively exchange meaning through a common system of symbols, signs and behaviors. The barriers to effective communication can include cultural differences and language and ethical communication, which is a set of moral principles and values. Again, cultural differences are a major source of conflict in this respect. 11) Another important component of human communication is the ability to listen. a) Listening and hearing are two different things. Hearing is the act of receiving sound whereas listening is the active process of receiving, constructing meaning from and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages. b) Listening is important to the development and maintenance of relationships as well as our ability to think about and remember information. c) In order to effectively listen we must be able to give attention to messages directed at us. We use two types of attention, selective, where we give sustained focus to some stimuli we deem important and automatic, our instinctive focus that we give to stimuli based upon its level of importance to us. For example, you are employing selective attention during this lecture but in our daily transactions with family, friends or coworkers we would employ automatic attention. d) Once we focus on a stimulus we use memory to make use of the information gained. There are three types of memory: working memory, the part of our consciousness that interprets and assign meaning to the stimuli we pay attention to. Kind of like RAM in a computer. After we interpret information, it is assigned to shortterm memory for use on a temporary basis. Kind of like a temp file on a computer. Finally, if the information is likely to be needed at a later time it is stored in long term recall. This would be like saving to a hard disc. 12) We listen in different ways and for different reasons. Here are four types of listening: a) Active listening: Here we listen with a purpose and we make efforts to determine that we have accurately interpreted the message. b) Empathic listening: Here we listen to understand the feelings or point of view of another. c) Critical listening: Here we listen to challenge and validate the accuracy, meaningfulness and utility of a message. d) Listening for enjoyment: Here we listen simply for the enjoyment of it. This may be listening to music, poetry, spoken word. 13) Perception is the process of becoming aware of objects and events from the senses. We employ three basic types of perception: a. Passive: Here we are like a security video recorder that just picks up everything that is placed in from of its camera. b. Active: When something does pass in front of our camera we will select what we wish to focus on. Our mind selects, organizes and interprets the information our senses present to us. c. Subjective: Each of us reacts to and interprets stimuli differently, based upon physiological factors, past experience and roles, culture & coculture, and our present feelings, which include our attitudes, beliefs and values, and the circumstances surrounding the communication event. The way I will judge and rate your speeches is subjective, since I will interpret a number of factors based upon your perceived preparation, interest, and my own experience in hearing similar speeches over time. 14) Self awareness is an understanding of the self, including your attitudes, values, beliefs, strengths and weaknesses. We develop selfawareness by first practicing intrapersonal communication. We also take the messages and feedback received from others and process that via Symbolic Interactionism. One important aspect of Symbolic Interactionism is what is called SelfFulfilling Prophecy. Here, we tend to behave and see ourselves in ways that are consistent with how others see us, or at least how we believe they see us. This can be positive. If we believe people around us accept us and indicate we have good potential we will tend to behave in ways that will feed a prophecy of good things to come. We make the prophecy come true. It can be negative also. I we do not believe we are capable, say in doing well in this class, we have a tendency to behave by not studying, poor preparation, etc. that will lead to fulfilling the prophecy of doing poorly. How we do in any activity, and especially in life, fulfillment of one's potential as a person, is what we call SelfActualization. The Army used to refer to it in their ads as Be All That You Can Be. Abraham Maslow uses this concept as the final level of his Need Hierarchy. We will discuss that concept when we look a persuasion later in the semester. 15) As we work to develop selfawareness, we must examine just how we see ourselves, our selfappraisal or evaluation of just who we are and what we are worth. This is SelfConcept. We first must examine our self image, our internal picture of who we are, what kind of person we believe ourselves to be. If others treat you in ways that are consistent with this selfimage we say that we have received confirmation. On the other hand, should we be treated in ways that are inconsistent with our selfimage, that is rejection. On occasion we get no feedback from others one way or the other and we call that disconfirmation. In order to develop selfconcept we must examine how we feel about ourselves. Do we like ourselves, feel we have value and worth? Do we feel we are a success or a failure? We call this SelfEsteem. Lecture 2: Language 1) Language is a collection of symbols, letters or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and used to communicate. 2) Language is arbitrary, that is the words we use have no inherent meanings, but rather the meanings people give them. 3) MEANING: We can classify meaning into two types: a) Denotative meaning, or the agreed upon/dictionary meaning of a word. b) Connotative meaning, or the individualized or personalized meaning, which in some cases may be laden with emotional input. 4) We might use the word Love as an example of a word by which our emotions and our personal experience and learned values and beliefs may cause variable meanings form person to person. 5) Words by their nature are abstractions, that is, simplifications of what they stand for. Semanticist S.I. Hayakawa developed what is called the Ladder of Abstraction, which shows how words can range from very abstract to concrete in indicating the intended meaning. 6) Some terms you will need to know: a) Colloquialism: Words & phrases used informally Examples include "Good to see you", "How's it goin?" or "See You". b) Clichés: An expression that has lost originality or force through over use. Examples might be "Beauty is only skin deep" or No use crying over spilled milk." Sports writers love to use clichés, as in "He is some kind of player" or "She came to play". c) Euphemisms: A more polite or comfortable word used in the place of a socially unacceptable (or uncomfortable) form. An example is to "Go the little boy's room" or the one I tend to use "Go down the hall" instead of "I need to go urinate or defecate." We don't die, we "Pass Away". d) Slang: A specialized language that belongs to a group of people who share a common interest or a co-culture. Examples for something that is great have ranged over the years from the "Gear" & "Groovy" in the '60s to "Bad" in the '80s to "The Bomb" today. e) Profanity: Profane comes from the Latin root"Outside the Temple". Profanity is language that is considered disrespectful of things sacred, or at the very least considered not respectful of others, in other words, swearing. f) Jargon: Technical language developed by a professional group. g) Regionalisms: Words and phrases particular to a part of the country. "You talk about" , "I caught a flat", or "You gonna get down?" are examples. 7) Non-verbal communication is defined as the attributes or actions of humans, other than the use of words themselves, which have socially shared meaning, are intentionally sent or interpreted as intentional, are consciously sent or consciously received, and have the potential for feedback from the receiver. 8) Some terms you will need to know: a) Repetition: When the same message is sent verbally and non-verbally. An example would be to use gesture in giving verbal directions to a traveler. b) Emphasis: The use of non-verbal cues to strengthen your message. c) Contradiction: When verbal and non-verbal messages conflict. Quite often we may try to indicate we feel one way verbally while our non-verbals show more clearly our true feelings. We use contradiction intentionally in some forms of humor and sarcasm. d) Substitution: The use of only non-verbal communication in the place of verbal. e) Regulation: Monitoring or controlling interactions with others. This can be positive, inviting others to communicate with you or negative, seeking to not communicate with others. f) Kinesics: The study of bodily movement. g) Emblems: Movements that substitute for words or phrases. These are used when employing Substitution. h) Illustrators: Movements that accompany or reinforce verbal messages. These are used when employing Repetition. i) Affect Displays: These are movements of the face and body that show emotion, like a frown or closing the eyes, or the slamming of your fist to show anger. j) Regulators: Movements that control the flow or pace of communications. These are used when employing Regulation. 9) We use both our voices and our bodies non-verbally to deliver a speech. 10) There are seven vocal aspects of delivery: a) Pitch-The highness or lowness of the voice b) Rate-How fast or slow we speak c) Pauses-The absence of sound for emphasis or transition. d) Volume-The relative loudness of the voice e) Enunciation-The pronunciation and articulation of sounds f) Fluency-The flow of words and absence of vocalized pauses g) Vocal Variety-The combination of voice quality, intonation patterns, inflections of pitch & syllabic distribution. 11) We also use four primary bodily aspects of delivery which include: a) Gestures-The movements of the head, arms and hands to illustrate, emphasize or signal ideas b) Facial Expression-The non-verbal cues we express with our face, such as a frown, the furrow of the brow, a glare, and so on. c) Movement-How the presenter uses the body during a speech d) Eye Contact-The most important of all. Eye contact gives indications of how you feel about the audience, how interested in communicating with them you are and especially how truthful you are. As the old saying "Look me in the eyes when you tell me that" implies, eye contact gives your audience the feeling that you are being truthful with them. This is a key to good credibility. 12) Proxemics. Anthropologist Edward Hall addressed the concepts of how we use the space around us and how it affects our communication by introducing the study of Proxemics, the study of the human use of space. We can divide this into two areas, territoriality and personal space. a) Territoriality: Each of use has a natural desire to control some area of space, to "Claim our turf" so to speak. When that control is threatened we feel unsure, uncomfortable, and our communication with those who have threatened that control by violating our territoriality is compromised. b) Personal Space: Each of us uses our personal space differently under different circumstances, in different situations and with people of different personal relationships. Hall created 4 distances of personal space: i) Intimate: From Touch to 18 inches. Here is the distance at which we show closeness, affection to those who we are relationally close to. ii) Personal: From 18 inches to 4 feet. This is the distance used by most American in conversational and non-intimate communication. iii) Social: From 4 to 12 feet. We use this distance to carry our business in the workplace, in more formal and less personal situations. iv) Public: Over 12 feet. These are public communication situations, i.e. speeches, seminars, church, etc. 13) Chronemics. The study of how we use time and organize our time is called Chronemics. We actually send messages to others in how we use our time and how we organize it. For example, someone who is very organized and concerned about being on time and keeping to a schedule sends a message of seriousness and concern for detail while someone who is less concerned for punctuality and does not keep a formal schedule sends a different message. 14) Touch. Tactile communication is defined as the use of touch in communication. Depending on the situation and culture touch can be welcome or unwelcome. In American culture touch is not as accepted universally as in other cultures. American men tend to prefer distance and minimal touch, especially in public, where women seem to be more comfortable with public displays of touch. 15) Objectics. Finally, we can say a lot by what we wear and how we wear it. We call this Objectics, or object language. The types of clothes we wear can send messages about our understanding of those we which to communicate with or our commonality with them. In addition to the clothes we wear, we also use Artifacts, ornaments or adornments we display that hold communication potential. Examples are jewelry, watches, shoes, cars we drive, glasses, even piercings and tattoos. The types of clothing and artifacts we observe allow us to make inferences about the social and economic status of someone as well as their attitudes and beliefs.
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