ANSC 1000 Exam 1 Study Guide
ANSC 1000 Exam 1 Study Guide ANSC 1000
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ANSC 1000Exam 1 Study Guide Highlighted – DEFINITIONS TheLivestock Industry: An Overview What do animals contributeto society? 1. Theyprovideusas humanswitha plentifulfood source: Meat Milk Eggs Cheese,butter,etc. 2. Theyalsohaveprovidedshelterinthe pastwith the useof their hides. 3. Animalshavebeenused as powersources such as packing, transport,anddraft. 4. Theymake a bigimpacton our clothingindustriesbyproviding wools,hair, pelts,etc. 5. We use the fats collectedfrom animalsinorderto produce grease andtallow,a substanceusedto make soapsandcandles. 6. Animalsmakevery goodcompanionsforhumansas well. What types of nutritionalvalues can wereceive from animal products? Aminoacidscan be more easilyobtainedfromanimalsthan from plants.Theaminoacidsthatare derivedfrom theanimal resemblemore closelyto theneeds ofthehumanbodythan thoseofplants.Aminoacidsare necessaryfor thehuman diet becausetheymake up theproteinsourbodiesneed. VitaminB12 isa vitaminthatisrequiredinthe bodyto help regulatethe functionsofthe brain,nervoussystem, and formationofred bloodcells.However, the humanbodydoesnot naturallyproducethisvitamin.Animalproductshaveadecent amountofVitaminB12,whereas plantscannotprovidean adequateamountnecessaryforconsumption. Animalproductsarealsovery palatable,meaningthatthey generallysatisfydifferentwater, energy, andnutritional requirementsinourbodies. Why do weproducelivestock? Livestockhas a highprofitmargin as well as a large demandin the U.S. o Foodis one ofthe largestproductsthatcomes from animals.Everyonehasto eat sothis is a veryhighly profitableaspectoflivestockproduction. o Theyprovideuswith differentfiberssuch as wool and mohairwhich are usedbymanydifferentclothingand fabricmanufacturers. o Animalsarealsovery usefulfor differentby-productssuch as leather,animalfoods,pharmaceuticals,hormones,etc. Animals Provides Market for Grain Farmers tendto producelarge amountsofgrain.But as humans, we simplycannotuse themajorityofthatfor our foodsource. Thisprovidesthefarmers with an easilyobtainablefoodsource for theirlivestockwhich can come from the lower qualitygrains, mixedgrains,andbrewers by-products. Land Can Be Used that is Unsuitablefor Cultivation Manydifferentaspectscan affect thequalityofland. Topographyisbestknown as howthelandis laidout.If a piece oflandcontainslargelyunevenground,rollinghills,ornumerous trees,thisis badfor possiblecropyields.The soildepthcan also be a factor for cultivation.Soildepthisbasicallyhowmuch or howlittleofthenecessarynutrientsrequiredforgrowth is inthe soilandwhere theyare locatedin thedifferentgroundlayers. 2 The land’sfertility,orabilitytomaintainthegrowthof plants, alsoplaysa bigrole in thelandquality.Anotherlimitingfactoris howmuch or howlittlerainfallthelandreceives. Livestockare ableto be placedon thesedifferenttypes ofland in orderto providea usefor it.Theyare able touse these places for foodsources andconvert them intosatisfactoryfoodsources for the U.S. Food Sources and Economics Most ofthe humanpopulationaroundtheworldtendto eat bothplantandanimalproducts.Dairyandmeatproductsare usuallypreferredifavailable. Manypeoplearoundtheworldsuffer from differenttypesof hunger-relatedissues.Oneofthoseproblemsis calledChronic persistenthunger(CPH). Thisis a long-termhunger issuethatis oftenrelatedto lackofmoney,changes inclimate, water shortage,politicalinstability,problemswithsoilfertility,lackof organization,andevenilliteracy.Anotherhungerrelatedissue manypeopleface is calledfamine.Famine can be definedasa hungerthatis created due toa naturaldisaster,war,drought,or othersevere instancesthatcauses productionbreakdownandis more ofa limitedtimeissue.In the U.S.alone,15% offamily householdsarefoodinsecure.Thismeanstheyare not necessarilyfinanciallystableenoughtoprovideasubstantial amountoffood.6% ofthat15% havehunger. *Worldwide Food Consumption Chart, pg.10 in Scientific Farm Animal Production: An Introduction to Animal Science textbook. Changes in U.S. Agriculture Industries ThroughouttheU.S.,12% ofthe populationisinvolvedin agricultureinone wayor another. *Chart on pg.5 in textbook Over theyears,the numberoffarms across the countryhave decreased.This isdue to theincrease insize ofthe farms. 3 Farmers are ableto farm more landwith allofthe different equipmentavailabletoday.Technologyhasplayedamajor role in thefood productionprocess. There are fewer farmersin the U.S.todayalsobecause thefood industriesrelyona select few individualstoprovidethe necessaryproducts.Thisrouteallowstheprices for different goodsand productstoremainat a fixedrate andalsolessens the aspectofcompetitivepricing.Thefactor ofonlyhavinga few supplierstorelyoncan alsopose anissue.Theycouldhave reallyhigh,goodqualityproductswhichwouldbe beneficial. However, theycouldhavea bad year andturnoutpoorquality productsas well.It is importantthattheyonlyoffer products thatare profitable. Changes in U.S. Meat Consumption We as consumershavereallyhelpedto shapethefoodindustry. We are largelyresponsibleforwhatis beingproducedandsold. Over theyears,we havedevelopedmoreefficientways to producethesedifferentmeat productsthathavea cheapercost ofproduction.Thisallowstheproducertosell theirgoodsat a lower price thanwhatit used tocost. As consumers,we knowwhatwe like andhowwe like it.The qualityandflavorofourmeat is a very importantfactorasto whetheror not we willpurchaseit. There are manypeopleoutthere who havechanged what they eat for differentreasons.For instance,red meatis consideredto be high infat andsodiumcontent.Bothofthosetwo substances havebeenknown tocause variousissueswith theheart, thereforepeopleare choosingto eatmore meats such as chicken or fish. Modern Food Industry The modernfoodindustryismade upofseveral different categories thattheywant the consumerto perceiveas 4 “healthier.”Yet,allofthese are justmarketingschemes in order to be ableto markupthe price just a littlebit. Organicfoodsare supposedtobe foodsthatare antibioticfree. But whatthe common consumerfailsto understandisthatthe producercannotplacea foodproductonthe market ifit containsanytraces ofantibiotics. GeneticallyModifiedOrganismorGMO productshavebeena huge controversyfor a while.A GMOis an organismthathas beenchanged geneticallyusinggeneticengineeringtechniques. Thisis usedto make foodslast longer,taste better, anddevelop faster.However,there is a bigdebateoverwhetheror notthe productsthatare geneticallymodifiedaresafe to consume. Local foodmarkets,such as farmer’s markets,“Farm to table,” andcommunity-sponsoredagricultureareallverypopularinthe foodindustryrightnowas well.Most consumersthinkthat buyingfoodsandproductsthatare “locallygrown” is more beneficialandhealthierbecausetheyare nottreatedwithall theseharshchemicals andwhatnot.However,the USDA does notconsiderlocal thesame way we do.To them,local can be anythingwithina400-mile radius. In the consumer’smind,free-range andgrass-fed are alsotwo thingsthatare good tolookoutfor.Free-range is definedas an animalthatisallowedto roamfree or not kept locked upin any sort ofcontainment.Buttothe USDA,thissimplymeans thatthe animalmightbe in a pinor cage where there haveenoughroom to turnaroundandthat’sit.Grass-fedis a term thatpeoplelike to hearbecause theythinkthatthe cow or whatever theyare purchasingwas fed solelyongrass throughoutitslifetime. Therefore,the possibilityofthe cow beinggiven antibioticsor hormonestomake it grow andfattenup fasteris not there.Yet again,the USDA doesn’twant theconsumer to knowthatthis doesnot alwaysmean thecow never received anykindof antibioticsoranything. 5 Today’sfoodindustryhasa prettyhigh sustainabilityrate. Sustainabilityistheabilitytomaintainproduction. TheLand-Grant System In 1862, AbrahamLincolnestablishedtheU.S.Departmentof Agriculture.At thistime, theMorrillLand-GrantCollegeAct was alsoestablished.Thisactputin placethe constructionof68 colleges,at leastonein each state.The purposewas to teach agriculturewithoutexcludingotherstudyareassuch as science andmilitarytactics topromoteeducationofthe industrial classes. In 1887, the Hatch ExperimentStationActgavestates federal landgrantsto developexperimentstationsforresearch in agriculture. In 1914, the Smith-Lever Act establishedtheextensionservices system to helpbetterinformthe ruralcitizensaboutagricultural developments. The purposeofthe modernland-grantareto furthereducate peopleaboutthepurposeandbenefitsofagriculture,to be able to continueresearchstudies,andtoupdatethepublicaboutthe differentdevelopmentsinagricultureaswell as publicpolicy. Livestock Species and Terminology Definitions:From theBeginning Animal– A livingorganismthathas sensationsandthepowerto exhibitvoluntarymovements.Thisorganismrequiresoxygen andorganicfoodsthatprovidethenecessarynutrientsand energyrequiredfor survival. Science – The systematicstudyofnaturalandphysical phenomenainorderto discoverthe lawsand principles surroundingthosephenomena. 6 AnimalScience – Thesystematicstudyofdomesticated creaturesthat are usedas a benefitto humansocietyinorder to discoverthe laws andprinciplesgoverningtheirexistence. Species A primaryfocus will be livestocksuch as cattle (dairy,beef), swine, sheep,andhorses. A secondaryfocus will be somelivestocksuch as poultry (chicken,turkey),goats,exoticanimals,andaquaculture,or marinelife. Terminology Cattle Group Herd Adjective Bovine Genus &species Bos taurus or Bos indicus (eared) Act of Parturition Calving General Term for Young Calf Young Male Bull Young Female Heifer Mature Male Bull Mature Female Cow Castrated Male Steer OtherTerms Bullock– A malebovinethatis less than20monthsold Heiferette – A female cow thathas given birthbutdidnotnurse the calf. *Theseare feedlot terms. 7 Swine Group Herd Adjective Porcine Genus &species Sus scrofa Act of Parturition Farrowing General Term for Young Pig Young Male Boar Young Female Gilt Mature Male Boar Mature Female Sow Castrated Male Barrow Sheep Group Flock Adjective Ovine Genus &species Ovis aries Act of Parturition Lambing General Term for Young Lamb Young Male Ram Lamb Young Female EweLamb Mature Male Ram Mature Female Ewe Castrated Male Wether Horse Group Band/Herd Adjective Equine Genus &species Equuscaballus Act of Parturition Foaling General Term for Young Foal Young Male Colt Young Female Filly Mature Male Stallion Mature Female Mare 8 Castrated Male Gelding Equine:OtherTerms Jack – Maledonkey Jennet – Female donkey Mule – Jack + Mare Hinny – Stallion+Jennet Stud– Stallion;astudcan alsobe a placewhere male horsesare kept. OtherTerms and Symbols Stag– A male thathasbeen castratedafterreachingsexualmaturity. Thisterm can be used to refer to cattle,sheep,andswine. Male Female Castrated Male Types ofLivestock Operations Purebred orSeedstock Producers Purebred– Ananimalthatis theresultof unmixedbreedingandis ableto be registered. Seedstock – An animalorgroup ofanimalsusedfor breeding purposes,generallyfor commercialoperations.Theseanimalscanbe purebredorcrossbred. These producersgenerallywillbreed animalsveryselectivelyto ensurethattheyget themost valuableoffspringpossible.Theyoften sellthe reallyvaluableanimalsortheirsemen/ovaries. 9 These particularproducersareconsideredtobe the“genetic engineers”ofthelivestockindustry. Commercialproducerstendto raiselivestockmore for human consumption.Theytypicallyraiselivestockfor slaughterordairy products.Mostof thelivestockinthe countryfall intothiscategory becausetheyare notusuallypurebred.Theyare more oftenfull- blooded(unmixedancestry)orcrossbred.Most oftheseanimalsdo notmeet the qualificationstoberegistered. Beef Industry Country Number ofCattle (million head) Brazil 213 India 211 U.S. 93 China 83 Ethiopia 53 World Total 1,426 State Number ofCattle (1,000 head) Texas 3,910 Missouri 1,820 Oklahoma 1,805 Alabama(#15) 671 10 Dairy Industry Country Number ofCattle Country Milk Production (million head) (million tons) India 45 U.S. 81 Brazil 23 India 52 China 12 China 33 Ethiopia 11 Brazil 29 Pakistan 10 RussianFederation 28 World Total 260 World Total 557 State Number ofCattle (1,000 head) California 1,780 Wisconsin 1,270 New York 610 Alabama(#43) 9 Swine Industry Country Number ofSwine (million head) China 465 U.S. 66 Brazil 39 Germany 27 RussianFederation 17 World Total 967 State Number ofSwine (1,000 head) Iowa 20,500 NorthCarolina 8,700 Minnesota 8,000 Alabama(#30) 85 11 Sheep Industry Country Number ofSheep (million head) China 39 India 74 Australia 73 Iran 49 Sudan 39 World Total 1,094 State Number ofBreeding Ewes (1,000 head) Texas 440 California 265 Wyoming 225 Utah 225 Alabama Not Reported HorseIndustry Country Horses Country Donkeys &Mules (million head) (million head) U.S. 10 China 9 China 7 Ethiopia 7 Brazil 6 Mexico 6 Mexico 4 Pakistan 5 Argentina 3 Egypt 3 World Total 58 World Total 54 12 State Number ofHorses (1,000 head) Texas 979 California 698 Florida 500 Alabama(#30*) 187* PoultryIndustry Species Country Product Poultry Broilers (milliontons) U.S. 15.5 China 10.5 Brazil 10.4 Turkey(milliontons) U.S. 2.4 Brazil 0.44 Germany 0.42 Eggs (billioneggs) China 478 U.S. 92 India 63 Modern Livestock Industries:A CloserLook TheBeef Industry Types ofBeef CattleProducers Commercialproducersbreedandraise animalsspecificallyfor slaughterpurposes.Thereare severaltypes ofdifferentprocesses thatare used.A cow-calfoperatorwillraise a calffrom birthup untilitis weaned. Stocker-yearlingoperatorstakecare of them 13 from weaninguntiltheyreach a weight of600-850 pounds.A feedlotoperatorusesa methodofprovidingthecattlewith high energyfeed to achievea desirableslaughterweight. Purebredor seedstockoperatorsaresimilartothe cow-calf operators.However,theyprimarilyfocuson sellingbulls/heifersto commercial producersor purebredproducers.Iftheychoose to keep the bullor heifer,theymaysell thesemen/embryoofthe bull/heifer. Calving Calvinginterval– a 12-monthtime periodbetweenthe birthofa calfandthe birthofa followingcalffrom the same cow. Calf- cow operatorstendtohavebotha springcalvinggroupanda fall calvinggroup.Thisallowsthem to more opportunitiestosell cattle.Cattletendtohavea 60-daywindow,meaningthat the majorityofthem breedwithinthefirst 60 days ofthecalving season. Weaning-to-feedlot Terms: Wean9/15 Average DailyGain Finish924lb Dry 500lb Or ADG = 2.0lb (14.0 mo.old) Open (7 mo.old) For 212 days Wet Weaning-to-grass-to-feedlot Start grazing10/18 Go tofeedlotMay 1 Market Sept.15 500 lb (8mo.old) 812 lb 1226 lb For 195 days For 138 days (19.0 mo) ADG = 1.6lb (+312 lb) TheDairy Industry 14 The dairyindustryishighlyspecializedinproduction,processing, anddistributionofdairyproducts.Theyhavea majorinvestment in cows because thisis themain sourceof theirdairysupply. Theyalsohavea huge investmentinthedifferentmachinery usedin the makingand productionofallthe differentproducts. Theyalsoinvestin barnsandparlorsforhousingandmilking purposes.Thedairyindustryactuallyrequiresmoretechnical skillthanthe otherlivestockindustries. In the U.S.,we haveanaverage of 135 cows used for milking. Farms haveanywherefrom 200 to 300 acres ofland.We havea decent marketthroughthe differentco-opsin the country. The numberofdairyherdshavegraduallybeendecreasingover the years.Thisis becausethe size ofthe herdsthatare still aroundareableto increase theirsize.With allofthe equipment aroundtoday,harvestingthedairyfrom thesecows can be done at a much faster rate.Anotherreasonfor thereductionofherds is becauseit requiresa large investment,upwardsof$500,000 to maintainadairyherd.Most ofthe herdsthatare stillaround tendto havepartnershipsinorderto receiveexternalfunding. The average numberofdairycows inthe U.S. is decreasing. However, themilkproductionfromeach cow is increasing.This is duelargelyto howthe cows are bred,fed, theirhealth,and managementpractices. The standardforreportingmilkproductionintheU.S. isas follows: 305 – day 2X ME 2X – Milktwice a day ME – Mature equivalentadjustment Mature– The cowmust be 5-8 years ofage the monthlactationbegins *Even though 305daysistheofficiallength oflactationfor reporting purposes,365can be reported and breed associationswillrecognize365daysfor reporting. 15 The yearlymilkproductionintheU.S. is placedintothree categories: Range:16,000 to 26,000 lbs Family:16,000 to 18,000 lbs (some> 20,000) Corporatedairy:27,000 to 29,000 lbs The average amountofdairyproducedaroundtheworldis 5,165 lbs. Evolution oftheDairy Industry In 1974, the record for 55,660 lbs oflactationina365-day milk productionreportwasset byHolsteininIndiana. In 1993, Holsteinin Missouriheldtherecord at 59,300 lbs.Their dailymilkproductionexceeded250lbs. In 1996, HolsteinnearWausau,Wisconsinproduced63,444lbs for a 365-daylactationperiod. Record DairyProduction In Februaryof 2010, Ever-Green-Viewin Waldo,Wisconsinset the record at72,170 lbsofmilkproducedwithMy 1326-ET. TheSwine Industry Types ofOperations The feeder-pigproductioniswhere the producermaintainsa breedingherd,produces,andsells pigs atan average of40 lbs. The feeder-pigfinishingis where theproducerbuys pigs and feeds them upto slaughterweight. The farrow-to-finishmethodiswherethe producermaintainsa breedof pigs.Thepigs are produced,raised,andfed upto slaughterweight onthe same farm. The purebred(orseedstock) operationiscloselyrelatedtothe farrow-to-finishmethodexceptboarsandgiltsare mainlybred for the finalproduct. 21-day Litter Weight 16 Thisis basedon thenumberof pigsthatare born andhowmany survive.Theremaybe 12 pigs bornthatcannotallfeed due to the large litter.Bythe time theyare weaned,10 pigs have survived. Large littersare notidealbecauseit provides thepossibilityof feeble pigsbeingborn.It is alsoharderfor a large litterto feed properly. There is alsoanindirectmeasureof thesow’s milkingability. Babypigsrely largelyon the milkoftheir motherfor the first 3 weeks oftheirlives.Theirintestinesarenotfullydeveloped enoughto handleadryfooddiet.As a result,babypigs are usuallynotweaneduntil3weeks ofage.Theyare usually startedouton a lowamountofcreep feed at 1-2weeks ofage. Thishelpsto avoidtheweaningprocessto be such a shockto the pigs.It alsoallowstheirintestinestoproperlydevelopand adaptgraduallytothedryfoods. Theirimmunesystem is alsovery week at3 weeks ofage. In the last25 years,thenumberof hogsin the U.S.has slowly decreased.The numberofhogfarms has alsodecreased. However, theporkproductionhasshownanincreaseat the same time. Thismight be becausethe productioncosthasgone downas the numberofhogs producedper farm hasincreased. Future? Markets willprobablycontinuetoshareincreasestowardslarge producers.Theywillnot be abletoavoidthe increased pressuresfrom groupssurroundingenvironmentalandanimal welfare. TheSheep and Goat Industries Goatsandsheepare very closelyrelatedto one another.The havetwo distinctGenusandspeciesnames: Ovis aries (sheep) Caprahircus(goat) 17 Theyalsodiffer inthe numberofchromosomesthateach of them contain.Asheep contains54whilea goat contains60. A sheep’stailhangs downandis docked mostofthe time. The tailofa goat pointsupward. Whattheyeat differsgreatlyas well.Goatsare browsersand will eatthingslike leaves,twigs,andbushes.Sheep are grazers andeat mostlyshort,tendergrass. We use bothgoats andsheepfor differentproducts suchas fiber, milk,hides,andmeat. Theyare veryresourcefulandeffective in developingcountries. TheSheep Industry Types ofOperations One type ofoperationusedinthesheep industryisa farmflock. Thisis generallya purebredandcommercial operation.Theyare generallylocatedin theMidwest andWest Coastpartofthe country.Most ofthe farms havelessthan50 head.However, it is possibleforsome to have100-150 head.Thesetypes of operationsusuallyraisemorelambsandewe thanrange flocks do. A range flock is anothertypeof operationthatisusuallylocated in thewest inplaces such asTexas,California,andUtah.This particularoperationaccountsforabout80%ofthe sheep populationintheU.S.Most farms haveover 1,000 headwhich some havingover5,000. A feedlotis sometimesusedbutis not a large industryforsheep. These operationsareprimarilylocatedinColorado,Texas, California,Oregon,Kansas,andWyoming.Manyofthese farms haveover1,000 head. In most ofthe westernranges,lambsare readyandavailablefor slaughteratweaning. In the sheepindustry,thereis a large lossdue to weather, disease,andpredators. 18 TheHorseIndustry Changein HorseNumbers In the early1900s, there were about25millionhorsesbeing usedfor variousaspects.WorldWarI helpedtoincrease the needfor motor-poweredequipmentwhichreplacedtheneed for horses.As a result ofthis,the numberofhorsesdroppedto about3millionby1960. Today,there are about9millionheadin the U.S. Most ofthe horsestodayare usedmore for riding,showing, racing,andcattle work. On average, a mature quarterhorseshouldweighabout1,100 lbs.Atweaning,thehorse shouldabout500lbs withan average dailyweight gain (ADG)of1.75 lbs.A yearlingshouldbe somewhere around750lbsor 900 lbs at24 monthswithan ADG of.75 lbs. Mechanizationhaschangedthehorseindustrybecauseithas virtuallyeliminatedtheneedfor manuallaborfromhorsesby replacingthem withmachinery.It hasalsogiven those horse owners more timeand moneyto spendonthem. Horses are generallyowned bythoseindividualswhoarewell educated,generallyin a middletoupper-classincomebracket, andare middleaged. There are around5millionpeopleinvolvedinthehorseindustry. In thisindustry,3.5% ofconsumerspendingisfor recreational purposes(ex.Riding,racing). There is nolonger a horseslaughterindustryintheU.S. The last reportofslaughterrecords for horsesrecorded in2007 was right at 100,000 head.Horse meatwas usedfor humanandpet consumption.However,the slaughterindustrylostitsfunding becauseof concernsaroundneglect andabuseofthe animals. Evolution ofMeat PackingIndustry 19 In the 1600s, thelocal meatmarkets were locatedin Colonial America. Bythe 1800s, the U.S.was saltingand“packing”porkproducts for Europe.In 1865, the Stockyard,a meat-packingfacility, openedupin Chicago.By 1870, therewere alsoplantsopening up inChicago. The early1900s exhibitedlittlechange.Butin 1950, meat processing“locally”incities startedto decline.Thiswas due to obsoletestructure,interstatehighways,andrefrigerationin trainsandtrucks.Thisallowedmeat tobe able tobe transported withoutthefear ofit ruining. Evolution ofMarketing Methods Beef A traditionalmarketfor beefis where venderswouldbuythe meat carcasses andprocess theproductthemselves. A more modernpractice involvestheretailerbuyingthe meat as “boxedbeef” where it hasalreadywhen throughaprocessing unit. OtherSpecies The swineand poultryindustrieshavemergedtogether. FutureChanges in Livestock Industries World The changes inthe industryaredrivenbychanges in theglobal economyandpopulation.Theremayalsobe anincrease in productionintheformer SovietUnion. USA There are more customfeedingmethodsbeingbroughtintothe industryinthe mid-west. Environmentalissuesmaybegin tobringforthproblemsinthe industry. 20 Healthconcerns are a factor in the industryalso.All the informationswirlingaroundaboutredmeats,GMOs,organic foods,andmore havepeoplequestioningeverythingthatthey eat. The “localfood”movementwill probablycontinuetogrow in the future.Peoplelike the ideaofknowingwhere theirfood comes from, even thoughtheirdefinitionoflocalandthe USDA’s definitionaretotallydifferent. Nova ScienceNow (Video) https://youtu.be/j-CAhALUBvk Why areanimals so smart? Thisvideowas solelyfocusedon animalintelligenceand observinghowtheything. In the beginningofthevideo,we are introducedtoChaser,a 6- year-oldbordercollie,who seems to be a littlebrighterthan your average dog.Her ownertells us thatshehas 1,000 toys that she can distinguishbetweenandknowsthenamesof. In the video,the hostputher to severaltrials,each time pickingout toys from thepile where neitherthedognor the ownercould see what he hadchosen.He placed allofthe toysbehindthe couch,calledout thenames ofthetoys he wantedChaserto go fetch,andshe wouldbringbackeach toycorrectly100% ofthe time. He thendecidedto putchaser to anothertestbybringingin a toythatChaserhasnever seen before, a stuffedCharlesDarwin doll,thathe referred to as“Darwin.” He placedit behindthe couch with some ofChaser’stoysthatshe knewand toldherto go find “Darwin.”It tookChasera littlelongerto come upwith a toy,butshe broughtthetoythatshe didnotrecognize, being the Darwindoll.Theythinkthatshe usedprocess ofelimination byobservingallthe toys sheknew andpairinga namethatshe hadnever heardwith a toythatshe didnotrecognize. 21 The theorybehindwhyChaseris sosmart is dueto a gene discoveredbyresearchers studyingdoggenomes.Thisparticular gene, called CTNND2,is animportantgenein humansfor cognitivedevelopment.Thebordercolliebreed showsselective breedingfor thisspecificgenome. BrianHare is a primateresearcherthatwe are introducedto.He works with chimpsandbonobosperformingtestsonthem. One particulartesthe usesis a test thatis usedon smallchildren between12 and18 monthsoldwhere anotherindividualpoints in thedirectionthattheywant the childto go or lookandthe childrespondsbygoing inthatdirection.Hare hada very difficulttimegettinghis chimpsto do thistask.Dogs, however, will performthe taskwithno problem.Briansuspectsthateven thoughchimpshavelarger brainsthandogsandare more closelyrelatedtohumansgenetically,dogs’social intelligenceis closer to ours. These theoriesbroughtaboutthedevelopmentofdogcognition labswhich are usedto helpdeterminehowdogs thinkandwhy theirmindsare shapedtheway theyare.Scientistsbelievethat the waydogs’mindsare shapedoriginatedwiththeirevolution from wolves. Wolveshavea much more violentsociallife.Even wolves that havebeenbroughtupandraisedby humanscanbecome violent towardsthem iftheydecidethattheyhavea disputewiththe human.Theyare much more emotionallyreactivetowards humansthandogs. At some pointduringtheirdomesticationprocess,dogswere shapedduringseveralthousandyearstobe ableto readour socialquesto better survivewith humans.Dogs tendto havea betteremotionaltolerancewhichallowsthemto payattention to humans. 22 A common disputeiswhetheror not animalsarejustobeying commandsor iftheyhavesomekind ofa deeperunderstanding. One ofthe biggest challengesfor animalresearchersis to come up withtests thatcan distinguishbetweenthetwo. DougHamiltontestedthistheorywith a set ofdolphinsina Caribbeancove.Hamiltonstatedthatabig challenge researchers face when assessingthe intelligenceofdolphinsis thattheirunderwaterworldis very differentfrom ours. Hamiltondidanexperimentwiththe dolphinswherehetooka plasticdivingringandburiedit inthe sandoutsideofthe dolphins’enclosure.Thedolphinwasabletolocate thering easilybyusingecholocation.Echolocationislikea radar tothe dolphin.Theyareableto detect an objecteasilyeven ifthey cannotsee it becausetheycan producea soundthatwillbounce offthe objectand come backto them. There was anotherexperimentperformedonthedolphins where theywere instructedtocreate togetherin orderto see if theycouldcommunicateandcome up with a trickalltheir own. Underwatercameras recordedthe dolphinsappearingto communicatewitheach otherthroughvariousclicks and squeals.Whenthedolphinsemergedoutofthe water, they swam on theirbacks andflippedtheirtalesupwardsoutofthe water.The dolphintrainerexpressedthatshehadnever seem them dothisbefore. Elephantsanddolphinshaveself-awareness.Theyare ableto recognize themselvesina mirror andpinpointdifferenceson theirexterior(ex.The elephantshownwithan “X” on her head). Jake Wardworked withanimalswho specializeincamouflage like cephalopods.Thecephalopodsarereferred to asthe “Einsteinsofmollusks.”The onesthatare focused on inthis videoare the cuttlefish,squid,andoctopi. 23 Octopi havevery large brains.Rubyis anoctopusthatwas introducedinthevideoas beingableto thinkandproblem solve.He was given a jar thathasa twist offlidcontaininga shrimpon theinside.In the beginning,hewouldtwist thelid the wrongway andtightenit.Eventually,hefiguredoutthe correct wayto twist the lid.He haslearnedhowto twistoffthe lid,get the shrimpout,andputthe lidbackon. Cephalopodsusecamouflageasa way to avoidpredators.The camouflagemechanismis controlledbythe brain.Theoctopus can transformitsshape,texture,color, andpatterninabout 7/10 ofa second.This is controlledbyindividualneuronsinthe brainthattraveldirectlyto the skinthat can sometimesbe the lengthofa meter anddonot containsynapsesthatallowsitto camouflageto anysurface andbackground. The biologicalprinciplecalledparsimonyiswhatresearchers relateto the octopi’sabilitytodothisprocess so rapidlywithout havinga brainthe sizeof a supercomputer.Parsimonyis an idea thatnaturalworksout efficient,simpleways to accomplish complextasks. Guidedbythisprinciple,themarine biologistwhofollowedthe octopusdecidedtostudycuttlefishaswell.He focusedon the patternoftheircamouflage.The cuttlefishsimplifytheirchoices byusingthree patterntypes:uniform,mottled,anddisruptive. Uniform– verylittlecontrast Mottled– lightand darkbitsof contrast Disruptive– a lot ofcontrast To controlthearea andcontrastthe cuttlefishareexposedto, theyare placedagainstbackgroundstheywouldnever encounterinthe wild.Witheach background,thecuttlefish exhibitseachofthe threeforms of camouflage.The animalis 24 ableto use itsbrainto measurethe amountofcontrastin the surroundingareaandaltersits skin toa similarcontrast. Theyuse theirbrainsfor othertaskssuch as planningand shelter. A particularmalecuttlefishidentifyingasSepia apamawillnot allowothermales neartheir mates.Thisbrings aboutatype of strategyinthe male attemptingtoget near the female.Theyare actuallyableto camouflagethemselvesas femaleswhich allows them toslip pasttheunsuspectingmaleon guard andhave access tothe female.In a studythatwas performed onthis particularmatingprocedure,halfofthemale cuttlefishdisguised as femalesgot through.In fiveofthoseobservedmating attempts,two achievedsuccessfulfertilizations. Alexwas a veryintelligentbirdthatwasraisedbyDr. Irene Pepperberg.She beganteachingAlexthe nameofdifferent objects.She developedtrainingmethodforAlexcalled the model/rivaltechniquetohelpteachhim.Thiswas a processof havingthe objectthatthe birdwanted,showingitto the student who was the modelfor the bird’sbehavior(rival),andshewould give thecorrect responseandscratch herselfmuch like the bird would.Dr. Pepperbergwouldpraisethestudentfor thecorrect actionsandanswer, whichwoulddrawAlex’s attentiontoher andhowshe was responding.Thenthesame processwouldbe presentedtothe birdin orderto teach him.This processwas an 8-12 hour/dayprocess. Dr. PepperbergtaughtAlexbasedonhis naturalintelligencehe wouldhaveneededtosurviveinthe wild.She simplybuiltonit. By2007, Alexcouldcountto 8, differentiatebetweencolors, shapes,sizes,do simplemath,andhe knew over100 words.He was not onthe same languagelevel,but he was on thesame cognitivelevel as a 5-6-year-oldchild. On September6, 2007, Alexthe parrotdied. 25 Animal Behavior What is stockmanship? The art andscience ofhandlingcattleoranyotherfarm animal properly. Animalbehavior–A complexprocess thatinvolvestheinteractionof inherentabilitiesandlearnedbehavior. Inherent– Skills or traitsthatananimalis bornwith. Animalstendtobehavethe waytheydo as a resultofinstinct,habits, anddifferentmethodsofconditioning. Studying Animal Behavior Psychology – The scientificstudyofthehumanmindandhowit functions,primarilywithbehaviorandlearning. Ethology– The scientificstudyof animalbehavior. Learning Instinct– A fixed or set patternofbehavior,orreflex.Instinctbehavioris presentat birth. Habituation–The diminishingresponsetoa repeatedstimulus. Conditioning– Theprocess bywhich an animallearnstoconnect a stimulustoa behavioralresponse. Types ofConditioning Classical– Anassociationisdevelopedwhentwo stimuliarerepeatedly paired.Thisrelationshipisbetweenanunconditionedstimulusanda neutralstimulus.Anexampleofthiswouldbe Pavlov’s dogs.Thesedogs were trainedtosalivatewhentheyheardthe bellringbecausethe bell hadbeen presentedtothemrepeatedlywhen theywere given food. Theylearnedtoassociatethebell withtheir food. Operant– Ananimallearnstoperform the desiredbehaviordueto repeatedpositive/negativereinforcement.Anexampleofthiswouldbe a 26 cow beinginsidea perimeterfence thatemitsan electriccurrent.The cow willonlyhaveto touchthatfence onetime to receivethatshockand remember to steer clear ofit. Trialanderror – Ananimalwillattempteveryresponseit can thinkofto a stimulusuntilthepositivereinforcement.Anexampleofthiswouldbe teachinga dogto sit. ReasoningVS. Intelligence Reasoning– The abilitytorespondtoa stimulusthefirsttime it is presented;The abilitytositdown andassesswhat is beingasked, problem-solving. Intelligence– The abilitytolearnto adjustsuccessfullytochanging situations;learninghowto dowhat is beingaskingbyadjustingtothe alteringsituation. Imprinting– Newbornanimalsdevelopaspecialbondwiththeir initial caretaker (typicallythedam)throughmanydifferentprocesses.Visual, olfactory,and/orauditorystimulimaybe involved,dependingonthe species ofthe animals. Types ofAnimal Behavior Sexual Caregiving Care-soliciting Agnostic Ingestive Eliminative Shelter-seeking Investigate Allelomimetic Communication 27 Maladaptive Sexual Behavior Farmers findthatobservingthe breedingoffemales tobe useful.Cows in heatwill oftenallowthemselvesto be mountedbya bull.Thishelpsthe producersindicatewhichfemales shouldbebred. Vasectomizedrams havebeen foundtobe very usefulas well.Theywill stillidentifywhichewes are in heat. In horses,a teaser stallionisusedtohelp detectthe mares inheat.A ponyis walked bythemare to observe thereactiongiven from the pony. Thislets the farmer knowwhich maresare ready. Bullsare capableofbreedingmore thanonecow or developingan attachmenttoone specificcowand ignoringallthe othersinheat. Pheromones– Chemicalsubstancesreleasedfromthe animaltoattract the oppositesex.Cows,ewes, andmares are exhibitvaginalsecretion. Theyalsoproducepheromonesintheirurine.Bulls,rams,andstallions use theirnasalorgansto detect thesepheromones.Theywilloften perform whatis calledthe Flehmenresponsewhich is where the male animalwillliftits headandcurl the upperlip. In differentspecies,thefemales maybe receptiveofthe malesfor differentperiodsoftime.Cows are generallyin heatfor about12hours. A mare will be inheat for 5-7 days.The ovulationinamare occurs during the last24 hoursoftheircycle. Therefore,the best chance ofthe mare gettingpregnantisgenerallyonthe fifththroughthe seventhdayofthe cycle. Stallionswilltypicallyapproachthemarecautiouslyfromthe frontto avoidanysort ofinjury.Theywill squealandsniffto make sure the female is fullyreceptive.Mares thatare readywill squat,urinate,and vulvawinks. For artificialinseminationinbullsandstallions,theycanbe easilytrained to mountobjects.Farmers will oftenuse anartificialvagina,or phantom 28 mare,to collect thesemen from a stallion.Theyhavealsobeen knownto use restrainedsteersfor collection.Alternatively,theycan usea jump- mare,which is a mare thatis usedto coax the stalliontomountinorder to obtainthesemenartificially. Sexual Behaviorof Poultry The courtshipisbetweena male andfemale.If eitherindividualdoesnot give a response,thecourtshipdoesnotcontinue.Ifthereis a response given,after it develops,thefemale willrun from the rooster.Therooster thenchases the femaleuntilshe squats.Maleroosterscan sometimesbe very brutaltothefemales.Theycan pullouttheirfeathersor even bring bloodtothe female.Once the matingis done,semen is ejaculatedatthe cloaca,thecommon exitfor eggs andfeces, anddrawn intothe reproductivetract. Males can alsoexhibitpreferencesfor certainfemales whichcan posea problemwhentheyare in a penmatingsituation. Sex Drive and Fertility In most cases,littlerelationshipexistsbetweenlivestock. An extremesex drive presentin malesis notalways ideal.Peopleoften confusea highsex drivewitha high fertilityrate.In allactuality,ahigh ejaculationratewillreduce thenumberofsperm in each ejaculation. Havingan excessivenumberofmalesin a multiple-sireherdcanalso cause problems.It can offsetpoor breeders.There can alsobe anissue of socialdominanceinthatherd.Thiswillresultin dominantmalesmating excessivelywith readyfemales.The dominantbullswillhavealow fertilityrate whichcan leadtolowcalf-crop.Often,a clean-upbull,abull broughtinto tryto impregnatethe cows thatthe first bulldidnot,willbe used. Castration 29 Animalsexhibitprofoundbehavioralchangesuponbeingcastrated.It verifies theimportanceofhormonal-directedexpression.Intactmales tendto displaymoreaggression. Cryptorchidism–Retentionofone or bothtesticles. Caregiving Behavior An animal’scaregivingbehaviorcanoriginatefrom eitherthe sire or dam. Typically,thecaregivingnatureis maternallyoriented. A way thata motherimmediatelyexpressesthisbehaviorisaftershe has given birth.Motheranimalswilllicktheir offspringinorder to cleanit, stimulatebloodflow,andencouragethem tostandandnurse. Females can become veryaggressive in protectingtheiryoungshortly after givingbirth.Thisis whyit is very importanttopayclose attentionto newmothersbecause theirpost-parturitionbehaviorsareunknownand very unpredictable. There is typicallyastrongbondbetweena dam andher young.This is importanttorememberwhen tryingto takecare ofor approachthenew bornto helppreventanysortof injuryor attackfrom the mother. Youngpigs will feed onan ad libfeeder inorder to reduce nursingtime. Thisprovidesthemwith a foodsource thatis always obtainable. At some point,therewillbe a naturalreductioninthemilkproducedby the mother.However, withoutthestimulusofnursing,thiswill increase the rateof reduction. The naturalreductionoflactationencourages theyoungpigsto begin foragingfor theirown food.This iswhen the caregivingfrom the mother beginsto decline. Animalsareparticularabouttheirprocessofgivingbirth.Mostof the soon-to-bemotherslookfora safe, privateplaceto havetheir young. Cows willoften calveduringthe darkhoursof theday.Thishabitcan be alteredbyadjustingtheirfeedingtimebecause a cow willusuallygo begin thebirthingprocessonce she haseaten. 30 Care-Soliciting Behavior Younganimalstendtocry out for helpwhen theyfeel distressed, disturbed,orhungry.Different noisesthatcouldbe heardare bleats, bawls,squeals,andchips.Thisis a characteristicofadultanimalsaswell iftheyare understress. A female andher offspringknoweach other’svocal soundsandrecognize them verywell. A very effectiveway thata damwill recognize her offspringis byitssmell. The youngtend tonurse from theirmotherwith the rear endfear the female’s head.Thereasonfor this is becausea female can recognize the scent ofher milkpassingthroughtheyounganimal’sbody.Thisalso helpsthe animaltoaccept or reject differentyoungattemptingtonurse. Agonistic Behavior An animalwillalwaysprovidesome sortofreactionto the otheranimals or humansaroundit.Theywill ofteneither exhibitafight or flight reactionor aggressiveandpassivebehavior.Anyofthese behaviorscan be presentwhen physicalcontactis madewith anotheranimaloreven a producer. Thisis typicallyhowanimalsinteractwithoneanotheraswell as how theyinteractwithpeople.Most ofthisbehaviorcanbe very dependent on howan animal’sexperiencewitha previousstimulus,likehandlingor beingrestrained,turnedout. Males tendto showaggressivebehaviortowardsotherunfamiliarmales. Thatis a probleminfarm managementbecausemalesmust be separated duringbreedingseason.Once breedingseasonisover,theycan possibly be regroupedwith othermalesin a neutralarea.Keepingthe males separatedcanbecome a very costlyprocesson thefarmer. It is necessaryto keep themales separatefor multiplereasons.Oncethey begin fighting,theywillfight tillthe pointofexhaustioninmostcases. Theyare oftenfightingoverterritoryor females. Some usefultipsto helpkeep intactmales from becomingheatedisto introducethemto oneanotherinneutralterritory.Theyalso needto be 31 broughttogetherearlyinthe morningor late inthe eveningwhen the temperaturesarelower. 4 Stages of EstablishingSocial Dominance 1. Offense – Themale is very aggressive,readyto fight 2. Defense – Themale realizesthatthe opposingmaleisstronger so he beginstryingto protecthimselfand preventinjury 3. Escape – The male hasno waythathe can nowwin thisfight so he backs downand runsaway;sufficientspace is neededto escape 4. Passivity– Themale thatbacked downfrom the fight willalways act passivelyto thestronger malethatwon the fight Unfamiliarmalesareconsideredto be defeatedoncetheychoose to escape andwill assumepassivebehavior. Females alsoestablishapeckingorderbutwill fight lessintensely. Unfamiliarsowswill sometimesfightwith oneanother.Ewes are very passiveandgenerallydo notfight.Thisallowsthem to be ableto be groupedwith strangers. Younganimalswhoare raisedwith theirown species learnallofthese aggressiveandpassivebehaviorsfromobservingthe socialbehaviorof theirherd.Ifan offspring’scaregiver isexhibitingdominantbehavior, the youngwill tendto mimicthatbehavior.Ifa young,intactmaleis isolatedfromthe rest ofthe herd,he mayattackthe persontryingto handlehim. Horned cows will generallyoutrankpolledcowsin terms of dominance.Cowsare typicallydehornedjusttopreventinjuryamong theirexhibiteraswell as theirherd. A bigdeterminationofsocialrankis theage, size, strength,experience in theherd,andgenetics ofthe animal. Animalsthatfeedtogether usuallyconsumemorefoodthaniffed individually.Thisisa competitivenatureofthe animalsinorderto try to consumeas much foodas possiblesothe otheranimalsdon’teatit all.This can create a difficultsituationofanimalsinthelower ranks gettingtheirshareof feed.As a resultofthiscompetitivenature,the 32 more dominantanimals,especiallyincows,willgive birthtoheavier offspring. Some females withwithdrawalthemselvesfrom theherd when they are gettingreadyto give birth.Theydo thismostlyfor privacyand protectivereasons.However, allanimalstendtowithdrawalwhen theyare sick. Youcan observe ananimal’sposturetohelpinterpretthemoodand intentofthatanimal.Animalswillshowa certain dispositionbasedon howtheyhavebeen previouslyhandledandwellas theirgenetic makeup.Some producerswill actuallycull(removeor send ananimal to slaughter)someanimalsbasedontheirdisposition.Thishelpsthem to reduce theexcitabilityoftheirherd,removea threatofinjury,and preventanykindofeconomicloss. How well ananimalhandlesisbasedontheir temperament,size, previoushandlingexperience,andthefacilitydesign.Animals remember bothpositiveandnegativeexperiences.Positive experienceswillmake theanimaleasierto handle.Usinga calm, quiet handlingtechniquewillcauseless stress inthe animalyouare handling.Itwill alsobe aneasier processif theanimalis acclimatedto peoplemovingquietly. Understandinghowananimalbehavesandreacts to different situationsandstimulicanpreventinjury,unduestress,andphysical exertionfor allthatare involved.Remember:your approach influenceshowtheyrespond. Ingestive Behavior Thisis the behaviorthatisexhibitedwhenanimalseatanddrink. Ruminantswillswallowtheirfoodas soonas it is lubricatedwith saliva. Ruminate– regurgitatefeed for chewing (cud) Cattlecan have300-400 boluses(massofchewed food)/day Theydonot graze toofar awayfrom theirwater source. 33 Theyalsotendto overgraze nearwater areas The fencingaroundthefacilityandothermanagementstrategiescan alterthe animal’sbehaviorandmovementpatterns. Ex.Placingsaltawayfrom water EliminativeBehavior Thisparticularbehaviorisdifferentamongcertainanimals.Cattle, sheep,goats,chickens willdefecate indiscriminately.Pigs tendto defecate inspecificareas ofthe pin.Horses will oftendefecate on otherhorse pilestocover uptheir scent. Theytendto defecate more frequentlywhentheyare stressedor excited.Livestock can losea minimumof3% oftheir liveweight when theyare beingtransported.The“shrink,”or weight loss usuallyoccurs duringthe firsthour oftransportation.Thiscanbe reducedbycareful handlingpracticesandreductionofstress. Shelter-Seeking Behavior Shelter-seekinghabitsisanotherfactorthatvaries betweenspecies.If the weatheris hot,cattle andsheepwill seekshelterin shadyareasfor rest andrumination.Pigsprefer more wet areas for theirshelterfrom the heat. If theweather is cold,pigs will crowd againstone anotherforwarmth. There havebeen instanceswherepigs will huddletogethersotightly thatsome ofthem willsmother.Trees can pose a threatin more dangerousweatherbecauselighteningcan strikethem. Investigative Behavior Pigs, goats,andhorses alltendto be verycuriousanimals.Theywill investigatenewobjectsthatappeartopose nothreatto them. They usuallyapproachtheobjectcautiously,sniffingastheyget closer.That very sameobject mayinstillcuriosityorfear anothertimein that animaldependingonthe circumstances. Sheep tendto be more timid.Theyget excitedvery easilyandwill run awayfrom most anything. 34 Allelomimetric Behavior Animalsofa specific speciestendto do thesame thingatthe same time. Theywillgraze, gatherat the wateringhole,followeach other, andruminatetogether. Thisis an effectiveway for producerstoobserve theirherd’sbehavior. It helpsthem to identifyanystrangebehaviorsor odditiesinthe group. Thisis alsovery usefulfor movinganimalsofa herd from oneplace or pasturetoanother. OtherBehaviors Communication–Informationexchangedbetweenindividualanimals Animalsdohavecommunicationbetweeneach other.Theycan communicatewiththe differentsenses suchas sight,sound,and scent.Scent is the most commonform of communicationbetween animals. Maladaptivebehaviors–abnormalbehaviors Maladaptivebehaviorscanarisefrom poormanagementpracticesof the animals. Pigs andswine are two speciesthatneed plentyofspace intheir pins. If theyare too crowded,theycan begin to exhibitcannibalismand each othermembers oftheirgroups. Horses are creatures thatneedplentyofspace androom to move. Theydon’tlikebeingkept ina stallthatis barelybigger thantheyare allthe time. Theycan beginto start“cribbing”or otherstallvices. Cribbing– aninjuringhabitwhere a horsebitesonto differentpartsofthe stall,breathesin,andswallowsair. Thisprocess actuallyreleasesendorphinsinthehorse’s brainmuch likethatof a personusinghardnarcotics. These habitsinhorsesare much easierto preventthantheyare to break. 35 Animal Welfare Definitions Cruelty– showingindifferencetoor pleasureinanother’spainor suffering;cruelty,neglect,andabusecan occur at the same time;one doesnot outweightheother Neglect – failingto provideananimalwithvitalrequirementssuchas food,water, or shelter;thismaybe intentionalorunintentional Abuse– willfullystrikingor harmingan animal Deprivation–limitingananimal’saccess to one or more basicneeds such as water, food,shelter,movement,socialinteraction,etc. Speciesism– A prejudiceor biastowardthe interestofmembersof one’sown species. Vivisection– actionofoperatingor experimentingonliveanimals. Anthropomorphism–attributinghumanemotions,needs,thoughts, behaviors,ormotivationstoanimals;ananimal’sneedsmaynotbe the same as ours;it is importanttorememberto knowwhat the animalneedsandtreatthem basedontheir needsnotours Continuumof Beliefs Beliefs Animal Exploitation Animalsexistsolelyfor humanuse. Activitiesor proceduresthatcausepainor deathare acceptableunder allcircumstances. Theyoftenpromoteandparticipateinactivitiesthatareillegalin manyareassuch as dogfighting,cock fighting,“canned”hunts,etc. Cannedhunt– ananimalkeptin a cage andreleasedintoa smallarea in orderto hunt. Theybelievethattheycan dowhatever theywantwith animalsand it’s notwrong. 36 Animal Use Animalsexistprimarilyforhumanuse. Man hasa responsibilitytocare for andmanage animalsina waythat minimizesanypainsandsuffering. Theyfocus onenforcingexistinganimalwelfarelaws. Theyare advocatesinfavor ofhunting,fishing,zoos,rodeos,livestock production,etc. We shouldmakesure the animalisbeingcared for but we can stilldo mostlywhat we wantwith them. Animal Control Theystriveto enforce laws affectinganimaluseandwelfare. Peoplebehindthisare usuallygovernmentagenciesor organizations. Theyare bigadvocatesfor spayingandneuteringofpets. These groupssupportanimaluseinresearch. Theythinkit’sokayto huntas longas rules andregulationsare followed. Animal Welfare Humanshavea dutyto ensureanimalsare cared for in a humane manner. Caretakersare responsibleforbeingpro-activein addressingpotential healthandphysicalissuesofanimals. Theybelievethatwe havea dutyto make surethat animalsare maintainedaswellas possible. Theyencouragethe enforcementofexistinglaws andstandards,push for newlaws,andfight for changes in existinglawsto be made when deficienciesare found. Theybelievethatwe shouldactivelyprovidecarefor animalssuffering from neglect and/orabuse. These groupsare supportersofspaying,neutering,andeuthanization ofanimals. We shouldminimizetheamountofsufferingas much as possible. 37 Animal Welfare – AVMA Definition How ananimalcopes withits livingconditions. The animalshouldbe“healthy,comfortable,well-nourished,safe,and ableto expressinnatebehavior.” The animalsshouldnotbesufferingfrom “unpleasantstatessuchas pain,fear, or distress.” Proper animalwelfarerequiresveterinarytreatment,disease prevention,humanehandling,appropriateshelter,management, nutrition,andhumanslaughter. Peopleare responsibleforensuringtheanimalsreceiveallthe proper care. The AVMA definitionisalittleinaccuratebecauseeveryone’s definitionsofthosewords are different It is our responsibilityasmanagerstoensurethatwe are providingall the necessarycare. Animal Rights Animalsshouldhavethesamerights as humansandequalstanding underthe law. These peopleareopposedtothe useof animalsforsport,research, humanconsumption,oranyotherpurposethatbenefitshumans. Theyfocus onlobbyingfor laws tolimitor eliminatehumanuseof animals. Groupsthatfallunderthiscategoryare the Human Societyofthe UnitedStates(HSUS), People for the EthicalTreatmentofAnimals (PETA),andMercy for Animals. Peoplethatsupportthisare opposedofthe useof animals for entertainmentsuchaszoos,circuses,etc. Theybelievepetsand service animalsarenotokay. HSUS has noaffiliationwithlocalhumanesocieties. 38 Animal Rights – PETADefinition “Animalrightsmeans thatanimalsdeservecertainkindsofconsideration– considerationofwhat is intheir bestinterests,regardlessofwhetherthey are ‘cute’, usefulto humans,oran endangeredspeciesandregardlessof whetheranyhumancares aboutthemat all(just as a mentallychallenged humanhasrights even ifhe or she is notcute or usefulor even ifeveryone dislikeshimor her). It means recognizing that animals arenot ours to use – for food,clothing, entertainment,orexperimentation.” Animal Liberation No animalsshouldbeowned,used,or possessedbya humanfor any purpose. These groupssupporttheuseof violenceinorder to achievetotal animalliberation. Some ofthese groups,such as the AnimalLiberationFront(ALF),are classifiedbytheFBI as domesticterroristorganizations. These groupsare extremists. Theyhavebeen knownto burnbuildingscontainingresearchlabsand even murderresearch scientists. PETA fundsthe ALF. PublicPerception ofAnimal Agriculture Beef Swine Dairy Poultry Horses Handling Gestration Lameness Housing/cages Training techniques crates Techniques Castration Housing
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