SOCL 2001 Section 6 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
SOCL 2001 Section 6 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE SOCL 2001
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristy Trahan on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Kazi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 236 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Most of the major terms/people and definitions will be on here. Chapter 1 Main Terms and Ideas Sociology- the scientific study of social relationship, social institutions, and society o Latin roots: Socius and Logos Sociological perspective operates on two levels o Macro- society level (“Big Picture”); war, unemployment rates o Micro- individual level; unemployment worker, social problems with a veteran Major Sociological Perspectives o Functionalism (macro)- government, prisons, etc. View of society: society consists of interdependent parts, each fulfilling certain functions Concepts: structure, dysfunctions, and manifest and latent function o Conflict Theory (macro)- hidden frustrations Developed from the perspective of political science Views conflicts as inevitable and natural and as a significant cause of social action and social change View of society: conflict between diverse groups within society competing for valuable resources Concepts: social class, bourgeoisie, proletariat, scarce resources o Exchange Theory (micro)- in terms of relationships/ profit and cost Developed from economic perspective Theoretical perspective that social action is a result of continuous exchange of resources between individuals based on rational calculation Deal with love, power, friendship, and trust View of society: actions are determined by weighing rewards and costs Concepts: exchanges, rewards, power, equity, fairness o Symbolic Interactionism (micro)- verbal and nonverbal cues Developed from social psychology View of society: stresses interactions between people and the social processes that occur within the individual that are made possible by language and internalized meanings Concepts: gestures, symbols, communication, self, etc. AUGUST COMTE o Credited with being the father of sociology (coined the term ‘sociology’) o Law of Human Progress- states that each of our leading conceptions, each branch of our knowledge, all human intellectual development, passes through three different theoretical conditions Theological or fictitious Physical or abstract Scientific or positive o Developed the concept that society was an ’organism’ Society had a structure consisting of many interrelated parts, and it evolved from simple to more complex forms (like plants and animals) SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan HEBERT SPENCER o Theory of Social Evolution- believed that human societies pass through an evolutionary process similar to the process Darwin explained in his theory of natural selection Coined the term “survival of the fittest” First to believe that human societies evolved according to the principles of natural laws and those that can’t adapt and compete eventually die KARL MARX o Socialist theorist/ contributor to economic thought o Believed social conflict (struggle and strife) was at the core of society, the source of all social change o Believed political revolution was a vital necessity in the evolutionary process of society and the only means to achieve the improvement of social conditions o Economic Determinism: all societal changes are based on economic factors EMILE DURKHEIM o Suicide- book he wrote; central thesis was that the more a person is integrated into social groups (the more friends they have), the less likely they are to commit suicide MAX WEBER o Concept of Verstehen is a vital tool for academic and applied social researchers Goal was to get a “sympathetic understanding” Understanding human action by examining the subjective meanings that people attach to their own behavior and to the behavior of others o Argued that social class involves subjective perceptions of power, wealth, ownership, and prestige Chicago School o After WWII, developed this as a way to approach social psychology o Leading figures: Charles Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead, W I Thomas o Leading sociological and research center until the 1940s Research shifted to Harvard and Columbia (Talcott Parsons) Chapter 2 Main Terms and Ideas Components of Scientific Theory o Concepts (dollars) o Variables (how much you earn) A concept that has more than two degrees or values Concept: dollars, Variable: level of income Concept: marriage history, Variable: years married Level of income and years married can vary, however dollars and marriage history are constant o Proposition- ‘social activity is related to student grades’ A statement about the nature of some phenomenon o Hypothesis- when the proposition is formulated in a way that can be tested Hypothesis is derived from the proposition- ‘Students who attend more than one social activity per week have higher grade point averages than those who do not SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan o Theory (you can test it) A set of logically interrelated propositions that explains some process or set of phenomena in a testable fashion Standards of Scientific Inquiry o 1. Objectivity- to be biased free; religious, political, or racial beliefs shouldn’t affect results o 2. Replication- research should be conducted in such a way that someone else can duplicate it (another way to make sure there is no bias) similar subjects and measuring procedures under similar conditions o 3. Precision of Measurement- phenomenon being studied should be measured in precise, reliable, and valid ways an ability to test or study anything (height, a religious practice, or a theory) is in large part dependent on the ability to measure it accurately Types of Sociological Research o Descriptive (HOW)- reliability and validity Describes social reality or provides facts about the social world o Explanatory (WHY)- independent variable, dependent variable, intervening variable, and control variable More concerned with causation and why things happen Independent variable- variable that is presumed to cause an effect Causes of child abuse (stress, parents’ own abuse experiences) Dependent variable- variable affected by the independent variable The abuse itself Intervening variable Father’s income positively affects son’s income o Through education Father’s high income helps son achieve his educational goals, which in turn helps the son’s high income The son’s income would be the intervening variable Control variable Verbal communication (independent) is critical with spouses the more communication, the more marital satisfaction (dependent) marital satisfaction may be stronger among wives than husbands, making gender the control variable o Evaluation- measures how well a program or project works in relation to its goals Sociological Research Methods o 1. Qualitative Observational research: laboratory, field, and participant observations Researcher watches what is happening and makes no attempt to control, modify, or influence the ongoing activity How did this happen? (conditions and processes) Because of this policy, this and this happened o 2. Quantitative Survey research: systematically asking people about their attitude, ideas, feelings, opinions, etc. More based on quantity/amount SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan o 3. Experimental Design Another method- secondary analysis Can take a newspaper and research something like how a hurricane was covered in the media and the recent Louisiana flood was not Some argue that this is not good for sociological inquiry Research process steps 1. Question/problem 2. Review the literature/your sources 3. Develop a hypothesis 4. Designing your research- deciding how you want to go about it/ see if it’s even doable 5. Collect your data- collect data based off your design (type of data) 6. Analyze data- cross reference your literature to strengthen your findings 7. Interpretation of findings 8. Publish findings Population: the entire group (all high school students in Louisiana) Sample: a subset of population (high school students from individual schools) Chapter 3 Main Terms and Ideas A society is a group of interacting persons who live in a specific geographical area, who are organized in a cooperative manner and who share a common culture A culture is a system of ideas, values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, customs, and technology shared by almost everyone in a particular society (7 things) o Also includes all learned behavior Culture o High culture: reflects the taste of the wealthy, affluent, and upper class people Example: opera, Mozart o Folk culture: reflects the taste of the working class and the ethnic groups Example: craft fairs, jazz festivals, etc. o Popular culture: music, art, dance, radio, linguistic trends, literature that is produced and consumed by members of the lower and middle classes o Material culture + non-material culture = culture (not just the wealthy people or abstract things) Material: houses, clothes, tools, etc. Non-material: ideas, values, languages, etc. Cultural elements o Symbols: something that is used to represent something else Hand gestures, clothes (head coverings), etc. Example: “V”= victory (WWII) “V”= peace (after the 1960s) Example: a stop sign indicates “halt” o Language: most important set of symbols Convey your hopes, thoughts, and dreams All human societies have languages Some can read, write, and speak Also include nonverbal elements (sign language, touching others, eye contact) SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan Linguistic symbols (ABCD…) are learned and shared like other cultural elements Languages are learned, shared, and transmitted from generation to generation Culture creates: Verbal language Non-verbal language Written language Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis o language does influence the way we perceive things and how we behave o example: EMPTY sign when a barrel of gasoline was labeled as empty, workers became more careless with matches and cigarettes ad caused many accidents than if it wasn’t labeled as empty influenced the workers’ perception and consequent behavior o was a study to see whether people’s behavior was influenced by the language they used Back to cultural elements o Values: what is important and worthwhile Basis of our judgement- what is good and correct, bad and incorrect, what is beautiful and ugly South Asia value women who are fatty because they can afford to eat and will produce healthy children Most values are learned early in life from family, friends, mass media, and other sources Inconsistencies between value and behavior- freedom of the press We value freedom of the press, however the government may not want the media to write bad about them o Ritual: one mechanism to support a particular value Example: Gaye Holud (value beauty and purity) Ritual in Bangladesh where the bride and groom are rubbed on the face and skin with turmeric to cleanse themselves of germs and be pure th 4 of July: value of patriotism Funeral: we express our value to respect the deceased Weddings: we reinforce our commitment to a sacred value regarding marriage o Norms: rules of conduct or social expectations for behavior specify how people should and should not behave in various social situations What people SHOULD do (prescriptive) What people SHOULD NOT do (proscriptive) Values are abstract, whereas norms are guidelines for actual behavior Folkways: customs or conventions that provide rules for conduct, but violations bring mild punishment (remarks, glances, laughs, etc.) Eating vegetables with a spoon instead of a fork SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan Wearing a bathing suit to your class Mores: more important than folkways; reactions to the violations are more serious Clear-cut distinction between right and wrong Why don’t we betray our country’s wellbeing for money? Taboos (incest, murder, treason, etc.) Punishment may be expulsion from school, jail time, etc. Laws: norms that a society feels strongly about become laws; these are formal, standardized expressions of norms enacted by legislative bodies to regulate a particular type of behavior Folkways and mores are not always beneficial- some can be harmful Pathology of Normalcy o Example: some peer subculture o In rural Pakistan, if a young female marries out of the tribe, the bride and grooms’ families will kill them (called honor killing) to preserve the ways of their home tribe o Technology and material culture These are certain techniques and products that help us to maintain our living standard and lifestyle (fishing nets, etc.) Technology uses our social customs and practical techniques for converting raw materials to finished products These physical products are called artifacts (books, religious objects, beer cans, etc.) Material artifacts often reflect non-material culture (symbols, beliefs, values, norms, etc.)- star and stripes o Cultural Materialism: idea that societies develop differently adapting to their own environments and making use of different materials and resources some houses may be built on pillars (to avoid flooding or wild animals) cities have tall buildings and skyscrapers because of advanced technology o Cultural Lag: cultural elements changing at different rates Rapid change in technology and material culture; change in non-material culture is slow Example: women’s roles (don’t see them operating bulldozers) Both material and non-material cultural elements have strong influences on each other Interpreting cultures o Ethnocentrism: WE ARE THE BEST Our culture is superior; our values, beliefs, and behaviors are more correct ‘other’ culture should be evaluated in terms of our culture Example: one god vs. pagan life, monogamy vs. polygamy Positive side: Promotes group loyalty, cohesiveness, and unity Improves morale, encourages conformity, reinforces nationalism Negative side: Increases resistance to change o Don’t want to change if they think they are the best SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan o Excludes outsiders, who may have something good to contribute (Nazis in Germany- extreme example) o Xnocentrism: what is foreign is superior to their own products and beliefs The complete opposite of ethnocentrism Examples: priest who revolts against the church, anti-American Americans, Japanese cars o Relativism: the idea that cultures must be judged on their own terms rather than by the standards of another culture There is no right or wrong, correct or incorrect cultural manifestation Things appropriate for one culture may be inappropriate in another culture Contextual understanding is important (should only be judged in the context in which they occur) Hijab vs. non-hijab Cultural relativism is NOT the idea of “ANYTHING GOES”- not all cultural relativism should be “respected” if they damage basic human rights- Nazism Cultural Complexity and Diversity o Sub-culture: groups who share some of the cultural elements of the larger society but still have their own norms, values, symbols, and lifestyles Society that has diverse languages, religions, ethnic/racial groups, varying economic levels has sub-culture Often reflect racial or ethnic differences or develop around occupations Ethnicity-based: Chinese American, Mormon, Amish, etc. Occupation-based: athletes, military personnel, factory workers, etc. Dominant culture and sub-culture may conflict Riots in India (1947) o Led to the creation of Bangladesh Counter-culture: type of sub-culture that abide by a set of beliefs and values that “reject and opposes significant elements of the dominant culture of which it is a part of” Example: hippies- challenged dominant cultural norm of hard work, financial success, dress code, sexual restrictiveness, white supremacy o Idio-culture: system of knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and customs created through group interactions (like going eat to a certain place at a certain time) Idio-cultures do not exist when a group is first formed They are established gradually when rules are established, opinions expressed, information exchanged, events experienced together The order of how a family sits at a dinner table o Ideal Culture: norms and values people profess to follow (equal rights, monogamy, educational opportunity for all, etc.) o Real Culture: culture people really do follow Poor are less likely to get a good education, marital infidelity is common Cultural Universals: commonalities among all culture (food, shelter, protection) o These are met through social institutions SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan Social Institutions: a system of norms, values, statuses, and roles that develops around a basic need o Social institutions and organizations are not the same Institution (education)- abstract, organization (LSU)- existing group Chapter 4 Main Terms and Ideas Social Status: socially defined position that an individual occupies o Ascribed: obtained at birth (age, race, etc.) o Achieved: status that we choose or attain (religion, nationality) Status Set: a combination of all the statuses any individual holds at a given time o Example: female, student, sister, daughter, wife o Master Status: a particular status in your status set that may be of far greater importance than any of the others in shaping both how you see yourself and how others view you Most important is gender (baseline for other titles) Can’t be a brother, only a sister Social Roles: set of expectations and behaviors associated with social status o Prescribed Roles: what society suggests they should do Mother- clean house and raise kids o Role Perception: individuals’ point of view about his/her prescribed role Should I want to stay at home all day and clean and raise the kids? o Role Performance: what we actually do The mother is a graduate student teaching o Role Conflict: expectations associated with two or more statuses are incompatible Single parent being the provider and raising the kids at the same time Types of social interaction o 1. Exchange: employer/ employee Both have a goal to achieve something Employee gets a reward (money) for doing their job- give and take o 2. Cooperation: groupmates (group assignments) Both work to achieve something Cooperating to do the best they can o 3. Competition: students competing for grades Athletics compete to win competitions o 4. Conflict: takes place in social interaction where one individual or group attempts to control the behaviors of another individual or group o 5. Coercion: is the use of intimidation or threat of force or violence to control the action of others Parents trying to get children to do what they want Social Groups: a number of people who have something in common o Some type of interaction, sense of belonging or membership, shared interests or agreements on values, norms, and goals (FAMILY) Non-social/limited social groups o 1. Statistical group (formed by statisticians) NON-SOCIAL GROUP Grouping people based on something like height (number-related) o 2. Categorical group (formed by statisticians) NON-SOCIAL GROUP SOCL 2001 Section 6 Kristy Trahan Groups created by a common characteristic (teens, students, women, the handicapped, etc.) o 3. Aggregate group LIMITED SOCIAL GROUP Basically a collection of people who are together in one place Talking about general things with somebody while waiting for the bus In a group of people waiting in line to get ice cream o 4. Associational group LIMITED SOCIAL GROUP Clubs or organizations you can join People who join together in some organized way to pursue a common interest, and they have a formal structure Back to social groups Primary (person-oriented) o Small, informal groups of people who interact in a personal, direct, and intimate way- family, close friends, neighbors o Members are emotionally attached, sense of “we-ness”, face to face interaction Secondary groups (goal-oriented) o Key difference is in the quality of the relationships and the extent of personal intimacy and involvement o Few emotional ties, interact in impersonal manner, specific and practical purpose Professional groups, classroom groups In-Group: persons feel they belong and in which the members have a consciousness or awareness of a kind (sense of “we-ness”) o Graduating together, religious groups, veterans (comradeship) Out-Group: most people feel they do not belong to these groups and we treat most members with indifference or hostility o Saying immigrants are bad and isolating them because of our sense of ethnocentrism Types of leaders: o Instrumental: organizes a group around its goal help others to achieve the goal and persuade members to act appropriately o Expressive: create group harmony, resolve conflict Makes sure members get along and are relatively satisfied and happy Social networks o Social networks link people- links to your family, college department, where you shop, college you attend, etc. o Important because we can exchange ideas through the internet without ever meeting face to face with others Social capital: resources or benefits people gain from their social network o Networks, norms, trust o Social capital helps us to live our everyday lives and achieve our goals
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