Cognitive Psych 2101 Study Guide for Exam 1: 9/13
Cognitive Psych 2101 Study Guide for Exam 1: 9/13 PSY 2101 - 001
Popular in FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2101 - 001 at Temple University taught by Pamela J. Shapiro (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology (PSYC) at Temple University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
PSYCHOLOGY 2101 (DR.SHAPIRO) MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE For more detailed information and context, refer to my previously posted notes :) Chapter 1: The Science of the Mind What is Cognitive Psychology? It is the study of the human mind and brain Topics cognitive psychologists study (mental processes) Memory Language Knowledge Perception What kinds of questions are explored by cognitive psychologists The “how”s of mental processes How do we make decisions? How are our memories kept? How do we process different stimuli? What methods are used? Span Test Verbal Behavior Test Brain Imaging Technology (to study mental events and what parts of the brain react to which stimuli) Other disciplines closely aligned with cognitive psychology Hypotheses and hypothesis testing Hypotheses are developed about the mental events then tested by designing experiments to yield further research detail Not necessarily proved Important Figures and History Leading to the Cognitive Revolution Wilhelm Wundt Established psychology as the science of experience Introspection (internal perception) Impossible to test objectivity; explicitly subjective (setback/problem) James Watson Psychology = “objective experimental branch of natural science” Studied only observable behavior was not able to know mental processes (setback/problem) Little Albert Experiment B.F. Skinner (what, who, problems) Behaviorism Skinner Box Stimulus response accounts not enough; what were the mental causes of the behaviors being observed? (setback/problem) Immanuel Kant Transcendental method One works backwards to find the cause of the observable effect Hermann von Ebbinghaus Father of Memory Research Learning and forgetting curves cognitive vs behaviorism: behaviorism is concerned with behavior itself, cognitive is interested in the inner thoughts/underlying mechanisms in brain What is the role of “meaning” in understanding language? The verbal behavior test (Pass the salt) Shows evidence that different stimuli can trigger the same action, and similar stimuli can trigger different actions Working Memory What is the function of working memory? It keeps whatever the brain is working on active and circulating for a certain time “Temporary memory storage” How is working memory tested? Test capacity with span test which is test model by looking at memory errors What kinds of errors do people make when trying to recall a list of letters? Mostly phonetic errors because of the similarity in sound and because of the use of subvocalization in the articulatory rehearsal loop Central executive Coordinates activities in assistant components Articulatory rehearsal loop Assistant of the central executive Has subvocalization (silent speech) and phonological buffer (auditory image of words) Concurrent articulation Reduces memory span drastically because of the lack of subvocalization of the object we are trying to remember The inner hand (what does it tell us about working memory?) It shows evidence of the way working memory works Goes back to the idea of Articulatory rehearsal loop What are the limits of working memory? 7 + or 2 (so it is either 5 or 9) in normal conditions With concurrent articulation, it drops a third of that number The Case of Henry Molaison severe anterograde amnesia & retrograde amnesia spanning several years Detail structures affected by his surgery Hippocampus and amygdala and some temporal lobe tissues behavioral examples of his deficits and spared abilities Procedural memory and working memory intact Longterm memory not intact because of removal of hippocampus (I use the sentence “a HIPPO on CAMPUS would take a LONG TIME to remove” to remember the function of the hippocampus, a.k.a longterm memory) Chapter 2: The Neural Basis for Cognition Brain structure, organization, and function intra and interneural communication (electrical, chemical) Intra (within) neurons = electrical signals Inter (between) neurons = chemical signals what is the synapse It is where the presynaptic neuron’s axon sends out the chemical neurotransmitter to the postsynaptic neuron’s dendrites hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain Hindbrain: right above spinal cord; controls rhythms of heart and breathing; includes the cerebellum (coordinates movements and balance) Midbrain: right above hindbrain; motor function and voluntary movement; regulates experience of pain; includes substantia nigra (area with large dopamine neurons = might be damaged in Parkinson’s patients) Forebrain: comprises of the parts of the brain that are outermost; includes cortex Includes cortex which is also divided into subparts F.P.O.T: (clockwise starting from the front of the head in the figure) Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Tempor al Lobe Lateralization The primary somatosensory projection area is located in the anterior parietal lobes The primary auditory projection area is located in the superior temporal lobe The primary visual projection area is located in the occipital lobes Contralateral organization Right hemisphere controls left side and vice versa cortical maps (sensory and motor cortical maps) greater sensory acuity or motor precision has larger area represented on cortex For example, we can write with our hands but not with our feet because of the greater sensory acuity and greater ue of our hands rather than our feet for that kind of action Subcortical parts of the forebrain: Thalamus Hypothalamus Limbic systemstructures and function (be able to identify parts on an illustration) Amygdala Emotion (fear) Hippocampus Longterm memory Split Brain Patients Understand the effects of lateralization in split brain patients Person looks at a picture with a spoon on the left and a fork on the right. The person thinks the word “fork” (left hemisphere controls right side) but reaches for the soon on the left (right hemisphere control left side) Brain Injury and Neurological Syndromes Apraxia – problems w/initiation or organization of movement Parkinson’s patients might have apraxia Agnosia – problems identifying familiar objects Aphasia – problems with language Neglect syndrome – problems in which half of the visual world is ignored Imaging Techniques and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gives clear picture of the structure of the brain fMRI: Functional MRI Image shows regions of the brain with heightened neural activity (BOLD: Blood Oxygen Level Dependency) CT: Computerized axial tomography Uses Xrays to study anatomy PET: Positron emission tomography Reveals blood flow and glucose uptake EEG: Electroencephalogram Buildup of chemical neurotransmitter Firing of action potential in a neuron Millions of neurons create an electrical field TMS (Transcranial magnetic stimulation) deactivates an area if it is not necessary Using only one of these Brain Imaging Techniques might not be enough. We might need to converge methods to yield more results . Capgras Syndrome What is it? Syndrome where patients Recognize loved ones but think they are imposters Neuroimaging evidence for involved areas Amygdala brain damage; amygdala might have an important role in emotional memory and decisions that rest on emotional evaluations of the options Prefrontal brain damage Fusiform Face Area (FFA) is NOT involved—not a face recognition problem Disconnect between cognitive appraisal (rational thought/factual information) and feelings of familiarity (emotion response)
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