BSC 108- Exam 1 Study Guide
BSC 108- Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 108
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This 153 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matt Cutler on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology for Non-Majors in biology, science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Study Guide Exam 1- Chapters 1-4 1. What is Biology? a) The Study of living organisms 2. What are the 3 domains? Wednesday, September 7, 2016 7:43 PM a) Eukarya b) Bacteria c) Archaea 3. What are the 4 kingdoms in Eukarya? BSC 108 Page 1 a) Plantae b) Fungi c) Animalia d) Protists (Multiple kingdoms) 4. What are the properties of life? a) Life consistsof a vertical hierarchy BSC 108 Page 2 a) 1) Molecules----->biosphere 5. How do you define something as living? a) They have order b) They regulate themselves "homeostasis" BSC 108 Page 3 c) They grow and develop d) They use energy e) They respond to the environment f) They reproduce g) Populations evolve 6. What are some common themes in biology? BSC 108 Page 4 a) The scope of life and emergent properties such as Photosynthesis. b) Organisms exchange matter and energy within ecosystems c) Cells are an organism's basic unit d) The continuity of life is based on the information in DNA BSC 108 Page 5 The continuity of life is based on the information in DNA e) Diversity is the hallmark of life and the diverse forms of life fit their functions. BSC 108 Page 6 f) Evolution 7. What is the scientific method? Know the components of it. a) A method of procedure that characterizes natural science 1) Observe and Generalize 2) Formulate a hypothesis BSC 108 Page 7 Formulate a hypothesis 3) Make a testable prediction 4) Experiment and observe 5) Modify hypothesis as necessary and repeat steps 3 and 4 BSC 108 Page 8 8. What is a hypothesis? a) An idea that can be tested. 9. What are the components of a good hypothesis? a) Well framed questions b) Should be specific and use "if, then" statements c) Be testable by observation or experimentation BSC 108 Page 9 Be testable by observation or experimentation 10. Be able to identify the differencebetween a hypothesis, prediction, observation, and control. a) Hypothesis- idea that can be tested 1) Ex: Dead batteries in a flashlight b) Prediction- proposed solution 1) Ex: replacing batteries will fix problem BSC 108 Page 10 1) Ex: replacing batteries will fix problem c) Observation 1) Ex: watching to see if the flashlight turns on when batteries are replaced. BSC 108 Page 11 d) Control- something that doesn’t change 1) Ex: flashlight that works 11. Be able to take an experimental plan and determine the appropriate hypothesis, prediction, conclusion etc. BSC 108 Page 12 12. What is a theory in science? a) Ideas that are supported by the accumulation of extensive and varied evidence from multiple hypothesis's. BSC 108 Page 13 13. What are the limits of science? BSC 108 Page 14 a) Science is NOT the only way to understand nature b) Religion and art are other methods used to understand the world we live in. BSC 108 Page 15 14. What is an atom? a) Atom is the smallest unit of an element that has all its properties 15. What is an atom composed of? a) Protons, neutrons, and electrons BSC 108 Page 16 16. What are the characteristics of neutrons, protons, and electrons? a) Protons are positively charged, Atomic mass= 1 Dalton BSC 108 Page 17 b) Neutrons have a charge of zero, Atomic mass= 1 Dalton c) Electrons have a negative charge, Atomic mass is negligible d) Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus BSC 108 Page 18 e) Electrons orbit, may occupy different energy levels 17. What is an ion? a) Atoms that have either gained or lost an electron BSC 108 Page 19 18. What is the differencebetween an ion and isotope? a) Ions have gained or lost an electron b) Isotopes have a different number of neutrons than the element BSC 108 Page 20 19. What is the association between isotopes and fossils? a) Geologists can determine the ages of fossils by analyzing the isotopes because one can tell the age of them by determining how much the nucleus has decayed and what the half-life. 20. What is energy? a) The capacity to do work; make a change in matter BSC 108 Page 21 The capacity to do work; make a change in matter b) Joining atoms or breaking up molecules take energy 21. What is a neutral atom? BSC 108 Page 22 a) A neutral atom has the same number of electrons as it does protons. 22. What is a trace element? a) An element that is required in very small amounts by the body but is essential for life such as iodine and fluoride. 23. What is a radioactive isotope? a) The nucleusdecays, giving off particles and energy BSC 108 Page 23 b) Uncontrolled exposure to radioactive isotopes can harm living organisms by damaging DNA. BSC 108 Page 24 c) Medical use 1) PET Scans 24. How many electrons are found in the first energy shell? Second? Third? BSC 108 Page 25 a) First= 2 electrons b) Second= 8 electrons c) Third= 18 electrons 25. Be able to place electrons in the appropriate shell. BSC 108 Page 26 26. What is the difference between atomic number and atomic mass? a) Atomic number is the number of protons in the element. b) Atomic mass is the number of protons added to the number of neutrons BSC 108 Page 27 ○ Atomic mass on the periodic table shows the average of the isotopes if the element has isotopes. 27. What are the differenttypes of chemical bonds? BSC 108 Page 28 What are the differenttypes of chemical bonds? a) Ionic b) Covalent c) Hydrogen 28. How are they formed? a) Ionic bonds are formed by the attraction between opposite charges on the outermost electrons of one atom to another BSC 108 Page 29 ○ Attraction between + and - ions ○ Ions= atoms that have gained or lost an electron BSC 108 Page 30 Ions= atoms that have gained or lost an electron ○ Moderate strength ○ 2Na + Cl2 --> 2Na Cl- b) Covalent bonds are formed when electrons are shared between atoms BSC 108 Page 31 ○ Hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water ○ Among the strongestbonds ○ Single bonds share 1 pair of electrons (shown as "-") BSC 108 Page 32 ○ Double bonds share two pairs of electrons (shown as "=") c) Hydrogen bonds form when electrons of hydrogen spend more time near the oxygen atom (in the case of H20) BSC 108 Page 33 ○ Weakest bonds ○ Unequal sharing of electrons BSC 108 Page 34 Unequal sharing of electrons Hydrogen bonds are the ones between droplets of water ○ Important in biological molecules BSC 108 Page 35 29. Which bond is the strongest, weakest? a) Covalent bonds are the strongest b) Hydrogen bonds are the weakest 30. Why is the chemistry of life water chemistry? BSC 108 Page 36 a) Life on Earth began in water and evolved there 3 billion years ago b) Your cells are composed of 70-95% water c) Life only occurs where liquid water is present BSC 108 Page 37 c) d) Water constitutes 60% of the mass of organisms e) Water is a solvent f) Chemical reactions take place in water g) Water helps regulate body temperature h) Water transports substances from 1 place in the body to another (Blood is 90% water) BSC 108 Page 38 31. How does the hydrogen bond contribute to the properties of water? BSC 108 Page 39 a) Water molecules from hydrogen bonds with one another and with other molecules b) H bonds are weak; constantlybroken and reformed. BSC 108 Page 40 c) Hydrogen bonds between water cause water to have a very high boiling point BSC 108 Page 41 32. What is the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond? a) In an ionic bond, electrons in the valence energy shell are transferred from one element to the other BSC 108 Page 42 b) In a covalent bond, Electrons are shared between two elements which create a stronger bond. BSC 108 Page 43 33. In a chemical reaction what is beginning material known as? a) Reactants 34. In a chemical reaction what is the ending material referred to as? BSC 108 Page 44 a) Products 35. Why can water absorb a lot of heat? a) This is because of the hydrogen bonding in water. BSC 108 Page 45 b) In order for water to increase temperature, hydrogen bonds much be broken. c) Hydrogen bonds can break quite easily and when they do, water absorbs heat. 36. Why does ice float? a) Ice is less dense than water. 37. Why is ice less dense? a) Water freezes, causing a crystalline structure maintained by hydrogen bonding. b) The orientation of hydrogen bonding causes molecules to push farther apart, which lowers the density. BSC 108 Page 46 38. What is the ecological importance of ice floating? a) To help insulate the organisms under it. 39. Know the difference between a solution, solvent and solute. BSC 108 Page 47 a) Solution- a liquid that is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances a) Ex: salt and water b) Solvent- the dissolving agent of a solution a) Ex: water BSC 108 Page 48 Ex: water c) Solute- the substancethat is dissolved a) Ex: Salt 40. What is pH? a) A figure expressing the acidity or alkalinity of a solution b) The scale is 1-14 c) 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic and above 7 is basic. 41. What is an acid? BSC 108 Page 49 a) A chemical substance that neutralizes bases and has a pH of less than 7. 42. What is a base? a) A chemical substance that neutralizes bases and has a pH of greater than 7. BSC 108 Page 50 43. Know examples of bases and acids. a) Acids a) Gastric juice b) Lemon Juice c) Tomato Juice BSC 108 Page 51 d) Urine b) Bases a) Household ammonia b) Seawater c) Oven cleaner d) Household bleach 44. What is a hydrolysis reaction? a) The adding of water to break apart a bond BSC 108 Page 52 45. What is a dehydration reaction? a) Dehydration reaction, also known as dehydration synthesis, is to put together a bond by taking away water. BSC 108 Page 53 46. What are the 4 basic macromolecules? a) Carbohydrates b) Lipids (Fats) c) Proteins d) Nucleic Acids 47. What are the characteristics and properties of each macromolecule? a) Carbohydrates a) Subunits are sugars b) Contain C,H, O in ratio of 1:2:1 BSC 108 Page 54 Contain C,H, O in ratio of 1:2:1 c) Polymers are polysaccharides d) Store energy 1) Animals- glycogen 2) Plants- Starch e) Functionsof Sugars (monosaccharides) BSC 108 Page 55 1) Provide energy- readily broken down to release energy 2) Structure f) Monosaccharides □ Simple sugars BSC 108 Page 56 □ Simple sugars □ Glucose, found in sports drinks □ Fructose,found in fruit □ Honey contains both glucose and fructose BSC 108 Page 57 □ Monosaccharides are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work g) Disaccharides □ Double sugar □ Joined by dehydration synthesis BSC 108 Page 58 Joined by dehydration synthesis □ Constructedfrom two monosaccharides Sucrose= glucose + fructose Lactose= Glucose + galactose BSC 108 Page 59 ◊ Trouble digesting lactose= Lactose intolerance ◊ Lactase is the enzyme that helps break down lactose Maltose= Glucose + Glucose h) Polysaccharides BSC 108 Page 60 Polysaccharides 1) Complex carbohydrates are called Polysaccharides □ Cellulose is the most abundant organic (has Carbon in it) compound on Earth. BSC 108 Page 61 It forms cable-like fibrils in the tough walls that enclose plants Major componentof wood. □ Most animals cannot derive nutrition from fiber BSC 108 Page 62 Most animals cannot derive nutrition from fiber Grazing animals survive on a diet of cellulose because they have prokaryotes in their digestive tracts that can break down cellulose. BSC 108 Page 63 b) Lipids (Fats) Complex group of molecules BSC 108 Page 64 Hydrophobic- not soluble in water i. Types of lipids 1) Triglycerides a) Composed of two types of molecules BSC 108 Page 65 i) Glycerol and fatty acids b) Glycerol- 3-C with hydroxyl functional groups c) Fatty acid- long chains of Carbon and Hydrogen (14-22 C) with a carboxyl group on one end BSC 108 Page 66 d) Functionsof Triglycerides i) Energy Storage- Higher amount of energy/gram in fats than in carbohydrates BSC 108 Page 67 ii) Insulation of warm-blooded animals iii) Cushion internal organs BSC 108 Page 68 e) Fatty Acids i) Saturated- No double bonds;solid; come from land animals ii) Unsaturated- Contain 1 or more double bonds; liquid at room temp; from plants. BSC 108 Page 69 iii) Trans fats- Occurwhen men try to hydrogenate unsaturated fats and create a different type of bond BSC 108 Page 70 f) Healthy Fats i) Fats with omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of heart disease BSC 108 Page 71 ii) These are polyunsaturated fats and iii) The first double bond on the fatty acids tails is on the 3rd carbon bond from the end BSC 108 Page 72 iv) Ex: Nuts and fish oils 2) Phospholipids a) Similar to neutral fats in that they are compositemolecules BSC 108 Page 73 b) Contain glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and a Phosphate group (PO ) 4 c) Part of molecule associates with water, part does not BSC 108 Page 74 d) Phospholipidsbilayers form structure of most biological membranes. 3) Steroids a) Functions i) Stabilize membranes Ex: Cholesterol ii) Chemical messengers Ex: Sex hormones suchas testosterone and estradiol BSC 108 Page 75 b) Types i) Synthetic Anabolic steroids They are variants of testosterone Controversial (Suchas Lance Armstrong) BSC 108 Page 76 ii) Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build up their muscles quickly. However, these substancescan pose serious health risks. BSC 108 Page 77 c) Proteins (Polypeptides) All proteins are constructedfrom a common set of 20 kinds of amino acids. BSC 108 Page 78 Each amino acid consistsof a central carbon atom bonded to four covalent partners in which three of those attachmentgroups are common to all amino acids. BSC 108 Page 79 Peptide bonds i. Amino acids BSC 108 Page 80 □ A change in an amino acid can affect protein configuration and cause a malfunction of the protein. 1) Sickle cell anemiais due to a mutation that leads to a different amino acid in position 6 of the hemoglobin polypeptide BSC 108 Page 81 hemoglobin polypeptide BSC 108 Page 82 2) Protein conformation-proteins form 3-D shapes that are important for how the proteins function a) 4 levels of protein structure-But temperature and pH can change the shape BSC 108 Page 83 4 levels of protein structure-But temperature and pH can change the shape i) Primary ii) Secondary iii) Tertiary iv) Quaternary 3) Protein shape a) A proteins shape is sensitive to the surrounding environment BSC 108 Page 84 b) Unfavorable temp and pH changes can cause denaturation of a protein, in which it unravels and loses its shape. BSC 108 Page 85 c) High fevers (above 104 F) in humans can cause some proteins to denature BSC 108 Page 86 d) Misfolded proteins are associated with i) Alzheimer's disease ii) Mad cow disease A prion disease Prions- infectious proteins that can become improperly folded BSC 108 Page 87 The infectiousand normal forms do not differ in amino acid sequences Instead their shapes are radically different BSC 108 Page 88 Instead their shapes are radically different iii) Parkinson's disease d) Nucleic Acids i. Nucleic acids 1) Macromolecules that provide the directions for building proteins BSC 108 Page 89 2) Include DNA and RNA 3) Genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents BSC 108 Page 90 ii. DNA resides in cells in long fibers called chromosomes iii. A gene is a specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequenceof a polypeptide. BSC 108 Page 91 iv. Two strands of DNA join together to form a double helix BSC 108 Page 92 1) Adenine (A) only pairs with Thymine (T) 2) Cytosine ( C ) only pairs with Guanine (G) v. RNA □ Ribonucleic acid □ RNA is usually single-stranded but DNA usually exists as a double helix □ RNA uses the sugar ribose and the base uracil (U) instead of Thymine (T) BSC 108 Page 93 A/U C/G 48. What are the building blocks of each macromolecule? a) Carbohydrates BSC 108 Page 94
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