HSCI 3000 - Study Guide Exam 1
HSCI 3000 - Study Guide Exam 1 HSCI
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nancy Kanarski on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HSCI at East Tennessee State University taught by Forsman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
EXAM #1 STUDY GUIDE Anatomical Terminology 1. Anatomical position: standing upright, facing forward, upper extremities at sides of body, palms forward, lower extremities together, feet forward 2. Planes of the body Midsagittal: midline cut through the body to make right and left sides Sagittal: not a midline cut, but makes right and left sides Coronal (frontal): cut to make front and back sides Transverse: side to side cut to make top and bottom pieces Oblique: diagonal cut across the body, slanted plane 3. Superior (rostral?): toward top 4. Inferior (caudal?): toward bottom 5. Anterior (ventral?): toward front 6. Posterior (dorsal?): toward back 7. Medial: toward midline 8. Lateral: away from midline 9. Internal (deep/profundus?): deeper than surface 10. External (superficial?): closer to surface 11. Proximal: closer to point of attachment 12. Distal: farther from point of attachment 13. Visceral: inner layer, lining that touches the organ 14. Parietal: outer layer, lining that does not touch the organ 15. Body Position and Movements Prone: lying face down Pronation: radius and ulna cross each other, palms down Supine: lying face up Supination: radius and ulna are parallel, palms up Flexion: (hinge joint) lessens angle / (ball and socket joint) moves toward coronal plane Extension: (hinge joint) moves toward 180 degrees / (ball and socket joint) moves out of coronal plane Abduction: away from midline (remaining in anatomical position) Adduction: toward midline (remaining in anatomical position) Circumduction: circular motion of shoulder Inversion: sole of foot moves up toward midline Eversion: sole of foot moves down away from midline Medial Rotation: of unbalanced body part, moving toward midline Lateral Rotation: of unbalanced body part, moving away from midline Rotation: balanced across midline, turning Cytology – the study of cells Cellular Diversity – form follows function 1. Plasma Membrane: phospholipid bilayer, polar (hydrophilic) heads and nonpolar (hydrophobic) tails 2. Cytoplasm: gel like substance that holds cell organelles 3. Mitochondrion: powerhouse of cell, gets energy from glucose in blood and changes ADP to ATP 4. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): production line of cell 5. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER): produces cholesterol based things (steroids) 6. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER): contain ribosomes and proteins 7. Ribosomes: use mRNA to make proteins 8. Golgi: quality control center, sort and distribute 9. Lysosomes: carrying vessels in cell 10. Peroxisomes: contain hydrogen peroxide to help with infections inside the cell 11. Nucleus: control center, contains DNA Cell Cycle Interphase: longest phase G1: growth (toddler years) S: DNA synthesis, makes copy of DNA (teenage years) G2: growth and preparation for division (young adult years) Mitotic Phase Mitosis: division of cell Prophase: chromosomes form, centrioles move Metaphase: chromosomes line up in center of cell Anaphase: sister chromatids split Telophase: splitting cells, cleavage furrow forms Cytokinesis: completely split cells, nucleus reforms Histology: the study of tissues 1. Epithelial tissue: covers and lines body surfaces and the surfaces of some organs Simple vs. Stratified: one vs. more than one layer Squamous vs. Cuboidal vs. Columnar: flat cell vs. cube cell vs. column cell (taller than it is wide) Types of epithelia 1. Simple Squamous: good for diffusion (in lungs, heart, and blood vessels) 2. Simple Cuboidal: good for secretion and really good for absorption (in kidney tubules, glands, and ovary surfaces) 3. Simple Columnar: good for absorption and really good for secretion (in digestive tract, bronchi, and uterine tubes) 4. Stratified Squamous Keratinized: dry; protects against abrasion (skin) Nonkeratinized: moist; protects against abrasion (inside mouth, vagina, under eyelids) 5. Stratified Cuboidal: protection and secretion (in male urethra and large ducts) 6. Pseudostratified Columnar (ciliated?): secretion (non ciliated: male sperm & ciliated: trachea, upper respiratory tract 7. Transitional: permits distention of urinary organ (ureters, bladder, urethra) multiple types of epithelia based on the condition of bladder, whether full or empty Methods of secretion 1. Merocrine: watery (sweat) 2. Apocrine: pieces of cell break off have lots of fat and protein (milk) 3. Holocrine: entire cell fills up and becomes the product as it dies lots of fat and protein Histology of bone Spongy bone : oreo cookie, compact on outside (in skull) withstands pressure Compact bone : on diaphysis of long bones (shaft) Periosteum : surrounds the bone (protects from osteoclasts) Cellular structure of bone 1. Osteoblast: makes bone 2. Osteocyte: mature osteoblast encased in bone in lacunae 3. Osteoclast: make acid substance that dissolves bone Types of bones (structurally) 1. Long Bones: longer than wide than thick; good for leverage (humerus, radius, ulna, phalanges, femur, tibia, fibula) 2. Short Bones: about as thick as they are wide and long (carpals and tarsals) 3. Flat Bones: no roundness (sternum, ribs, skull, pubic bone, shoulder blades) 4. Irregular Bones: weird shape (vertebral column) 5. Sesamoid Bones: bones found within a tendon (patella Types of bones (histologically) 1. Primary Bone 2. Secondary Bone Osteon (Haversion system): columns of bone (concentric lamellae) Central (Haversion) Canal: center of osteon (contains blood vessels and nerves) Perforating (Volkmann’s) Canal: horizontal canals connected to central canals (contain blood vessels and nerves) Canaliculi: breathing and feeding tubes (capillaries) that lead to lacuna to supply nutrients to osteocytes Osteocytes: mature osteoblast (see above definition) Fibroblasts (collagen): makes fibers (collagen), form the lamellae in twisted manner Fracture Repair 1. Hematoma: clot at break 2. Bony Callus: clot dissolves, left with fibers where osteoblasts can build 3. Remodeling: spongy bone changes to compact bone over time Histology of Muscle Muscle Function 1. Contraction for locomotion and skeletal movement 2. Contraction for propulsion 3. Contraction for pressure regulation Classification of muscles 1. Morphological Striated Nonstriated (smooth) 2. Functional Voluntary Involuntary Types of Muscle 1. Skeletal – striated, voluntary 2. Cardiac – smooth, involuntary 3. Smooth – nonstriated, involuntary Muscle terminology 1. Whole muscle – perimysium 2. Muscle fascicle epimysium 3. Myofiber (muscle cell) – endomysium: electrically insulated the muscle cells from each other 4. Sarcolemma – plasma membrane 5. Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm 6. Sarcoplasmic reticulum – endoplasmic reticulum 7. T tubule – transverse tubule: invagination of cell membrane 8. Terminal Cisternae: sacs on sarcoplastic reticulum surrounding Ttubule on two sides 9. Triad: 2 terminal cisternae and Ttubule (dump Ca 2+ which causes muscle contration 10. Diad: T tubule and a terminal cisternae (in cardiac muscle) 11. Sarcosome 12. Sarcomere: contractile unit of muscle cell 13. Motor unit: a motor neuron and the muscle cells that it stimulates A band – dark I band – light muscle > fasicle > muscle fiber (cell) > myofibril > myofilament Histology of the nervous system Neurons (nerve cells) are the basic and functional unit of the nervous system. There are approximately 10 billion neurons in the human body. Function of neurons 1. Produce neurotransmitters 2. Transmit impulses Afferent – information into the central nervous system (CNS) Efferent – information out from the central nervous system (CNS) Types of Neurons 1. Multipolar – several dendrites and one axon. An example of this is a motor neuron (ventral horn cell) 2. Bipolar – have single processes at each end. This type of neuron is relatively rare. They are found in acustic and vestibular nuclei associated with CN VIII, they act as olfactory receptors in CN I and they are also found in the retina. 3. Pseudounipolar (unipolar) – have a single process that divides into two. These types of neurons make up the somatosensory neurons. Parts of a neuron 1. Cell body (perikaryon or soma) – the main nutritional portion of the cell. Single central nucleusUsually a prominent nucleolus Nissl Bodies – dense accumulations of RER and Polyribosomes Golgi Mitochondria Tubules and filaments 2. Dendrite(s) – essentially antennae of the neuron. Contents much the same as the soma Dendritic spines (Gemules) 3. An Axon – carrying information away from the cell body/soma No Nissl Bodies Axolemma Axoplasm Axon Hillock: where axon meets cell body Neruofilaments and neurotubules Membrane bound vesicles Axoplasmic flow Neurotransmitter Retrograde flow Axonal nodes: nodes of Ranvier (breaks in myelin sheath) Synapses 1. Functional Classification Electrical synapses – found a gap junctions Chemical synapses – neurotransmitter 2. Structural Classification Axodendritic Axosomatic Axoaxonic Dendrodendritic Neuroglial cells – support cells for neurons 1. Neurolemmocytes (Schwann Cells): wraps around axon during myelination 2. Oligodendrocytes: make myelin sheath on axons (multiple) 3. Microglia: thygocytic eats debris 4. Astrocytes: looks like stars, helps bind things, forms bloodbrain barrier with capillaries 5. Ependymal Cells: epithelial, line fluid filled vessels to help bloodbrain barrier 6. Satellite Cells 7. Psuedounipolar neuron : every sensory neuron from periphery is this type of neuron Peripheral Nerve Terminology 1. Whole Nerve – Epineurium 2. Nerve Fascicle – Perineurium 3. Axon Myelin (?): covers some axons to insulate them External (Basil) Lamina Endoneurium Fibroblast MUSCLES Architecture of Muscles Circular Parallel Unipennate muscles: muscle comes on to one end of the tendon Bipennate muscle: muscle comes on to both ends of the tendon Multipennate muscle: many unipennate and bipennate muscles combined Convergent muscle: all energy focuses on focal point, strongest muscles Vertebral Column Cervical (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5) Sacrum Coccyx Transverse processes: bones stick out on sides of the vertebrae Spinal processes: stick out on top of the vertebrae Muscles Origin: attachment on bone less likely to move Insertion: attachment on bone more likely to move Innervation: the nerve supply to ____________ Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Trapezius m. Back of neck Spine of scapula Retraction and Spinal accessory down to T12 of and clavicle protraction of n. (CNXI) vert. col. scapula, elevate scapula, lateral and medial rotation of scapula Levator scapulae C1C4 Medial border of Elevates Dorsal scapular n. m. (transverse scapula above scapula process) the scapula spine Rhomboid major T2T5 (spinal Medial border of Elevates and Dorsal scapular n. m. process) scapula below retracts scapula the scapula spine Rhomboid minor C7T1 (spinal Medial border of Elevates and Dorsal scapular n. m. process) the scapula retracts scapula Latissimus dorsi T7sacrum Intertubercular Medial rotation Thoracodorsal n. m. (spinal process) groove on of humerus, humerus adduction of (proximal humerus, anterior) extend/hyper extend the humerus Pectoralis major Medial end of Intertubercular Adduction of Medial pectoral n. m. clavicle, lateral groove of humerus, and Lateral end of sternum, humerus medial rotation pectoral n. ribs of humerus, flexion of humerus Pectoralis minor Anterior lateral Coronoid Depresses the Medial pectoral n. m. aspects of ribs process of point of the 3, 4, and 5 scapula shoulder, protraction of scapula (brings scapula forward hugging) Subclavius m. Lateral side of Medical side of Stabilizes the N. to subclavius sternum clavicle joint Supraspinatus m. Supraspinous Greater tubercle Abduction of Suprascapular n. * fossa of humerus humerus Infraspinatus m. * Infraspinous Greater tubercle Lateral rotation Supraspinatus n. fossa of humerus of humerus Teres minor m. * Lateral border Greater tubercle Lateral rotation Axillary n. of scapula of humerus of humerus Subscapularis m. Subscapular Lesser tubercle Medial rotation Upper subscapular * fossa of humerus of humerus n. (weak adduction of humerus) Teres major m. Lateral border Intertubercular Medial rotation Lower of scapula on groove of of humerus subscapular n. inferior angle humerus Deltoid m. Lateral 2/3 Deltoid Abduction of Axillary n. spine of tuberosity of humerus, scapula and humerus medial and lateral 1/3 of lateral rotation clavicle of humerus, flexion and extension of humerus Serratus anterior Lateral edge of Medial border of Protraction of Long thoracic n. m. rib cage scapula scapula (prevents winged scapula) Biceps brachii m. Supraglenoid Radial tubercle Flex forearm, Musculocutaneou tubercle (long), of radius flex humerus, s n. coracoid supination of process of forearm scapula Coracobrachialis Coracoid Medial shaft of Adduction of Musculocutaneou m. process of humerus humerus, s scapula flexion of humerus Brachialis m. Anterior mid Coronoid Flex forearm Musculocutaneou shaft of process of ulna (pure muscle) s n. humerus Triceps brachii m. Infraglenoid Olecranon of Extend Radial n. tubercle of ulna forearm, scapula (long), Extend below surgical humerus (long) neck (lateral), medial mid shaft (medial) Anconeus m. Lateral Lateral proximal Tries to adduct Radial n. epicondyle of shaft ulna ulna – humerus stabilizes elbow joint *Rotator Cuff muscles Anterior Forearm – Flexor muscles Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Brachioradialis m. Lateral edge of Styloid process Supinates Radial n. humerus of radius forearm to mid position and then flexes at elbow Pronator teres m. Anterior medial 1/3 down Pronation of Median n. epicondyle of posterior lateral forearm humerus, aspect of radius coronoid process of ulna Flexor carpi Anterior medial Base of Flexes at wrist Ulnar n. ulnaris m. epicondyle of metacarpal V along ulna humerus Palmaris longus m. Anterior medial 1/3 down medial Flexes at wrist Median n. epicondyle of aspect of ulna, and tighten skin humerus connective tissue in palm Flexor carpi Anterior medial Base of Flexes at wrist Median n. radialis m. epicondyle of metacarpal II and along lateral side humerus III Flexor digitorum Anterior medial Middle phalanx Flexes at wrist, Median n. superficialis m. epicondyle of of digits IIV on flexes digits IIV humerus, medial and at MP, PIP, and coronoid process lateral sides DIP of ulna, medial shaft of radius Pronator quadratus Anterior lateral Distal end of Pronation of Median n. m. shaft of ulna 2/3 radius shaft forearm down Flexor digitorum Anterior shaft of Distal phalanx of Flexes at wrist, Median n. profundus m. ulna digits IIV flexes digits IIV and ulnar n. at MP, PIP, and DIP Flexor pollicis Anterior shaft of Distal phalanx of Flexes thumb at Median n. longus m. radius 1/3 down thumb MP and IP Posterior forearm – extensor muscles Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Extensor Posterior lateral Distal phalanx of Extends wrist, Radial n. digitorum m. epicondyle of digits IIV extends digits II humerus V at MP, PIP, DIP Extensor digiti Posterior lateral Distal phalanx of Extends digit V Radial n. minimi m. epicondyle of digit V humerus Extensor carpi Posterior lateral Base of Extends wrist Radial n. radialis longus epicondyle of metacarpal II (lateral m. humerus deviation) Extensor carpi Posterior lateral Base of Extends wrist Radial n. radialis brevis m. epicondyle of metacarpal III (lateral humerus deviation) Extensor carpi Posterior lateral Base of Extends wrist Radial n. ulnaris m. epicondyle of metacarpal V (medial humerus deviation) Supinator m. Posterior lateral Anterior 1/3 shaft Supinates Radial n. epicondyle of of radius forearm humerus, proximal shaft of ulna Abductor pollicis Below supinator Lateral side base Abducts thumb Radial n. longus m. m., lateral side of of metacarpal I ulna and medial radius Extensor pollicis Posterior shaft Distal phalanx of Extends thumb at Radial n. longus m. ulna, lateral side thumb MP and IP Extensor pollicis 2/3 down radius Proximal phalanx Extends thumb at Radial n. brevis m. on medial side of thumb MP Extensor indicis Distal end of ulna Distal phalanx of Extends index Radial n. m. digit II finger at MP, PIP, and DIP Hand 27 bones Carpal bones mnemonic = Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can’t Handle Cutaneous innervations: Median n. Palmar side of hand: digits 1, 2, and 3, and lateral side of digit 4 Dorsal side of hand: distal phalanx of digit 1, 2, and 3 Ulnar n. Palmar side of hand: digit 5 and medial side of digit 4 Dorsal side of hand: digit 5 and medial side of digit 4 Radial n. Dorsal side of hand: digits 1, 2, and 3 except the distal phalanx and lateral side of digit 4 Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Thenar muscles Opponens Trapezium Lateral aspect of Opposition of Median n. pollicis m. metacarpal I thumb Abductor Trapezium and Lateral side of Abducts thumb Median n. pollicis brevis scaffoid base of proximal m. phalanx of thumb Flexor pollicis Trapezium Lateral and Flexes thumb Ulnar n. brevis m. medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb Hypothenar muscles Opponens digiti Hook of hamate Lateral aspect of Opposition of Ulnar n. minimi m. metacarpal V little finger Abductor digiti Pisiform Base of Abducts little Ulnar n. minimi m. proximal finger phalanx of digit V Flexor digiti Hook of hamate Medial side of Flexes little Ulnar n. minimi m. proximal finger phalanx of digit 5 MidPalmar Space muscles Adductor Metacarpal III, Medial aspect of Adducts thumb Ulnar n. pollicis m. capitate, and proximal bases of phalanx of metacarpals II thumb and III Lumbrical mm. Metacarpals IIV Bases of dorsal Flexes digits at Median n. and side of distal MP, extends ulnar n. phalanx IIV digits at PIP and DIP Palmar Metacarpals I, Proximal Adducts digits Ulnar n. interossei mm. IV, and V phalanx of same toward midline digit Dorsal interossei Metacarpals on Proximal Abducts digits Ulnar n. mm. contingent sides phalanx of same away from IIIV digit midline Nerve damage Median n. = ape hand Radial n. = no extensors will work, wrist drop Ulnar n. = claw hand Brachial plexus = can be ripped out of spinal cord
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