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Child Psych Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Katie Truppo

Child Psych Exam 1 Study Guide Psych 300

Katie Truppo
GPA 3.4

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Material on exam 1
Child Psychology
Sabrina Lynn Thurman (P)
Study Guide
child development
50 ?




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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 300 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Sabrina Lynn Thurman (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Exam One Study Guide Chapter One Development: Physical and psychological changes in the individual over a lifetime Developmental Psychology: Systematic and scientific study of changes in human behaviors and mental activities over time Goals: Describe behavior Explain behavior Enhance outcomes of children’s lives Theory: Sets of ideas or propositions that help to organize or explain observable phenomena. Leads to predictions about future behavior Five key themes in development 1. How do nature and nurture interact in development? Development is not purely nature or nurture, but a balance of both and are both essential Nature: genetics, biological forces Nurture: environment you were raised in, parents, culture 2. How does the sociocultural context influence development? Children grow up within a larger social community The sociocultural context: Unique customs Values Beliefs about the proper way to raise children Ultimate goals for development 3. Is development continuous or discontinuous? Continuous: gradual, steady, small, quantitative advances Discontinuous: Series of stages, abrupt/rapid changes, dramatic reorganization Series of Stages 4. How do the various domains of development interact? The ultimate aim is to understand the child as a whole individual 5. What factors promote risk or resilience in development? Adversity: Circumstances or events posing a threat to healthy development Resilience: Characteristics that enhance normal development under difficult circumstances Protective Factors: Factors that act as a buffer to the negative effects of the adverse experiences Risk/Vulnerability: Characteristics of the child family or community that elevate impact of adverse factors on the child Renaissance times to the Age of Enlightenment. Children in medieval and renaissance times were not coddled or protected like in today’s society As soon as they were able to contribute, they began work and were treated as small adults John Locke: Believed that the infant’s mind was a Tabula Rasa (“blank slate") Everything they learn is through their experiences Charles Darwin and William Preyer: Both had the goal of relating evolution to development, did that by observing and writing about their own children (“Baby Biographers"). Beginning of systematic study of children and evolution of humans. G. Stanley Hall: Founder of modern psychology, launched study of children in U.S., used questionnaire method with children Alfred Binet: Started the first IQ testing to determine children’s success in school, studied individual differences of children James Mark Baldwin: Systems approach and social development of child (hierarchical progression), studied how child is influenced by different factors and how factors influence each other, formation of personality Basic premise behind learning theory. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained. Behaviorism (Pavlov, Skinner, and Watson) Relatively permanent change in behavior Result of experience (exploration, observation, practice) Classical Conditioning A neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes a reflexive response Neutral stimulus eventually elicits the response by itself Pavolv’s dogs Salivation response of the dogs to bell/his presence stimulation Little Albert Paired neutral stimuli (rabbit, cotton balls) with scary stimuli (loud noises) to elicit response from Baby Albert Eventually when neutral stimuli was shown to baby he became fearful and cried Operant Conditioning Organism produces a response which is rewarded or not The consequence influences the likelihood of future responding Rewarding child for cleaning their room Major contribution of social learning Observational learning: we observe behavior and consequences of others and behave based on those observations Bobo Doll experiment Children shown video of adult punching toy Children then behaved like the adult and punched doll, some even took it further Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory Active Construction of psychological structures Used to interpret experience Mental structures become qualitatively reorganized at difference stages of development Scheme: Organized Pattern of thought of behavior Organization: Tendency for structures and processes to become more systematic and coherent Assimilation: Person interprets new ideas or experiences to fit existing schemas (ideas) Accommodation: Person changes existing schemas (ideas) to fit new ideas or experiences Assimilation + Accommodation = Adaptation (development) To Piaget, adaptation is development Information-processing approach to development Views humans as having limited ability to process information Can be extended to account for development and other domains (language, relationships, social, personality) Continuous development (gradual) Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development Contextual approaches to development. Different things in both the immediate environment and surrounding environment influence child at different levels Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory Child is center, each ring represents interacting biological, social, and cultural influences Microsystem: Immediate environment (home, neighborhood, school) Mesosystem: Interrelationships between pieces of microsystem (poverty may influence school) Exosystem: More distant influence that indirectly affect child (friends of family) Macrosystem: Major historical events and cultural customs influences Chronosystem: constantly changing temporal component of the environment (time period) Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. Emphasizes the importance of cultural tools, symbols, and ways of thinking Child acquires information from more knowledgable members of the community Dynamic systems theory. Emphasizes development as the emerging organization arising from he interaction of many different processes Multi-leveled, multi casual Ethology: evolutionary origins of behavior, adaptive and survival values of animals Sensitive/critical brief period for imprintation Specific experiences have significant positive/negative consequences for development and behavior (Lorenz’s geese) Chapter Two Scientific Method: Use of objective, measurable, and repeatable techniques to gather information Variable: factor having no fixed or constant value in a given situation (e.g. personality) Operational Definition: Specifications of variables that are measured and objective (e.g. scores on personality inventory) Naturalistic Observation Observing without interfering in a real life setting Strengths: Antecedents and consequences of behavior are apparent Weaknesses: Participant reactivity, observer bias, less precision, difficulty establishing cause and effect relationship Structured Observation Observations of behaviors in situations constructed by the experimenter (e.g. laboratory) Strengths: More precision/control over variables Weaknesses: Participant reactivity, observer bias Interviews and Questionnaires Asking children or parents standardized questions about what they know or how they behave (written or verbal) Strengths: Quick, cheap, reaches a larger group Weaknesses: Answers given may not be totally true Meta Analysis Statistical examination of a body of research Assesses the effect of the common central variable Strengths: Pools large body of research findings, more accurate, no participants needed Weaknesses: High skill level needed in statistics, variable definitions may not be identified across studies Correlational Design Researcher sees if changes in one variable are accompanied by the systematic changes in another variable (association) Strengths: Useful when variables cannot be manipulated Weaknesses: Cannot determine cause and effect Experimental Design True Experiment, Field Experiment, Quasi Experiment Allows control over variables Cannot be applied to whole population, sometimes questions cause and effect relationship of variables Case-Study/Single-Case Design In-depth observation of one or a few children Takes place over a period of time Strengths: Helpful for unique cases, does not require large sample Weaknesses: Observer bias, low generalizability Longitudinal Study The same participants are repeatedly tested over a period of time, usually years Strengths: Can examine the stability of characteristics Weaknesses: Require significant dedication and time, high attrition, age history confound Attrition: Participants ending participation in study to focus on other things Age History Confound: Historical events in society that have an impact on participants which influence results Cross-Sectional Study Individuals of different ages are examined at the same point in time Strengths: Less time and money than longitudinal study Weaknesses: Cannot track individual patterns of development or stability traits, Cohort effects Cohort effect: Historical events that impact some of participants but not all Sequential Study Examines groups of individuals of two or more different ages over a period of time Usually shorter than a longitudinal study Strengths: Combines advantages of longitudinal and cross sectional studies, can examine stability of traits over short period Weaknesses: Same problems as longitudinal studies but to a lesser degree Microgenetic Study “Small changes in development" Close observations are made of the individual child’s behavior from one trial to the next Strengths: Permits identification of precise processes Weaknesses: Careful selection of participants Cross-cultural studies of development Compare children from different cultures Special attention must be given to participant Ethnography: Set of methods including observations and interviews, used by researchers to describe the behaviors and underlying meaning systems within a given culture Neuroscientific approaches Study of brain structures and system and their association with behavior Focus on typical and atypical development Use of technological advances Ethical concerns Nonharmful procedures Informed consent Parental consent Debriefing if deception used Explaining to participant what study really was Confidentiality of responses Jeopardy If there’s anything that could jeopardize participants willingness to participate, you have to inform them (old or new info) Inform participants of findings Chapter Three Genotype Set of genetic traits a person inherits A person’s inborn capacity or potential Phenotype Set of traits a person actually displays Combination of the person’s genotype (potential) and life experiences that modify person’s behavior Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Blueprint for genetic inheritance Gene Large segment of nucleotides In DNA Codes for the production of proteins and enzymes Chromosomes Threadlike structures of DNA Located in the nucleus of cells Meiosis: split contains half of genes from each parent Mitosis: split contains same genes from parent (clone) How genetic information is expressed in the traits and behavior of individuals: Genes can present themselves in both physical attributes (skin, hair eyes, etc.) and personality attributes (temperment) Role of the genotype and environment in producing the phenotype: Phenotype: Combination of the person’s genotype (potential) and life experiences that modify person’s behavior Epigenetics and how it explains the impact of environment on phenotype expression: Investigate how environmental factors interact with DNA and its transcription into mRNA Looks at how the combination of environment and genes present themselves through a phenotype Common gene problems Mutation Sudden change in molecular structure of a gene Sickle Cell Anemia: Genetic blood disorder Large proportion of crescent-shaped red blood cells Ineffective in transporting oxygen Common in regions where malaria is found Common among descendants of the people of these regions Chromosomal Variations Down Syndrome Inheritance of extra chromosomal material on chromosomal material on pair #21 Intellectual impairment Distinct physical features Genetic counselors Work with at risk woman (family history age) to help them decide the risks of having children Prenatal Diagnosis: Amniocentesis Sampling the fluid surrounding the fetus Insertion of a needle Used to diagnose fetal genetic and developmental disorders Ultrasonography: Use of sound wave reflections Representation of the fetus Used to estimate gestational age Detect fetal physical abnormalities Passive links Parents transmit traits through genes, the environments they provide, or both Religion Reactive (Evocative) links People react to the characteristics of the child’s genotype Engaged babies get more social interaction Active (Niche Picking) Tendency to actively select an environment compatible with a genotype Temperament: Stable, early-appearing constellation of individual personality attributes Believed to have a hereditary basis Includes: sociability, emotionality, activity level, etc. Chapter Four Stages of Prenatal Development Placenta Support organ formed by cells from both blastocyst and uterine lining Serves as exchange site for oxygen, nutrients, and waste products Umbilical cord Conduit of blood vessels Transports oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between placenta and embryo Amniotic sac Fluid filled, transparent protective membrane Surrounds the fetus Teratology Study of birth disabilities and behavioral problems Environmental influences during prenatal period Critical or sensitive periods Teratogens effects depend on the stage of development during which exposure occurs Dose response relationships Amount of exposure to teratogens influences their subsequent effects Drugs Prescription and frequently used over the counter drugs Alcohol, Amphetamines, Antibiotics, Antidepressants, Antiepileptics, Aspir in, Barbituates, Lithium, Sex hormones, Vitamins, Caffeine, Tobacco Diseases and Infections Mumps Rubella (German measles) Sexually transmitted infections and diseases Herpes HIV (oral or genital) Gonorrhea Environmental Hazards Chemicals and other elements in the environment Lead, mercury, PCBs Dyes, additives, solvents Maternal Conditions Genetic Abnormalities Down Syndrome, PKU, Huntington’s Disease, Sickle Cell, etc. Teratogen Exposure Alcohol, drugs, AIDS, tobacco, Thalidomide, etc. Maternal Age (over 40 or under 18) Low SES Lack of Prenatal Care Nutrition/malnutrition Diabetes Obesity Stress Hypertension Methods of childbirth Cesarean birth Delivery of the baby through a surgical incision in the mother’s abdomen Natural Childbirth Practicing procedures designed to minimize pain Reduce the need for medication during delivery Include a partner and/or trusted companion Consider what type of practitioner might be most beneficial during childbirth Explore different alternatives Midwifery Only 8% of births in US use midwives, but much more common in other countries Lower rates of cesarian section deliveries or other surgical procedures Less use of medication Greater satisfaction with care as reported by mothers Three traditional stages of labor: 1. Brief, mild contractions (10-15 mins apart, last about 11 hours) 2. Descent and birth of the baby (20 mins to 1 hour) 3. Placenta expelled (20 minutes) Newborn Pale, pinkish color regardless of race/ethnicity Covered with oily, cheeselike substance to protect against infection Immediate needs Breathing and regulating body temperature Typically weigh between 5 1/2 - 9 lbs Measure between 18 - 22 in. Assessing newborns APGAR Sometimes scored more than once Appearance Pulse Grimace Activity Respiration


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