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VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY / Biology / BIOL 317 / What is the meaning of population ecology?

What is the meaning of population ecology?

What is the meaning of population ecology?

Description

School: Virginia Commonwealth University
Department: Biology
Course: Ecology
Professor: Bissett
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Ecology, Biology: Ecology and Evolution, Environmental Ecology, and Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Ecology Exam 1 Study Guide (with key)
Description: This study guide covers major concepts that will appear on Exam 1 from chapters 1-5. It also lists out important reminders of what else to study to be successful on Exam 1. Study guide created by Jayda Abrams.
Uploaded: 09/09/2016
18 Pages 52 Views 2 Unlocks
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Ecology Exam 1 Study Guide


What is the meaning of population ecology?



Fill in the blank.

1. Ecology is a true science based in ________, ___________________ and  ______________.

2. Environmental Science studies ________ impact on nature.

3. Match the following.

Physiological Ecology Studies phylogentics using  phylogeny trees

Community Ecology Studies a species response to  the environment

Population Ecology Looks at chemistry, physics and  engineering for the things we make.

System Ecology Computer based dealing with models  and math.

Industrial Ecology Studies species diversity, completion and  succession

Multiple Choice

4. Which of the following is life cycle assessment not measured by? a) Toxicity

b) Production of hazardous waste


What does system ecology mean?



c) Impact on ozone

d) Impact on local agriculture Don't forget about the age old question of What is robert hook's contribution to cell theory?

5. ESA stands for ___________.

a) Ecology Students of America

b) Ecology Scientist of America

c) Ecological Study of Animals

d) Ecological Study of America

6. Ecology is the study of relationships between organisms (______), and their  environment (________).

a) Abiotic, biotic

b) Biotic, abiotic

7. In the hierarchy of levels what is the most broad?

a) Community

b) Population

c) Biosphere

d) Landscape

True or False

8. An ecosystem is a community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit.


What does industrial ecology mean?



9.LTDR has over 100 years of ecological information focused on the population. 10. Ecology is studied with the scientific method.

11. A hypothesis can be accepted.

12. MacArthur’s experiment found that 5 different species of warblers could not co-exist in the same environment.

Short Answer

13. Explain why stable isotope analysis gives information about an organisms  environment.

14. Why is the soil in rainforest nutrition poor?

15. What two factors should always be considered when thinking of a scale of ecology? Don't forget about the age old question of Functionalism theory is the theory of what?

Fill in the blank.

16. ________ is the study of pollen.

17. The sun drives _________.

18. Seasonality is caused by __________________.

Multiple Choice

19. _______ of the sun’s light is reflected and ________ is absorbed as heat. a) 20%, 80%

b) 30%, 70%

c) 40%, 60%

d) 50%, 50%

20. Energy input can be absorbed by __________ and __________ or can be  converted to kinetic energy in the form of wind. If you want to learn more check out What is the main purpose of secondary growth in a woody stem?
If you want to learn more check out What is habituation in psychology?

a) oceans, deserts

b) rainforest, grasslands We also discuss several other topics like what are the issues or concerns in conducting observational research?

c) ice caps, temperate forests

21. Which of the following do not help form ocean currents? Don't forget about the age old question of Who is victor charles mahillon?

a) air currents

b) tides  

c) position of contents  

d) radiation

22. Which of the following helps make up a biome?

a) weather

b) climate

c) location of water source

d) rocks

Short Answer

23. What are the five functions of soil?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Long Answer

24. What are the layers of soil and what are they made up of?

25. The acronym CLORPT stands for…

CL

O

R

P

T

26. What is the difference between the E horizon and the B horizon?

True or False.

27. Regional climate influences and defines the regional weather.

28. Temperature and moister are very linked. The link is driven by an excess of vapor  pressure.

29. Elevation effect altitude and mimics longitude.

30. On climate diagrams 10 deg c equivalent to 20m precipitation.

Fill in the blanks about the specified biome.

31. Tropical Rainforest

o Mostly occur within ________ of equator

o Little temperature variation between months (high temps year round) o Annual rainfall of __________ mm relatively evenly distributed

▪ Quickly leaches soil nutrients

▪ Myccorhizae help gather _______

o Organisms add __________ dimension.

o Harbor of staple ________ and _______ for world’s human populations – increasingly exploited.  

32. Tropical Dry Forest

o Usually located between ______ and _____ latitude.  

o Climate ______ seasonal than tropical rainforests.  

o Soils are generally richer in nutrients, but ________.

o Shares many animals and plant species with tropical rainforest. o Heavily settled by humans with extensive clearing for _______.

33. Tropical Savanna

o Mostly occur ______ and _______of tropical dry forests within 10 ˚ and 20 ˚ of the equator

o Climates alternate between wet and dry seasons

▪ Drought associated with dry season leads to lightning and causes  ___________.

o Soils have ________ water permeability.

34. ____________

o Major bands at 30 ˚ north and 30 ˚ south.

▪ Occupies about 20% of earth’s land surface.

o Water loss usually exceeds precipitation.

o Soil is usually extremely low in organic matter.

o Plant cover ranges from sparse to absent.

o Animal abundance is low, but biodiversity may be high.

35. Mediterranean Woodland/____________

o Occurs in all continents except _______

o Climate is cool and moist in the fall, winter, and spring, but can be hot and  dry in the summer.

o Fragile soils with _______fertility.

o Trees and shrubs typically ___________.

o ___________ plants due to fire regime.

o Long history of human intrusion.

▪ Cleared for ___________.

36. Temperate Grassland

o Annual rainfall of ___________.

o Soils tend to be ___________.

37. Temperate Forest (Old Growth)

o Majority lies between ____________ latitude.

o Rainfall average is between ___________mm.

o Fertile soils

▪ Long growing seasons dominated by deciduous plants

38. _______________

o Confined to northern hemisphere.

o Thin, acidic soils low in fertility.

o Relatively high animal density.

o Historically low levels of human intrusion.

39. Tundra

o Covers most of lands _________ of the Arctic Circle.

▪ Climate typically cool and dry with _________ summers.

∙ 200 to _______ mm of precipitation.

o _______decomposition rates.

o Supports substantial numbers of native mammals.

o Human intrusion historically _________, but increasing as  resources become scarce.

40. Mountains: Islands in the Sky

o Built by geological processes and thus concentrated in belts of  ____________.

o Climate changes with __________ and _________.

o Soils are generally ____________ and ___________.

o Flora and _________ change with elevation.

o Historically used as a source of raw materials for human  settlements.

Multiple Choice.

41. Which of the following is not true about a microclimate:

a) Climate on a local scale.

b) Within 5m of the ground, (tufts of grasses, around an individual plant, etc.) c) Climate surrounding individuals.

d) Climate surrounding organism parts. Examples: a single leaf or a tick/flea  on a deer.

42. ___________ correlates well with the general distribution pattern of species;  and _________ is more important to individuals of species, resulting in a patchy  dispersion within the general distribution or range.  

a) Microclimate, macroclimate

b) Macroclimate, microclimate

c) Population, diversity

43. Lakes, streams and rivers are all examples of which type of ecosystem?

a) Freshwater

b) Saltwater

c) Marine

d) Estuarine

44. Fill in the chart.

Saltwater

(from  

________)

_______ppt

________  

Water

(Brine pools,  where  

saltwater  

gets washed  in and sits  

there, Great  Salt Lake)

______+ppt

Saline Water _______ ppt

___________ 

Water

Between  

______

5-30ppt

____________

Less than 1

0-.5

Ecology Exam 1 Study Guide Key

Fill in the blank.

1. Ecology is a true science based in biology, natural history and environmental science.

2. Environmental Science studies man’s impact on nature.

3. Match the following.

Physiological Ecology Studies phylogentics using  phylogeny trees

Community Ecology Studies a species response to  the environment

Population Ecology Looks at chemistry, physics and  engineering for the things we make.

System Ecology Computer based dealing with models  and math.

Industrial Ecology Studies species diversity, completion and  succession

Multiple Choice

4. Which of the following is life cycle assessment not measured by? a) Toxicity

b) Production of hazardous waste

c) Impact on ozone

d) Impact on local agriculture

5. ESA stands for ___________.

a) Ecology Students of America

b) Ecology Scientist of America

c) Ecological Study of Animals

d) Ecological Study of America

6. Ecology is the study of relationships between organisms (______), and their  environment (________).

a) Abiotic, biotic

b) Biotic, abiotic

7. In the hierarchy of levels what is the most broad?

a) Community

b) Population

c) Biosphere

d) Landscape

True or False

8. An ecosystem is a community of organisms and their physical environment interacting as an ecological unit. True

9.LTDR has over 100 years of ecological information focused on the population. False 10. Ecology is studied with the scientific method. True

11. A hypothesis can be accepted. False

12. MacArthur’s experiment found that 5 different species of warblers could not co-exist in the same environment. False  

Short Answer

13. Explain why stable isotope analysis gives information about an organisms  environment. Different isotopes have different nutritional value and are found in different  locations.

14. Why is the soil in rainforest nutrition poor? Heavy rainfall washes away nutrients and  nutrients are taken in by plants and stored almost immediately.

15. What two factors should always be considered when thinking of a scale of ecology? Time and space

Fill in the blank.

16. Palynology is the study of pollen.

17. The sun drives climate.

18. Seasonality is caused by global energy balance.

Multiple Choice

19. _______ of the sun’s light is reflected and ________ is absorbed as heat. a) 20%, 80%

b) 30%, 70%

c) 40%, 60%

d) 50%, 50%

20. Energy input can be absorbed by __________ and __________ or can be  converted to kinetic energy in the form of wind.

a) oceans, deserts

b) rainforest, grasslands

c) ice caps, temperate forests.

21. Which of the following do not help form ocean currents?

a) air currents

b) tides  

c) position of contents  

d) radiation

22. Which of the following helps make up a biome?

a) weather

b) climate

c) location of water source

d) rocks

Short Answer

23. What are the five functions of soil?

1. Area for plant growth

2. Recycling system

3. Way for water to be supplied to plants and purified

4. Engineering medium

5. Habitat for organism

Long Answer

24. What are the layers of soil and what are they made up of?

Organic layer- Made up of plant litter and branches.

Mineral layer- Made up of clay and some organic matter that is capable of dissolving water.

Deposition layer- Water flow that breaks down organic matter.

Parent layer- Rocks

25. The acronym CLORPT stands for…

CLimate

Organic material  

Relief  

Parent rock

Time

26. What is the difference between the E horizon and the B horizon?

The E horizon is where lots of organic matter flushes through and the B horizon is  where the organic matter is being flushed from.

True or False.

27. Regional climate influences and defines the regional weather. False  

28. Temperature and moister are very linked. The link is driven by an excess of vapor  pressure. False  

29. Elevation effect altitude and mimics longitude. False

30. On climate diagrams 10 deg c equivalent to 20m precipitation. False

Fill in the blanks about the specified biome.

31. Tropical Rainforest

o Mostly occur within 10˚ latitude of equator

o Little temperature variation between months (high temps year round) o Annual rainfall of 2000-4000 mm relatively evenly distributed

▪ Quickly leaches soil nutrients

▪ Myccorhizae help gather nutrients

o Organisms add vertical dimension.

o Harbor of staple foods and medicine for world’s human populations – increasingly exploited.

32. Tropical Dry Forest

o Usually located between 10˚ and 25˚ latitude.  

o Climate more seasonal than tropical rainforests.  

o Soils are generally richer in nutrients, but vulnerable to erosion. o Shares many animals and plant species with tropical rainforest. o Heavily settled by humans with extensive clearing for agriculture.

33. Tropical Savanna

o Mostly occur north and south of tropical dry forests within 10 ˚ and 20 ˚ of  the equator

o Climates alternate between wet and dry seasons

▪ Drought associated with dry season leads to lightning and causes  wildfires.

o Soils have low water permeability.

34. Desert

o Major bands at 30 ˚ north and 30 ˚ south.

▪ Occupies about 20% of earth’s land surface.

o Water loss usually exceeds precipitation.

o Soil is usually extremely low in organic matter.

o Plant cover ranges from sparse to absent.

o Animal abundance is low, but biodiversity may be high.

35. Mediterranean Woodland/Shrublands

o Occurs in all continents except Antartica

o Climate is cool and moist in the fall, winter, and spring, but can be hot and  dry in the summer.

o Fragile soils with moderate fertility.

o Trees and shrubs typically evergreen.

o Fire-Resistant plants due to fire regime.

o Long history of human intrusion.

▪ Cleared for agriculture.

36. Temperate Grassland

o Annual rainfall of 300-100mm.

o Soils tend to be nutrient.

37. Temperate Forest (Old Growth)

o Majority lies between 40 ˚ and 50 ˚ latitude.

o Rainfall average is between 650-3000 mm.

o Fertile soils

▪ Long growing seasons dominated by deciduous plants

38.Boreal Forest

o Confined to northern hemisphere.

o Thin, acidic soils low in fertility.

o Relatively high animal density.

o Historically low levels of human intrusion.

39. Tundra

o Covers most of lands north of the Arctic Circle.

▪ Climate typically cool and dry with short summers.

∙ 200 to 600 mm of precipitation.

o Low decomposition rates.

o Supports substantial numbers of native mammals.

o Human intrusion historically low, but increasing as resources become  scarce.

40. Mountains: Islands in the Sky

o Built by geological processes and thus concentrated in belts of geological  activity.

o Climate changes with latitude andelevation.

o Soils are generally thin and well drained.

o Flora and fauna change with elevation.

o Historically used as a source of raw materials for human settlements.

Multiple Choice.

41. Which of the following is not true about a microclimate:

a) Climate on a local scale.

b) Within 5m of the ground, (tufts of grasses, around an individual plant, etc.) c) Climate surrounding individuals.

d) Climate surrounding organism parts. Examples: a single leaf or a tick/flea on a deer.

42. ___________ correlates well with the general distribution pattern of species; and  _________ is more important to individuals of species, resulting in a patchy dispersion  within the general distribution or range.  

a) Microclimate, macroclimate

b) Macroclimate, microclimate

c) Population, diversity

43. Lakes, streams and rivers are all examples of which type of ecosystem? a) Freshwater

b) Saltwater

c) Marine

d) Estuarine

44. Fill in the chart.

Saltwater

(from oceans) 35ppt

Brine Water

(Brine pools,  where  

saltwater gets  washed in and  sits there,  

Great Salt  

Lake)

50+ppt

Saline Water

30-35 ppt

Brackish 

Water

Between 1-30

5-30ppt

Freshwater  

Less than 1

0-.5

Important to Remember:

-Test 1 is supposed to cover chapters 1-5

-This study guide does not include topics covered on Friday (9/9/16) and Monday  (9/12/2016)

-Know about Whittaker Graphs

-For each biome know:

∙ What type of precipitation and temperature occurs?

∙ Where does it occur?

∙ What is the general climate?

∙ What is the dominant growth form?

∙ What adaptations may lead to organism success??

-Read notes from chapters 1-5 of the textbook and review previous homework problems  for practice.

Good luck!

-Jayda

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