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by: Nicolette Notetaker

SOCI_411_Notes_Pt2.pdf SOCI 411

Nicolette Notetaker
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.5

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These notes cover what's going to be on Exam 1, which is about the Classical Sociological Theory known as Functionalism. It covers information about Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, and Herbert Spenc...
Sociological Theory
Mr. Hua-Lun Huang
Study Guide
sociology, sociological perspective
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicolette Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 411 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Hua-Lun Huang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Sociological Theory in Sociology & Anthropology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
Highlight – Important Person Highlight- Main Keyword Highlight- Key Term Highlight Key Concept Functionalism  Three Sociological Paradigms I. Functionalism Theory II. Conflict Theory III. Symbolic Interactionism I. Functionalism 1. deals with notion of “equality”, where we can visualize society as a human body; also can be related to the biological anatomy 2. with this theory, all social parts are just as important as one another (these parts tend to play different functions); also deals with term “interdependency” (where different parts depend on one another) 3. Another important term  “cooperation”  when all segments of society must unite with each other 4. Other terms associated with this theory  “Harmony/Order” –relevant pieces to functionalism II. Conflict Theory – is opposite from the Functionalism theory (deals with concept of “inequality”) ; in this society, no human society is entirely equivalent 1. Relevant terms – “Corporation/Factory” – how parts tend to operate in this society; similar to how people work in a corporation or factory I ranking positions from CEO, manager, employees, etc. 2. Deals with a form social hierarchy – what this theory is centered around; in the long run, every individual will assign work or decisions for others; this is can actually be compared to our own reality 3. Qualities of this theory  Domination, Suppression, Competition, Injustice, Exploitation, Inequality III. Symbolic Interactionism- where we can imagine society as “theater”, and everyone plays a role amongst the audience and behind the curtain 1. All individuals are either actors or actresses. (when people do not remain accustomed to the roles they are used to portraying, they may be labeled, stigmatized among others in society 2. Usually, the actions individuals choose involve some sort of meaning- deals with concept of “attachment” 3. “Definition of a situation” (routines that are second-nature to us, some form of a habitual routine 4. “Stigmatization”  when people are categorized. This means everyone is constantly aware of their actions among others in society and realize they are being observed. Notable Functionalists One in particular, Auguste Comte. - he explained we can split human society into three parts : st Knowledge Component – (1 difference) *how to distinguish amongst each soc.* 1. Theological Society- dealing with theology (authority) Ex: a society completely structured by religion, (such as the Islamic nation); in these groups people tend to follow certain traditions based of their religion; a very sacred society 2. Metaphysical Society- dealing with a “mysterious” perspective Ex: such as political myths  politicians may by considered holier- than thou and this usually occurs in a totalitarian society (parts of the Middle East, Nazi Germany, and North Korea) and is used to support “dictatorship” 3. Positivistic Society- governed around science, such as the American society for example, where science is the awareness involving causal relationships; must use causal argument to determine particular relationships, creation of products, and to justify findings (numerous knowledge provides numerous outcomes) Structure  2 nddifference  (Comte) This component must be “stabilized” in order to work. - Structure involves: interpersonal/social relationships (such as family, couples, friends) and the dispersal of social resources - Structure is can also be determined by ascribed status (status you earn in society based on demographic or biological factors  gender,age, political affiliation, religious affiliation) and achieved status (status you earn in society based on particular achievements) - In terms of social structure: referring to conservative or exclusive societies 1. Structure of a Theological Society  mostly conservative, very exclusive (Ex: in Islamic culture, people who marry each other because of same religion is mostly favored upon, marrying someone outside of religious affiliation is not favored upon) 2. Structure of a Metaphysical Society  centered around ascribed status, extremely conservative and exclusive (Ex. Klu Klux Klan (KKK)- very conservative and very exclusive group because of skin color) 3. Structure of Positivistic Society  vastly liberal and inclusive; this society is based on achieved status  again refers to individual achievements (Ex. One important aspect of ascribed status  gender) Most Influential Social Unit – 3 rd Difference (Comte) 1. In Theological Society, the most influential social unit is the church (what its society is based upon and also an important factor in decision-making/rule –making) 2. In Metaphysical Society, the most influential social unit is a political organization. (main focus of this society) 3. In Positivistic Society, the most influential social unit is a corporation. (able to produce ‘financial resources’ for entire society, mainly due to technology) Integration – 4 thdifference (Comte) - using “collective violence” to ensure order (used in Theological & Metaphysical Societies)  unreasonable to a certain extent - Example of collective violence  form of public punishment (Ex. In Islamic society or Saudi Arabia) - In positivistic society  rely upon consensus (accord) in order for society to remain integrated  using democratic decision making in order to do so; this society is known as a rational society, where emotions lead to calculations (or answers) The second notable functionalist was Emile Durkheim. -He said we can divide human society into two main categories: a mechanical society and an organic society.  1 Variable - Collective Consciousness (combination of all social customs, values, norm, expectation, and philosophy) Collective Consciousness can be broken down into 4 other subcategories: 1. Volume (certain quantity/how many social practices and rules that individuals should follow) 2. Content (if people in society can distinguish/identify all social customs and whether these social customs are dominant) 3. Clarity – (if those components are clear and understood amongst all members of society 4. Control – (deals with power/ability of those elements to regulate social members; power can be described as either strong or weak) -Volume in Mechanical Society: very homogeneous (follow same traditions, like a small village for example), but don’t have many options and doesn’t tend to share many social customs -Volume in Organic Society- very heterogeneous (Ex. A big city)  has more choices; people tend to partake in many social practices (often countless) -Content in Mechanical Society- there’s clarity that will be recognized will involve social taboos and customs will be ‘sacred’ -Content in Organic Society – there’s no content, countless numbers, not easily recognized -Clarity in Mechanical Society- rules are understood/clear for the most part -Clarity in Organic Society- social traditions will become unclear, and highly debatable -Control in Mechanical Society- has strong influence upon social customs -Control in Organic Society- has weak influence upon social customs nd  2 variable – Collective Representation (symbols, signs, pictures, gestures, diagrams); “eye-washing” elements (Ex. National symbol of the United States)  Volume (of Mechanical Soc.)  not many; Volume (of Organic soc.)  a number of representations/symbols  Clarity (of Mechanical soc.)  mainly clear/understood (sacred value); Clarity (of Organic Soc.)  numerous signs; vague  Content (of Mechanical)  distinguishable; concrete; Content (of Organic)  cannot be completely ‘listed’  Control (of Mechanical)  overall strong influence to regulate its members; Control (of Organic)  overall weak influence to regulate its members  Legal Code (of Mechanical) straightforward, simple (means of punishment –‘repression oriented’ in order to control social deviance); Legal Code (of Organic)  complex, complicated (uses methods of restoration and preservation to assist members in maintaining or restoring the status quo and in sustaining social order) *In the end, as long as deviant actions don’t result in total turmoil, social deviance will still be tolerated (in Organic Society); however, social deviance will not be tolerated (in Mechanical society). *When it comes to interpersonal relationships, Mechanical society will be categorized as (rigid/inflexible, fixed); organic society will be known as flexible/progressive/alternative). *Durkheim explained you could transform from uncomplicated, mechanical society to complex, organic society. -this is due to population growth  division of labor  turns into a creation of jobs  in result, this leads to a “specialization” of career opportunities (to support populations of our society) o In the midst of transformation, (three problems can occur) 1. Anomic Division of Labor  during alteration, social traditions may halt operations; and this often occurs in a complicated society 2. Forced Division of Labor  due to some situations, individuals may be designated to jobs they loathe 3. Poorly Coordinated Division of Labor  not really being sure of how to perform for a job; this may lead to the wrong decisions *this doesn’t occur all the time, but occasionally* *social traditions/old customs may be unacceptable *may lead to social pathology (Ex. This took place in the former Soviet Union); may be poorly structured *these three problems may influence individuals to commit suicide 4 Types of Suicide: 1. Anomie Suicide- when social practice can no longer afford to offer ‘behavioral guides’ for members of society; may cause depression and as a result, suicide; people may become very anxious, depressed, and hopeless 2. Fatalistic Suicide when society turns into ‘highly suppressive’ one; as a result, people may tend to ‘lose hope’, and this is generated by “political suppression” 3. Egotistic Suicide a group of people may think a catastrophe will take place in the near future (because of a natural disaster) 4. Altruistic Suicide  when some individuals may commit a possible suicide because they believe this will bring about the greater good or change in society; they may think this will ultimately improve suicide and people commit this because of social goods Third Notable Functionalist  Hebert Spencer  Spencer noted, that we society can be broken down into 4 various societies: (1) undifferentiated society, (2) compounding society, (3) secondary compounding society, and (4) trebly compounding society  Spencer also explains: human society will convert from civilized (basic living) to the most complex society. 1 Variable – REGULATION (social control of each society) o Undifferentiated society –-> living is not complex but simple and “tribal”; social order is regulated by “pure violence” o Compounding society living is farming-based; in this society, social control is maintained by village leaders through “local authority” o Secondary Compounding society –-> emerging or growing society; this society sustains social control via “government” o Trebly compounding society-very complex society ( can be either a military or industrial society); social control is sustained by “interest groups” or through “consensus” a. military society, for instance may be similar to Nazi Germany; controlled by military leadership  (component of “militariansim”) b. industrial society can be related to modern America (which is controlled by a form of “democracy”) 2nd variable – OPERATION (way society will function) st  1 element  operation (of religion) 1. undifferentiated societypractices polytheism 2. compounding society both polytheism and monotheism are practiced 3. secondary compounding society both polytheism and monotheism are practiced, but monotheism is more popular overall 4. trebly compounding society  both polytheism and monotheism are practiced but monotheism is more popular overall; many various religions to practice (Sidenote :one popular religion being Christianity); able to examine various “religious sects”  2 ndelement  operation (of family) 1. undifferentiated society  incest is frequent because there are not many options to chose from in this society (Sidenote: this will become a social taboo once society becomes more complex) 2. compounding society  incest is traded for arranged marriages in this society 3. secondary compounding  individuals begin to aim towards equal marriage (such as social structure or social class) 4. trebly compounding society  diverse marriage is the main focus of this society (various social structure containing single-parent households, gay marriage, and cohabitation)  3 rdelement  operation (of law) 1. undifferentiated society  no official set of rules (practice informal rules/customs) 2. compounding society  one specific law used to solve one issue, form of a legal system; abstract and vague law, can be applied to various walks of life 3. secondary compounding society  follows civil law system, where the laws are more particular) 4. trebly compounding society  rules have are very thpecified and professional; huge number of laws  4 element – organization (of community) 1. undifferentiated society –-> completely homogenous (a.k.a Gemeinschaft) with (relocation is not really likely) 2. Compounding society –-> small villages (a.k.a Gemeinschaft), not as similar to undifferentiated society (relocation is more personal and can begin to observe some heterogeneous components) 3. Secondary compounding society  heterogeneous society (similar to a Gesellschaft, composed of huge towns and cities) 4. Trebly compounding society  authentic Gesellschaft (composed of metropolitan cities, and many expanded areas)  not likely to practice similar rules, values, customs, behaviors, and marriage systems  5 thelement- organization (of stratification) 1. undstferentiated society ndbased on a two tiered system ( 1 level clan leader, 2 level follower) 2. compounding society  based on a three-tiered system (1 level– local officials/political power holders, 2nd level rd – local gentry, 3 level – followers {serfs/slaves} ) 3. secondary compounding society  based on a four- tiered system; (1 st le- ruling elites, 2d le- local officials, 3d le- local gentry, 4th le- public followers [serfs/slaves, who are the least resourceful] ) 4. trebly compounding society  based on a five-tiered system (1 st le- ruling elites, 2d lev–local officials, 3 level – local gentry {such as influentials like priests, th professors, and famed musicians), 4 level – the public, 5 level- marginalized populations {such as abandoned/isolated populations composed of prostitutes, drug dealers, and gang members} ) Form of movement 1. Undifferentiated society – no form of social movement 2. Compounding society – mobility is rare 3. Secondary compounding society –sometimes mobility occurs 4. Trebly compounding society – mobility is frequent nd 2 variable stISTRIBUTION  1 element – Distribution ( of material) 1. undifferentiated society  method of bartering is used 2. compounding society  agricultural methods are used (resources allocated and formed by clan leaders/power holders 3. secondary compounding society  material is distributed by the government 4. trebly compounding society  materials are allocated by professional associations  2 nd element- Distribution (of information) 1. Undifferentiated society  information is given by clan leaders 2. Compounding society  information is given by travelers 3. Secondary Compounding Society  information is distributed by the government 4. Trebly Compounding Society  information is distributed through the media  3 element – Distribution (of social positions) 1. Undifferentiated society  social positions are established by ascribed status (demographic factors like gender or race) 2. Compounding society  social positions are determined by ascribed and achieved status (Note: check to make sure because I may have this part wrong) 3. Secondary compounding society social position determined by ascribed and achieved status 4. Trebly compounding society  social position determined by achieved status (these societies can be military or industrial societies a. Military societies - Regulation- wanting every social member to show total obligation in order to transform society into a combined unit - Operation- is obtained through social order by military power/strength - Distribution- is done through a planned economy b. Industrial societies - Regulation- (didn’t catch this part of what he said) - Operation – through equality - Distribution – through social welfare (resources are allocated so that no one will become too rich or too poor) Five Reasoning Models *used to describe evolution of human society 1. Unilinear Model – human society will constantly develop from the simplest unit to a more complicated unit, and finally the most complicated unit -Durkheim, Spencer and Comte all shared ideals similar to this 2.Espisodic Model – when a huge result occurs and becomes very complex because of a social event (Ex. Such as the events of 9/11 and military conquests) 3. Imminent Change  an internal and immense change; a new knowledge system  nature of human society may differ (Ex, the Industrial Revolution in England that occurred which changed from an agricultural society to a developed society) 4. Cyclical Model – development of human society will repeat itself again and again; a never-ending process (changes from simplest to most complicated society) 5. Multi-Linear Model- simple society can follow various paths/directions (Ex. People who are on the want economic growth, having various options in order to transform into expanding societies) -Possibilities include Westernization, and Americanization - Different paths of development can also transform from the simplest unit to the most complicated unit Third Notable Functionalist  Herbert Parsons Parsons said that there are different developments for social action and human society can be considered social systems I. Typology of Social Action 1. Nature (3 forms): o Instrumental (acts that deal with money and economic events); such as receiving a check o Expressive (actions that involve emotion), such as comforting a child o Moral (acts that are socially/culturally expected; norms or “prosocial” actions), such as driving the speed limit 2. Pattern (2 pairs) o Affection acts vs. affection-neutral acts o Diffuse acts vs. specific acts st *1 social action, according to COVERAGE : We can sort patterned actions into categories -affection acts  emotional involvement - affection-neutral acts  does not involve emotion nd *2 social action, according to OBLIGATION: -diffuse acts  all individuals have the power to make actions (ex. Paying taxes) -specific acts  only a select few have the chance to make actions rd *3 social action, according to STANDARD: -universal acts involve specific standards (ex. All high schoolers who take standardized tests, voting behavior) -particular acts  accord. to some standards, only a few people need to take on those actions (taking the GMAT to get into business school) *4 social action, according to SOCIAL IDENTITY AND PERFORMANCE: -ascribed actions  these social actions are gender, race oriented (Ex. Male-dominated sport such as football, and a female-dominated sport such as beach volleyball) -achieved actions  these actions involve personal achievement and is not related to gender/race *5 action, according to COOPERATION: - personal acts  performed by individuals (Ex. Muslims practicing 5x/day) - collective actions  performed by groups of people (Ex. academic performance) Parsons said we can also divide a combination of three actions into four social systems/subsystems: o Certain affective actions can be considered: 1. Instrumental action (Ex.) – parents paying tuition for kids because of things like affection and love 2. Expressive action (Ex.)- sending sympathy card/Christmas cards to friends to express your condolences for them 3. Moral action (Ex.) : taking care of parents or children; medical care o Certain social actions are affection-neutral, these actions can also be considered: 1. Instrumental action (Ex.) – getting approved for a loan at the bank 2. Expressive action (Ex.)- most nurses taking care of patients because it’s their job 3. Moral action (Ex.)- car dealers have moral obligations to tell you everything about the car not because they like you, but because of moral behavior o Certain social actions are diffused, these actions can also be: 1. Instrumental action (Ex.)- everyone has an obligation to pay taxes 2. Expressive action (Ex.)- parental love; having the obligation to show love to children 3. Moral action (Ex.)- providing shelter to stray dogs/homeless people o Certain social actions are specific, these actions can be considered: 1. Instrumental action (Ex.)– alimony; not all husbands have the obligation to give financial support to their wives 2. Expressive action (Ex.)- paramedics taking care of an injured person in the street 3. Moral action (Ex.)  only people using the toilet have the obligation to flush the toilet In result: (*Note, I= Instrumental, E=Expressive, and M=Moral) -Affection acts  I (1), E, & M -Affection-neutral acts  I (2), E, & M -Diffuse acts  I (3), E, & M -Specific acts I (4), E, & M -Universal acts  I (5), E, & M -Particular acts  I (6), E, & M -Ascribed acts  I (7), E, & M -Achieved acts  I (8), E, & M -Collective acts  I (9), E, & M -Personal acts  I (10), E, & M II. Emergence of Social Systems o According to emergence of social systems, the combination of all Is (Instrumental acts)  I (10)  allows people to create economic system in society (Ex. buying, trading, selling, shopping)  always involve money o The main function of economic society: to help its members adapt to the environment (adaptation) o Of all Es and Ms, the combination of these acts will allow people to form a cultural system in their society.


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