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by: Savannah Pope

PSWk2 POLS 2401 031

Savannah Pope

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About this Document

short hand, lecture and book analysis
Global Issues
Study Guide
political science, GlobalIssues
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Pope on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 2401 031 at Georgia State University taught by Schaefer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Political Science: Global Issues 2401 Week 2 Chapters 3+4: The Threat of Weapons Proliferation, Nationalism and the Clash of  Identities Proliferation ­ the growth or production of cells by multiplication of parts. a rapid and often  excessive spread or increase: weapon proliferation.  Proliferation is not a distant problem, Arms build­up in high tension = higher chances of military contact/increase of weapon systems ­ When government devote funds to large armies or WMD (weapons of Mass  Destruction), they divert resources from programs like education and healthcare. Types of Proliferation – Vertical Proliferation, Horizontal Proliferation, Conventional Weapons,  WMD’S Vertical ­ Development and stockpiling of weapons in one country. Horizontal ­ Spread of weapons/weapons technology across borders. Conventional ­ Weapon systems that make up military arsenals (guns, tanks, bullets, planes,  etc.) WMD’S ­ Special weapons that have devastating effects when used in small numbers. Vertical Proliferation of Conventional Weapons: oldest form of proliferation, challenges  global stability by – a. Stockpiling = more weapons for conflict in government and citizens, b.  High social cost = trade­offs b/t defense programs, cuts in social welfare money for citizens o Development of military strategies and stockpiled weapons = high chance of  war. o Conventional weapons = more sophisticated and destructive o Military cost rise = decline in economic growth and increase in gov’t debt Horizontal Proliferation of Conventional Weapons: spread of conventional weapons/weapons technology across country borders through arms sales = legitimate transfers of weapons from  sellers to buyers in the international arms market. o Corporate greed may be driving the world more towards major conflict  o Arms trade = big business, USA #1 in sales o Arms customers – allies in the developing world, h/e not always sold to  countries considered traditional allies. Legal and illegal arms sales contribute  to civil war Vertical Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Three categories of WMD’S;  Nuclear, Biological and Chemical o Nuclear: devices with huge explosive power, based on atomic fission/fusion.  Use of Nukes to end WWII = beginning of arms races b/t US + Soviet Union. o Chemical: work by spreading poisons that decapitate, injure or kill with their  toxic effects on the body. They are more lethal and destructive. Cheap and  simple compared to Nuclear and Biological weaponry. o Biochemical weapons are microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses or fungi WWI ­ introduction of mustard gas, kills 91,000 soldiers, injures over 1 million in 1917;  introduction of tear gas by Germany. ­ Anthrax = most common example; has as many as 10 million lethal doses per gram. 731­ Japanese program aimed at testing biochemical weapons on citizens in near  villages. Brits fear Jap results, develop Anthrax Bombs, 1943 USA begins biochemical  weapons program. ­ 1969 Nixon calls stop to development of Biological weaponry, in two years USA  shuts down all production of chemical and biological weapons. ­ 1974 – A stand­off b/t Pakistan and India ensues; India detonates a “peaceful nuclear  weapon” May 1998; India detonates 5 more underground nuclear bombs; Pakistan  responds w/ 6. ­ 1979 – Soviet Union releases accidental bomb of Anthrax North Korea st ­ Tested 1  Nuclear bomb October 2006 ­ According to Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, several countries are  considered “high risks” if they obtain use of Biological Weaponry (North Korea +  Islam are the top two) ­ GWB (BUSH) “the greatest danger we face is that the world’s most dangerous people will get their hands on the world’s most dangerous weapons. WMD Systems: Countries build them for security and prestige,


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