Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 1406 02
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by locnaschek on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1406 02 at Lamar University taught by Dr. Randall Terry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see General Biology I (Majors) in Biology at Lamar University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Important Terms Each section is highlighted a different color, and the more important words are underlined. The full, and more complex, definitions of these words can be found in the biology textbook if necessary. Chapter 1 (Introduction to Biology) Yellow=1.1 Blue=1.2 Green=1.3 Pink=1.4 Biology The scientific study of life Evolution Descent with modification, the theory that living species are descended from an ancestral species different from the presentday ones Emergent Properties New properties that arise with every step up the hierarchy of life, due to the increasing complexity of the arrangement and interactions of parts Systems Biology An approach to studying biology that aims to model the behavior of a whole system by studying the interaction of its parts Eukaryotic Cells A type of cell that has a membraneenclosed nucleus and other organelles Prokaryotic Cells A type of cell that lacks a membraneenclosed nucleus or other organelles Domain Bacteria One of two prokaryotic domains Domain Archaea The other of the two prokaryotic domains Domain Eukarya The domain that encompasses all eukaryotes Natural Selection A process in which the individuals that inherit certain traits tend to survive longer and reproduce more than others due to those traits Inductive Reasoning A type of logic in which generalizations are created based on a large amount of specific observations Deductive Reasoning A type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a generalization Hypothesis A testable explanation for a set of observations based on already known data guided by inductive reasoning, lower scope than a theory Controlled Experiments An experiment in which the experimental group is compared to the control group whose only variation is the dependent variable (the one being tested) Theory An explanation broader in scope than a hypothesis that generates new hypotheses and is supported by evidence Technology The application of scientific knowledge for a purpose Chapter 2 (Biochemistry) Yellow=2.1 Blue=2.2 Green=2.3 Pink=2.4 Element A substance that cannot be broken down into another substance by a chemical reaction Compound A substance consisting of at least two different elements combined in a specific ratio Atom The smallest unit of matter that can retain the properties of an element Proton A subatomic particle with a positive charge found in the nucleus of an atom Neutron A subatomic particle with a neutral charge found in the nucleus of an atom Electron A subatomic particle with a negative charge found outside the nucleus of an atom Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, different for each element Atomic Mass The total mass of an atom found by adding the protons and neutrons in the nucleus, measured in atomic mass units or amu Valence Shell The outermost energy level of an atom that is involved in chemical reactions Orbitals The 3D space in which electrons are found outside the nucleus of an atom Chemical Bonds An interaction between atoms occurring in the valence shell in order to gain a full outer shell Covalent Bonds A strong chemical bond in which two atoms share pair(s) of valence electrons Ionic Bonds A chemical bond between two opposite charged atoms in which the share is so one sided that the electrons are essentially transferred from one atom to another Hydrogen Bonds A weak chemical bond formed when a polar water molecule is attracted to the opposite charged side of another water molecule Polar Covalent Bonds A covalent bond between atoms with different electronegativities Nonpolar Covalent Bonds A covalent bond between atoms with very similar electronegativities Molecules Two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds Electronegativity The tendency of an atom to attract electrons, unique to every element Chemical Reactions The making, and breaking, of chemical bonds that change the composition of matter Reactants The materials on the left side of a chemical reaction (put in) Products The materials on the right side of a chemical reaction (get out) Chemical Equilibrium The state of a chemical reaction in which the forward of a reaction is equal to the reverse of the same reaction Chapter 5 (Macromolecules) Yellow=5.1 Blue=5.2 Green=5.3 Pink=5.5 Red=5.6 Polymers A large molecule made up of similar or identical building blocks (called monomers) linked together by covalent bonds Monomers The subunits, or building blocks, of a polymer Dehydration Synthesis A reaction in which two molecules form covalent bonds when a water molecule is removed Hydrolysis A chemical reaction in which two molecules break their covalent bonds when a water molecule is added Monosaccharides The building blocks of carbohydrates, also called simple sugars Disaccharides Consists of two monosaccharides, called a double sugar Polysaccharides a polymer made up of many monosaccharides Triacylglycerol a lipid made of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule Phospholipids a lipid made of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and a phosphate group Steroids a lipid made of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid; a molecule that is made up of nucleic acid, capable of being replicated, and determines the inherited features of cells’ proteins RNA Ribonucleic acid; consists of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers that functions in protein synthesis and gene regulation Genomics The organized study of whole sets of genes and their interactions Proteomics The organized study of sets of proteins and their properties Chapter 6 (Cell Biology) Yellow=6.1 Blue=6.2 Green=6.3,4,5 Pink=6.6 Red=6.7 Light Microscope An optical instrument with lenses that bend light in order to magnify images Electron Microscope Uses magnets to focus an electron beam on a specimen which gives it a much stronger resolution Cell Fractionation The separation of a cells parts through centrifugation Plasma Membrane The outer membrane of every cell that chooses what goes in and out of the cell which regulates the cell’s chemical composition Organelles A membrane bound structure found inside a cell that has a specialized function Nucleus The central core of an atom and a cell, contains the genetic material of a cell Ribosome Functions as the site of protein synthesis Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) A membranous network around the nucleus of a cell, found only in eukaryotic cells; the rough are studded with ribosomes and the smooth lack them Golgi Apparatus Found only in eukaryotic cells, functions to store and transport the products of the ER Lysosome A sac of hydrolytic enzymes found mostly in animal cells (eukaryotes) Vacuole Functions to store waste, among many other functions which vary in each type of cell Mitochondrion Functions as the site for cellular respiration and ATP synthesis, found only in eukaryotic cells Chloroplast Found in plant cells, absorbs sunlight and drives photosynthesis Peroxisome Contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen atoms to oxygen creating H O , or 2 2 hydrogen peroxide Cytoskeleton A network of tubes in the cytoplasm of a cell that serve many functions Microtubules A hollow rod that makes up part of the cytoskeleton, found in cilia and flagella Cilia Short appendages of eukaryotic cells which help move the cell Flagella Longer appendages that help move the cell MicrofilamentsA cable that makes up part of the cytoskeleton and causes cell contraction Tonoplast Membrane of a central vacuole Cell Walls A protective layer outside the plasma membrane, found in plant, prokaryotic, fungal, and some protist cells Plasmodesmata Open channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells in order to allow materials to pass from one cell to another Important Concepts These are the key concepts you should take from each chapter (found in the textbook). The most important parts of the concepts are highlighted in the color of the unit used in the terms section. Chapter 1 Biology, studying life, reveals common themes Evolution is responsible for both the likenesses and differences in life Scientists form hypotheses by studying nature and making observations Science is built on communication, diversity, and cooperation Chapter 2 Matter encompasses elements on their own and in combinations as compounds The properties of an element depend on atomic structure Chemical bonding of atoms determines the formation and function of a molecule Chemical bonds are created (and broken) through chemical reactions Chapter 5 Monomers build up polymers; most macromolecules are polymers Carbohydrates both build and fuel Lipids are diverse and hydrophobic Proteins are diverse in structure and, therefore, in function Nucleic Acids are involved in hereditary information Genomics and Proteomics have influenced biology in many ways Chapter 6 Biologists have many tools that help them to study cells Eukaryotic cells are more complex due to compartmentalization Eukaryotic cells’ genetic information is located in the nucleus The endomembrane system regulates the flow of materials, among other functions The mitochondria and the chloroplast are involved in energy transfers The cytoskeleton organizes cellular activity and structure Connections between different cells help them work together Review Questions Found in the textbook, practice tests, and on handouts given in class. Chapter 1 (Introduction to Biology) All the organisms on a college campus make up what? o A community What is the correct sequence of levels in the hierarchy of life from smallest to largest? o Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, species, community, ecosystem, biosphere Why is evolution so important to biology? o It provides a framework within which biology makes sense What are some observations upon which Darwin’s theory of natural selection is based? o There is heritable variation among individuals in species o Overproduction of offspring has caused competition for limited resources o A population can adapt to its environment over a long period of time Why have biologists have grouped bacteria and protists into different domains? o Because protists are eukaryotic; they have a membranebound nucleus What best demonstrates the unity among all organisms? o The structure and function of DNA What is a controlled experiment? o An experiment in which the experimental and control groups are tested together What is the difference between hypotheses and theories? o Hypotheses have a narrow scope while theories are much more broad in their explanations What is the lowest level of the hierarchy that is classified as living? o Cells Which type of cell is more complex and utilizes compartmentalization? o Eukaryotic What property is reflected in the phrase “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts?” o Emergent properties Which of the eight characteristics of life can be defined as “the total of all chemical reactions occurring in an organism?” o Metabolism Which type of metabolism requires an energy input to build a large molecule from parts? o Anabolism Which type of reproduction creates uniformity? o Asexual What is the main energy source for producers? o Light or solar energy (from the sun) Chapter (Basic Chemistry) What is the meaning of trace in trace element? o Only a very small amount of the element is required When an element has a greater atomic mass, what has changed about its subatomic particles? A greater atomic number? o It has gained neutrons o It has gained protons What determines the reactivity of an atom? o Valence electrons Which elements make up 96% of living matter (macroelements)? o Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (remember CHON) Which type of bond is the weakest? o Hydrogen bond What would the mass number be for an atom with 14 neutrons, 13 protons, and 13 electrons? o 27 (add together the neutrons and protons) How many electrons would an element with eight protons have in the ground state? o Eight If an atom has 15 electrons, how many are in its valence shell? What is its valence? o Five are in the valence (2 in first, 8 in second, so 5 left for outer) o Three is the valence (valence is how many are needed to be full, 5+3=8 to be full) If one atom of carbon (atomic number 6) bonded covalently with two atoms of oxygen (atomic number 8), how many electrons would be shared in order to fill the valence shell of all three atoms? o Four If two atoms have the same electronegativity, what kind of bond would form? o Nonpolar covalent What explains the attraction of water molecules to each other? o Hydrogen Bonding If an atom is oxidized, does it gain or lose an electron? o Lose If an atom is the oxidizing agent, is it oxidized or reduced? o Reduced Does an electron gain or lose energy when transferred? o Lose In an electron transport chain, which molecule has the greater electronegativity: Molecule 1, the “high energy electron donor” or Molecule 2, the “terminal electron acceptor”? o Molecule 2 Chapter 5 (Macromolecules) What are the four major groups of macromolecules found in living things? o Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, and Lipids What are the building blocks, or monomers, of a carbohydrate? o Monosaccharides How many peptide bonds would be found in a protein with 236 amino acids? o 235 peptide bonds If the side chain of the amino acid serine is 2CH OH, where would you expect to find it in a protein blob in an aqueous solution (water) and why? o Serine would be on the outside of the blob because it is hydrophilic If the side chain of the amino acid alanine is 3H , where would you expect to find it in a protein blob in an aqueous solution (water) and why? o Alanine would be on the inside of the blob because it is hydrophobic Which macromolecule has the greatest diversity of functions? o Protein Which type of reaction removes a water molecule to assemble a polymer, using anabolism? Which adds a water molecule to break down a polymer, using catabolism? o Dehydration Synthesis o Hydrolysis If a molecule had the chemical formula C8H 16,8what type of macromolecule would it most likely be? o Carbohydrate What are the building blocks of proteins? Carbohydrates? Nucleic Acids? o Amino acids o Monosaccharides (simple sugars) o Nucleotides What type of bond is formed in the primary structure of a protein? Secondary? o Peptide bond o Hydrogen bond What is the tertiary structure of a protein? o The 3D shape of the polypeptide when fully folded What bases are classified as pyridimines? Purines? o Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil o Guanine, Adenine Which base is not found in DNA o Uracil What type of bond holds together DNA molecules? o Hydrogen Which base is complementary to guanine? o Cytosine Chapter 6 (Cell Biology) What is the purpose of cell fractionation? o To separate organelles to study their functions separately What factor of cell components determines how early it separates in cell fractionation? o Density (size and weight) Which type of cell(s) have plasma membranes? o All of them What is the function of a ribosome? o Protein synthesis Which type of organism is composed only of prokaryotic cells? o Bacteria In what type(s) of cells would you find a nucleoid? o Prokaryotic only Which organelles are involved in the Cytosolic Pathway of Protein Targeting? In the Secretory Pathway? o Cytosolic: Cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, nucleus o Secretory: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane, lysosome Which organelle is involved in recycling worn out organelles and other organic materials? o Lysosome Which organelle(s) contains their own DNA? o Mitochondria and chloroplast What are some structures found in plant cells but not in animal cells? o Chloroplast, central vacuole, cell wall, and plasmodenta What is an organelle that takes up most of the space in a plant cell? o Central vacuole What is the function of the mitochondrion? o ATP production (energy) What organelle modifies proteins for export? o Golgi apparatus Which organelle is involved in the synthesis of phospholipids? o Smooth ER *Make sure to pick up the scantron for the test, form 882e!* **Remember, you can do it! Make sure to take the practice tests and correct the questions you got wrong. Just try your best and believe in yourself!** If you have any suggestions on how to make this study guide better, questions on the content, or any other concerns, feel free to email me on blackboard or at my Lamar email, email@example.com
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