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BIO 100 - Exam 1 - Study Guide

by: Kassidy Coplan

BIO 100 - Exam 1 - Study Guide Biology 100

Kassidy Coplan
Minnesota State University, Mankato

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be in the first exam.
Our Natural World
Brittany Smith
Study Guide
Biology, naturalworld, generals
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kassidy Coplan on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 100 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Brittany Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Our Natural World in Biology at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
Biology 100 – Study Guide – Exam 1 * List the parts of the scientific method. - Observation, Question, Hypothesis, Experiment, Data Analysis, Conclusion * How does ___ affect ____ Question requires what type or Hypothesis? - If, then * Define scientific theory. - Explanation for natural phenomenon. As close to the truth as we can't get. Accepted by most scientists. * Define subject expectation. - Subject does what he or she thinks that researcher wants. * Define Observer bias. - Observer makes errors in measuring or interpreting results based on what he or she wants to happen. * Define double-blind experiment. - Neither the researcher nor the subject know which group is which. * How to fix generalization. - Apply results to similar subjects and conditions. * Explain the difference between causation and correlation. - Only a controlled experiment can show cause and effect. * List the five characteristics of life. - 1. Organization/cells 2. Metabolism/energy use 3. Homeostasis 4. Growth, reproduction, development 5. Evolution * Define death throughout history. - No movement No breathing No heartbeat No brainwaves * Define classification. - Grouping into categories * Define classification in terms of Biology. - Based on observable characteristics such as structures, mode of development, genetics. and sometimes behavior. * List the categories of classification from most general to most specific. - Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species * Explain how relate organisms in the same biological category are. - Organisms in the same category have the characteristics of that category in common. * Explain bacteria. - Prokaryote No nucleus Most have cell wall (peptidoglycan) Auto or heterotroph Some motility, flagella Unicellular or colonial * Explain archaea. - Prokaryote No nucleus Most have cell wall (pseudopeptidoglycan) Auto or heterotroph Some motility, flagella Unicellular or colonial * Explain protista. - Eukaryote Nucleus Some have cell wall Auto (photo) or heterotroph Motility with flagella, cilia, ameboid, or contractile fibroids Unicellular, Multi, or colonial * Explain plantae. - Eukaryote Nucleus Cell wall - Cellulose Autotroph (photosynthesis) No motility in most Multicellular * Explain fungi. - Eukaryote Nucleus Cell wall - chitin Heterotroph (external digest) No motility Most multicellular * Explain Animalia. - Eukaryote Nucleus No cell wall Heterotroph (internal digestion) Motility: cilia, flagella, contractile fibrils Multicellular * Define prokaryote. - No nucleus, no membrane bound organelles * Define eukaryote. - Contains nucleus, has membrane bound organelles * Since when has the global temperature change been dramatic? - 1970 * How has temperature been reconstructed in the past? - Historical documents describing climate change, tree rings, fossil pollen, glacial features, oxygen isotopes in ice cores and ocean sediment cores. * How much has the global temperature increased since 1880? - 1.4 degrees * What are external factors that can cause climate change? - -Eccentricity (shape of earth and sun orbit) -Obliquity (tilt of earth on its axis) -Precession of equinoxes (change in time of year earth is closest to sun) -Sunspot cycle (alters amount of radiation that reaches the earth) * What are internal factors that can cause climate change? - Greenhouse gases, aerosols (cool the climate), and atmospheric and oceanic circulation * Why is the greenhouse effect important? - Keeps the earth warm enough for life to be possible. * How does the greenhouse effect work? - -solar radiation hits the earth and atmosphere, warming it -radiation wavelength changes from UV to infrared when earth remits it -some infrared radiation is trapped by greenhouse gas molecules * List the greenhouse gases. - Water vapor, Carbon dioxide, Ozone, CFCs, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide Water vapor. - Natural Carbon dioxide. - Natural and manmade (burning fossil fuels, burning waste and wood) Ozone. - Natural and manmade (traps heat-autos, factories. blocks UV rays and creates smog) CFCs . - Manmade (refrigerants industry) Methane. - Natural and manmade (landfills, rice paddies, cows) Nitrous Oxide. - Natural and manmade (burning fossil fuel, fertilizer, making nylon, burning solid waste) * How have carbon dioxide and methane changed in the past 200,000 years? - As temperatures have risen so have these greenhouse gases. Scientists believe this is extremely likely when considering greenhouse gases... - Humans have caused more than half of the increase in avg. global surface temps. (mostly via greenhouse gases) * List the pools of carbon in the carbon cycle. - Carbon dioxide in air, dissolved in water, in plant and animal bodies, in soil and sediment, and fossil fuels underground * Photosynthesis. - Using water and carbon dioxide to make food * Respiration. - Breaking down sugars and giving off water and carbon dioxide. * Death and decay. - releasing carbon from bodies of organisms * Consumption. - Animals eating plants. * Diffusion. - Carbon dioxide moving from air to water and back again. * Sedimentation/erosion. - Carbon moving into soil/sediment from other places on land of from within water. * How can we get ride of carbon dioxide in the air? - Diffusion and photosynthesis * What are the effect on climate change in the midwest? - -extreme heat -heavy downpours -flooding -affecting: infrastructure, health, agriculture, forestry, transportation, air and water quality -risks to Great Lakes * What's the effect of climate change on MN? - Mn's temp increase is higher than the U.S. average * What are the effects of climate change globally? - -sea ice decrease -land ice decrease -sea level rise (7 inches) -glaciers retreating -extreme weather events -negative effects for humans: water resources, crop yields, spieces (fishing, hunting, disease) * List the sectors of the economy that produce greenhouse gases. - Energy, agriculture, industry, transportation, buildings * What's MN's progress in the economy sectors? - -Energy is down 17% -Agriculture little progress -Transportation truck and car emissions are down -Buildings little progress * How is ADHD diagnosed in children? - 6+ symptoms * How is ADHD diagnosed in adults? - 5+ symptoms * When must ADHD symptoms begin and how long must the last? - Age 12. Continue for 6+ months. * How many people are affected by ADHD? - 4.1% of adults 9% of children


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