Animal Science Study Guide
Chapter 1: Animal Contributions to Human Needs
∙ PerCapita Calorie Supply The supply of calories on a person basis specific to a region or population
∙ PerCapita Protein Supply The supply of protein on a person basis specific to a region or population
∙ Mechanization The application of technology and machinery to a process
∙ Animal Agriculture The application of human creativity to the stewardship of livestock to produce food, fiber, numerous byproducts, and draft power
∙ Chronic Persistent Hunger A state of consistent malnourishment
∙ Famine A shortage of food due to a catastrophic event that disrupts the food supply chain infrastructure
∙ Food Secure A situation where all family members have sufficient and predictable access to an appropriate diet
∙ Food Insecure A situation of limited or uncertain access to an appropriate level of nutrients ∙ ByProducts A product of considerably less value than the major product. For example, the hide, pelt, and offal
∙ Gelatin A byproduct created from connective tissue
∙ Draft Purposes To use animals as a source of power
∙ Companion Animals Those animals kept as pets.
Review Questions We also discuss several other topics like the process whereby a salient stimulus causes us to shift attention to that stimulus is known as:
1. Compare and Contrast the Global Distribution of livestock and poultry.
a. The world numbers for livestock are far less than those of poultry. Their uses (both livestock and poultry) come primarily from their meat, the outside apparel if you will (hides and feathers) and what they produce (eggs and milk). Livestock were domesticated earlier than poultry and livestock were mainly for draft purposes whereas poultry was for food.
2. Describe the role of animal products in the diets of consumers in developed and developing countries.
a. Consumers in developed nations derive 26% of their calories from animal products with just over half of their total protein and fat supply from animal products compared to developing nations deriving 13% of their calorie supply, 29% of their protein, and 41% of their fat from animal products
3. How have expenditures for food purchased athome, awayfromhome, and on a per capita basis changed over time?
a. Mechanization has resulted in an increased food production and is allowing people to turn their attention to professions other than production agriculture. Athome, the US has had an increase in the productivity of agriculture and has lowered their relative costs of food. Awayfromhome, most countries with only a small percentage of the population involved in agriculture have higher standards of living and a higher percapita Don't forget about the age old question of math 124 unlv
consumption of animal products. Releasing people from producing their own food has given them the opportunity to improve their percapita income. Increased per capita income associated with an abundance of animal products has resulted in reduced relative costs of many animal products with time.
4. Describe the role of animal products to the global caloric and protein supply. Possible Essay a. Animal products are primarily a source of proteins and essential amino acids, but when they are a major constituent of the human diet they also contribute a significant portion of total calories. In developed countries, they provide more than 30% of calories in the diet. In developing countries, however, this proportion is less than 10% but they are a good source of amino acids that balance the largely vegetablebased proteins. Don't forget about the age old question of What caused and resulted from the Austro-Prussian War?
b. In developed countries, about 60% of the dietary protein supply is derived from animal products, which is higher than necessary for essential amino acids. The poor have a much lower protein intake. In poorer countries, animal products are essential in preventing malnutrition. We also discuss several other topics like damien salamone
5. Describe the hunger situation of the United States. Possible Essay
a. Even developed nations, such as the US, are not immune to the effects of hunger for part of the population. 85% of households in the United States are considered food secure meaning all members of the household have access to enough food for a healthy lifestyle. About 15% are labeled food insecure which is divided into two categories: 9% without hunger which are the people that are able to gain access to groceries via food assistance programs or community outreach programs and then 6% with hunger. Only . 7% of children in the U.S. are food insecure coupled with periods of hunger. Most households considered food insecure are typically under the income line of $19,000 a year. We also discuss several other topics like glo-2001
6. Define the value of nonfood values of the livestock and poultry industries.
a. Clothing byproducts include wool, hair, hides, and pelts. There are tallows and greases which are inedible byproducts used as lubricants and industrial uses. They can manufacture pharmaceuticals candles, cosmetics, leather goods woolen fabrics, and tin plating, synthetic rubber, food emulsifiers, plasticizers, floor waxes, candles, paints, varnishes, and printing inks. Gelatin from hides, skins and bones can be used in food, films, and glues. Collagen is used to make sausage casings.
b. They contribute to work and power needs (draft purposes). Ruminant animals such as buffalo, cattle, horses, mules, camels, and llamas.
c. They’re used for companionship, recreation, and creativity as well. We also discuss several other topics like econ 1101 city tech
d. Another use is in human health research.
Chapter 2: An Overview of Livestock and Poultry Industries
∙ Aquaculturethe production of food from aquatic species
∙ Beef Industrya coordinated set of supply chain enterprises that produce, process, and distribute beef and beef byproducts to the market place
∙ Bisondomesticated buffalo produced for meat, hide, and heads
∙ Broilera young meattype chicken of either sex (usually up to 68 weeks of age) weighing 35 lbs. Can also be referred to as a fryer or young chicken
∙ Browsewoody or brushy plants. Livestock feed on tender shoots or twigs
∙ Cash Receipts gross sales form a specific enterprise or set of enterprises
∙ Commercial feeders(1) a carcass grade of cattle; (2) livestock that are not registered or pedigreed by a registry association
∙ Corn BeltThe region of the United States with the highest corn production typically considered the northern Great Plains and western Great Lakes states
∙ CowCalfa management unit that maintains a breeding herd and produces weaned calves
∙ Dairy industrya coordinated set of supply chains enterprises specifically in place to produce, process, and distribute milk products and byproducts to the market place
∙ Emu Large flightless bird native to Australia farmed for meat, oil, feather, and egg production ∙ EohippusAn early ancestor to the modern horse
∙ Farm flockA sheep enterprise typically with a small inventory one part of a diversified farm ∙ Farmerfeeders smaller feed yards managed as part of an integrated farming operation to market high energy feedstuffs produced on the farm
∙ Feedlotenterprises that utilize high energy rations to grow cattle (sheep) to ideal market weights ∙ Forbs weedy or broadleaf plants, as contrasted to grasses that serve as pasture for animals ∙ Horse industrya loosely coordinated set of enterprises focused on the recreational, working, and sporting use of horses
∙ Ostrichlarge flightless bird native to Africa farmed for meat, egg, and feather production ∙ Purebred breederresponsible for producing improvement genetic stock for the industry ∙ Range flocka sheep enterprise typically with a large inventory that is the primary source of income for the owner
∙ Stockeryearlingweaned cattle that are fed highroughage diets (including grazing) before going into the feedlot
∙ Swine industrya coordinated set of supply chain enterprises that produce, process, and distribute pork and pork byproducts to the market place
∙ Tarifftaxes or fees placed on imported goodsoften used as political leverage ∙ World Trade trade across the globe that influences the profitability of US animal industries
1. Recite and Spell correct terminology to describe young and mature males, females, and castrates by farm animal species.
a. This entire question is just memorizing Table 2.1 in the book and in the notes 2. Rank the major U.S. livestock industries for number of producers, animal inventory, and volume of cash receipts. Possible Essay
a. # of producers
i. Beef cows
iii. Breeding ewes
v. Dairy Cattle
b. Animal Inventory
v. Beef cows
vi. Dairy Cattle
vii. Breeding Ewes
c. Cash Receipts
i. Cattle and Calves
ii. Dairy Products
3. New York
3. North Carolina
3. North Carolina
v. Chicken Eggs
1. North Carolina
3. Describe the regional concentration of U.S. livestock and poultry production. a. Cattle feeding is concentrated in the southern and central region of the Great Plains. The largest dairy farms are highly concentrated in the West and Southwest. The Poultry Industry is concentrated primarily in the southeastern area of the country.
4. What are the primary factors that allowed the increase in per animal productivity in the US beef industry?
a. An increase in the average carcass weight
b. An increased number of cattle are fed per feedlot
c. The market age of fed cattle has decreased
d. More crossbreeding and faster gaining European breeds are being used in commercial breeding programs
e. More Canadian and Mexican calves are imported and fed in the U.S. when market conditions are favorable
5. Describe the basic stages of production for each of the primary livestock and poultry industries in the United State.
i. Seed stock
ii. Commercial cow calf
iii. Stocker yearling
i. Breeder flocks
iii. Growout flocks
iv. Processing plant
1. To either
a. Further processors
i. Distribution system
b. Distribution system
i. Retail operations
ii. Export operations
c. Rendering plant
i. Feed mill
a. Breeder flocks again
b. Growout flocks again
6. Compare and contrast the beef and dairy industry. Possible Essay
a. The end result for either breed is to be slaughtered. Dairy cows will reach a stage in which their milk production is no longer useful and they will become beef. They are in the same species and are functional ruminants that ferment and digest feed in the same way. They respond the same to implants and vaccines, need the same nourishment to maintain rumen health, and they both have the ability to marble and produce high quality, tender beef. Dairy is fed more than beef breeds so they will be able to produce more milk. 7. Compare and Contrast the Swine and Poultry Industry
a. China and the United States are in the top 2 for both swine and poultry production and consumption. Poultry is highly concentrated in the primarily in the southeastern area of the country while swine is more concentrated in the middle area known as the Corn Belt. The Poultry industry has a higher volume of cash receipts than the swine industry. 8. Describe the U.S. horse industry.
a. The horse was first domesticated 5,000 years ago. It was the last farm animal to be domesticated. They were first used as food, then for war and sports, and also for draft purposes. They were used to transport people swiftly and for moving heavy loads. Horses became important in farming, mining, and forestry. Approximately 3.5% of consumer expenditures for recreation are spent in the horse industry. This industry generates more than $25 billion in goods and services annually. Most are used for recreational activities, a little over a quarter are used as show animals and about 10% are involved in racing with the rest being used in rodeo, polo, ranch work, and other activities. Texas has the greatest number of horses followed by California and then Florida. 9. Briefly describe the “new” livestock industries in the United States.
a. Aquaculture which is the farming of aquatic plants and animals. (Mississippi has the highest number of Catfish). Aquaculture sales in the US exceed $1.3 billion with 2/3 accounted for by food fish sales.
b. Bison over 200,000. Can be found on public lands in the US and Canada. The National Bison Association has focused its promotional efforts to increase the consumption of buffalo meat via merchandising to chefs, food editors, and special events.
c. Elk relatively new to the US. In addition to breeding animal and selling meat, antlers or velvet from males are sold. Breeding market is the number one priority for elk. 3 Leading states of elk production are Texas, Wisconsin, and Minnesota
d. Ostrich and Emu farming: These are native to Africa and Australia respectively. Flightless. Ostrich is the largest living bird. Emu farming is relatively new with Texas, California, and Kansas as the leading states for production.
e. Llama and Alpaca Production: successful production so far. More than 100,000 alpacas are on inventory in the US where they are predominately selected for fiber production.
Chapter 3: Red Meat Products
∙ Actin a protein that works in conjunction with myosin to contract and relax muscle fiber ∙ Actomyosin a protein complex of actin and myosin that comprises muscle fibers ∙ Beef The meat from cattle (bovine species) other than calves
∙ Boxed beef, lamb, and pork cuts of beef, lamb, or pork put in boxes for shipping from packing plants to retailers. These primal and subprimal cuts are intermediate cuts between the carcass and retail cuts
∙ Chevon Meat from goats
∙ Consumerthe final buyer in the supply chain
∙ Dressing percentage the percentage of the live animal weight that becomes the carcass weight at slaughter. It is determined by dividing the carcass weight by the live weight, then multiplying by 100
∙ Goat meatthe primary product of goat production although milk and fiber production are options for the grower
∙ Grade (1) a designation of live or carcass merit; (2) livestock not registered with registry association
∙ Kosher meat Meat from ruminant animals with split hooves where the animals have been slaughtered according to Jewish law
∙ Lamb (1) a young male or female sheep, usually less than a year of age; (2) to deliver, or give birth to, lamb
∙ Mutton the meat from a sheep that is over 1 year old
∙ Myofilaments thick actin and myosin filaments
∙ Myosina protein that works in conjunction with actin to contract and relax muscle fibers ∙ Nutrient densityamount of essential nutrients relative to the number of calories in a given amount of food
∙ Percapita consumption (disappearance) a proxy statistic used to estimate per person consumption, it is a much better measure of per capita production of a commodity ∙ Porkthe meat from swine
∙ Red meatmeat from cattle, sheep, swine, and goats, as contrasted to the white meat of poultry ∙ Sale barnsLocal or regional marketing facilities that provide auction services to livestock producers
∙ Veal the meat from a very young cattle, under 3 months of age
∙ Wholesalean intermediate step in the supply chain, wholesale enterprises typically sell to either retail or food service operations
∙ Yieldused interchangeably with dressing percentage
1. Describe the global and domestic distribution of red meat products.
a. World red meat production is about 250 million tons, with China, the U.S., and Brazil leading all other countries. The leady 15 countries account for nearly 85% of all
production. In the United States, beef and pork comprise most of the annual production of nearly 50 billion pounds. The total production has been relatively stable over the past several years. Some meats have to be imported to the U.S. to fill the production deficits. Sixty percent of the U.S. cattle harvest is accounted for by the leading states: Nebraska, Texas, and Kansas. Iowa alone harvests 27% of the nation’s hogs while Colorado harvest 45% of the total lambs.
2. Describe the importance of the dressing percentage, its calculation and the factors that influence it.
a. It is the relation of hot or cold carcass weight to live weight. The industry is interested in animal dressing percentage because it establishes the weight upon which payment is calculated for animals sold on a live weight basis
i. Dressing percentage=Hot or cold carcass weight / Live weight x 10
c. Factors affecting Dressing Percentage
i. Fill (contents of the digestive tracts)
iv. Weight of hide
v. (In sheep) weight of wool
3. What are the wholesale cuts of beef, pork, and lamb?
iii. Short Loin
viii. Short Plate
v. Arm shoulder
4. Describe the structure of muscle and its composition.
1. Lean (muscle)
4. Connective Tissue
a. Determines tenderness
5. Actomyosin a globulin consisting of the two proteins actin and myosin
5. Compare the pricing protocols of beef and pork processors. Possible Essay a. Packer Owned means that the packer owned the animal at least 14 days before slaughter. In Fed cattle it accounts for only 6% of the pricing protocol whereas it accounts or 28% of the pricing protocol in hogs
b. Forward contract/formula a nonstandardized contract between two parties to buy or sell livestock at a specific time in the future at price set in the present. In fed cattle, it accounts for 60% of the pricing protocol and in market hogs it accounts for 68%. Forward contract/formulas are important in pricing for both cattle and hogs.
c. Negotiatedagreement between two parties in which they come to a fair agreement on a set price, delivery methods, number of heads, etc… It accounts for 34% of the pricing protocol in fed cattle and only 4% in market hogs
d. So in conclusion we see that forward contracts/formulas are important in both cattle and hog but packer owned is mainly important in hogs while negotiations are important in cattle.
6. Describe the market channels for cattle, hogs, and sheep as well as beef, pork, and lamb a. Direct purchases can be made through the packing plant, the feedlot, or a buying station near where the animal is produced.
b. Sale Barns auctions located throughout the US that has a pen, a sale ring, and an auctioneer which sells the livestock to the highest bidder.
c. Most are purchased on a live weight basis, with the buyer estimating the value of the carcass and other products. Increasingly, animals are purchased on the basis of their carcass weight and the desirability of the carcass produced. Grade and yield have become an important part of pricing. An advantage of this trend is that the price is established one step closer to the consumer but critics suggest that increased price determination at the packer undercuts the viability of the live market.
7. What are the primary factors affecting the demand for red meat? Possible Essay a. Price of competing products
b. Levels of per capita disposable income
c. Cultural preferences
d. Consumer perceptions
e. Other demographic factors
Chapter 4: Poultry and Egg Products
∙ 3’s and upbirds weighing 34.75 lbs and between 4045 days of age, delivered in whole, parts, and cutup forms. This is the standard bird sold at retail
∙ Albumenthe white of an egg
∙ Broiler a young meattype chicken of either sex (usually 68 weeks of age) weighing 35 lb. Also referred to as a fryer or young chicken
∙ Broilers for deboning males weighing 79 lbs, 4756 days of age, processed to make nuggets, patties, and other valueadded products
∙ Caponcastrated male chicken. Castration usually occurs between 34 weeks of age ∙ Cornish game hensbirds less than 30 days of age and weighing 2 lbs
∙ Cuticle (bloom) protective coating of an egg shell
∙ Dark meat meat from aerobically functional muscles with a higher myoglobin concentration. Higher in calories and cholesterol than white meat
∙ Down soft, fluffy type of feather located under the contour feathers. Serves as insulation material ∙ Fastfood oriented broiler birds weighing between 2lbs 6 ounces2 lbs 14 ounces, less than 42 days of age, delivered cutup without necks, giblets, tail fat, and leaf fat
∙ Feathers epidermal growth that provides the unique outer covering of birds ∙ Heavy hens these 15monthold birds are spent breeders (culled from the laying flock) and typically weigh 55.5 lbs. these birds are used to produce cooked, diced or pulled meat for inclusion in precooked and canned items such as soups and stews
∙ Light (white) meatthe more anaerobic muscles of poultry (breast and wing) ∙ Offalall organs and tissues removed from inside the animal during the slaughtering process ∙ Poussin a onepound or less bird that is less than 24 days of age
∙ Roaster birds weighing 58 lbs and between 5560 days of age
∙ Vitelline membranea thin, transparent membrane surrounding the contents of the yellowish colored yolk in the center of the egg
1. Describe the classes of meattype chickens.
c. Cornish Game Hens
d. Fastfood oriented broiler
e. 3’s and up
g. Broilers for deboning
i. Heavy Hens
i. Descriptions of these classes are in the definitions above
2. Describe the merchandising of poultry meat and eggs.
a. Most are processed in commercial facilities with primary drivers or demand being taste, convenience of preparation, and perceived health benefits.
3. Describe the consumption trends of poultry and eggs.
a. In the U.S., the per capita consumption of poultry meat is 100 lbs. Half is sold as red meat and half as poultry. The per capita consumption of poultry meat has increased at expense of red meat consumption because of cost (relative to beef and pork) and convenience. In the US per capita consumption of eggs is 251 eggs with 71% consumed as shelled eggs due to being relatively inexpensive
4. Define the various “attribute” labels of poultry meat. Possible Essay
a. Free Range birds have access to an enclosed pen outside of the poultry house. Because feed and water are provided in the house structure birds are often reluctant to utilize the pen for long periods of time. Less than 1% of chickens are raised under free range conditions
b. Natural this is the most misunderstood term in food production. USDA defines “natural” meats as minimally processed and having no added ingredients. Almost all fresh poultry meets these standards
c. Organic this production system prohibits the use of antibiotics, pesticides, and many farm chemicals and specifies utilization of feedstuffs made from organic ingredients d. Produced without hormones this label is misleading in that no artificial or added hormones are used by the poultry industry in accordance with the FDA regulations e. Antibiotic free this label indicates that the production system did not incorporate any animal health care products classified as antibiotics in either a preventative or treatment form. Health care products not classified as antibiotics may still be incorporated f. Fresh this term means that the product has not been chilled to temperatures below 26˚F
Chapter 5: Milk and Milk Products
∙ Acidified Process of souring milk or crème without the addition of bacteria
∙ Casein The major protein in milk
∙ Cheese Classifications soft, semisoft, hard, and very hard
∙ Coagulation A biochemical process used to initiate cheese making by heating and then adding a starter bacterial culture to create a semisolid state
∙ Colostrum The first milk given by a female after delivery of her young. It is high in antibodies that protect young animals from invading microorganisms
∙ Condensed Milk A form of cow’s milk where water has been removed and sugar or sweetener has been added
∙ Cultured Addition of appropriate bacteria to create dairy products such as yoghurt sour crème, and buttermilk
∙ Curd coagulated milk
∙ Curdling Coagulation
∙ Dry Milk milk that has been evaporated into a powdered form
∙ Evaporated Milk shelf stable form of milk where approximately 60% of the water has been removed
∙ Homogenized Milk that has had the fat droplets broken into very small particles so that the milk fat stays in suspension in the milk fluids
∙ Lactose Milk sugar. When digested, it is broken down into one molecule of glucose and one of galactose
∙ Milk Fat The fat in milk; synonymous with butterfat
∙ Nutrient Density amount of essential nutrients relative to the number of calories in a given amount of food
∙ OsteoporosisGenetic disorder characterized by the marrow cavity of long bones being filled with bone tissue
∙ Pasteurizationthe process of heating milk to 161˚F and holding it at that temperature for 15 seconds to destroy pathogenic microorganisms
∙ RennetThe contents of a calf’s stomach, which contains the enzyme rennin and is used to thicken milk for cheese making
∙ Solidsnotfat (SNF)Total milk solids minus fat. It includes milk protein, lactose, and minerals ∙ UHT (ultrahightemperature) processing a pasteurization process that yields a shelfstable milk product that does not require refrigeration
∙ Whey the watery part of milk that remains after the formation of curds
∙ Yogurt a fermented dairy product sold in a gel or liquid form
1. Describe the contribution of various livestock to the global milk supply.
a. The world’s population obtains most of its milk and milk products from cows, water buffalo, goats, and sheep. Horses, donkeys, reindeer, yaks, camel, and sows contribute a smaller amount to the total milk supply.
2. Describe the trends in milk production and cow inventory in the U.S.
a. Dairy cows produce over 80% of the world fluid milk but U.S. dairy herd is less than half of what it was in 1956. However, production per cow is almost 4 times what it was. Milk and milk products from 1 cow feeds 60+ people
3. Describe the composition of milk and identify the key carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and vitamins.
a. Milk fat
ii. 48% of the total calories
iii. Fatsoluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
iv. Most of the flavor components are in this
i. 4.8% lactose
1. 30% of the total calories
2. Milk is the only natural source of lactose
ii. 22% of the total calories
iii. High quality
iv. Casein: found only in milk ~82% of the total milk protein
i. All vitamins essential in human nutrition are found in milk
ii. Milk is usually fortified with vitamin D
i. Good source of calcium
ii. Poor source of iron
4. List the various primary products and byproducts generated by the dairy industry and describe the total production volume of the basic dairy product classes in the U.S.
a. Various Primary Products and byproducts
i. Milk: whole, 2%, 1%, Skim, chocolate (flavored), eggnog, UltraHigh
Temperature, UltraPasteurized, evaporated, condensed (sweet and unsweet), dried (whole and low fat)
ii. Spreadable: butter, lowfat butter, whipped butter, Ghee (clarified)
iii. Cream: table, heavy, half and half, light, whipping, coffee flavoring
iv. Cheese: Soft (fresh and ripened), semisoft, blueveined, hard, very hard, pasta filata
v. Cultured: yogurt (flavored, low fat, fat free), buttermilk, sour cream
vi. Frozen Desserts: ice cream (flavored, low fat, nonfat), sherbet, ice milk, frozen yogurt (flavored, low fat, nonfat), gelato, frozen custard
vii. Byproducts whey: lactose, whey paste, condensed whey, milk protein, whey protein concentrations
viii. ProteinEnriched (nonwhey): casein, caseinates
b. Total Production volume of the basic dairy products
i. Fluid milk and cream (57.1 billion lbs): 92% of the 200 billion pounds of milk
produced by the US is grade A quality milk. Most fluid milk is homogenized to
prevent milk fat from separating from the liquid portion and rising to the top.
ii. Cheese (10.6 billion lbs): 400 different kinds of cheese. Leading cheese types are cheddar (32%) and Mozzarella (33%)
iii. Yogurt (4.3 billion lbs): has to contain not less than 3.25% milk fat, low fat yogurt between .5% and 2% milk fat. 3 main types of yogurt include (1) flavored
containing no fruit (2) flavored containing fruit (3) unflavored
iv. Butter (1.8 billion lbs): made exclusively from milk or cream, or both and contains not less than 80% milk fat by weight. Federal standards establish U.S. grades for butter based on flavor, color, and salt characteristics
v. Ice Cream (.8 billion lbs)
vi. Nonfat dry milk (1.5 billion lbs)
5. List the various approaches to assuring the wholesomeness and safety of milk. Possible Essay a. Milk is taken from the cow by a sanitized milking machine and then transported through sanitized pipes into holding tanks.
b. It flows into a refrigerated tank where it is rapidly cooled to 4042˚F
c. The cold milk is pumped out through a sanitized hose into insulated tanks.
d. Several tests are conducted at the processing plant and the milk is pumped through sanitized pipes in the processing plant’s refrigerated or insulated holding tanks
e. Milk is then pasteurized at 161˚F for 15 seconds
f. It is then Ultra Pasteurized at 280˚F for at least 2 seconds
g. It undergoes UltraHighTemperature processing and is then rapidly cooled back down to 45˚F
6. Discuss the consumption trends of milk and dairy products and describe milk marketing in the U.S. (table 5.8 in book on page 93)
a. Plain Whole milk per capita sales have decreased rapidly over the past 30 years b. Low –fat milk/skim milk has slightly decreased in the past 18 years
c. Buttermilk has decreased slightly
d. Yogurt has increased
e. Halfandhalf, light and heavy cream has increased
f. Butter has increased
g. Cheese has increased
h. Cottage cheese has decreased
i. Ice Cream has decreased
j. Ice milk has slightly decreased
k. Most milk produced in the US dairy farms goes to plants and dealers for processing. More than 50% of fluid milk is marketed by supermarkets, primarily in plastic gallon containers. Some farmer have on site processing facilities that allow them the opportunity to direct market to consumers, retail outlets, and food service enterprises. The value added approach to marketing milk allows producers more direct control in establishing brand identity and potentially higher profits.
Chapter 6: Wool and Mohair
∙ Basal layer skin layer that lies between the epidermis and the dermis
∙ Burry wool contains vegetable matter, such as grass seeds and prickly seed which adheres tenaciously to wool
∙ Chaffy wool contains vegetable matter such as hay, straw, and other plant material
∙ Core sample sample taken from a wool or mohair sack (bale) to determine the collective grade of the fiber
∙ Cotted wool fibers are mated or entangled
∙ Crimpthe waves, or kinks, in a wool fiber
∙ Cuticle causes wool fibers to cling together
∙ Dermisskin layer that lies beneath the epidermis and the basal layer
∙ Epidermisthe surface (outer) skin
∙ Finenessa term used to describe the diameter of wool fibers
∙ Finewool breeds breeds that produce fine grade woolRamboillet and Merino ∙ Fleece weight weight of a fleece once it is removed at shearing
∙ Follicle a blisterlike, fluidfilled structure in the ovary that contains the egg
∙ Kempcoarse, opaque, hairlike fibers in wool
∙ Mediumwool breeds breeds that produce wool that is of medium qualityCheviot and Hampshire ∙ MedullaInner core found in coarse and medium wool but absent from fine wool fibers ∙ Medullated fibersthese fibers are of a lower value as they do not accept uniform coloration from dyes
∙ Primary follicleWool producing follicles completely formed and present at the time of birth ∙ Root bulb site of wool fiber growth
∙ Sebaceous gland a gland in the dermis that secretes sebum (a greasy substance) ∙ Secondary follicle follicle type that emerges postnatal andis group with primary follicles to create fiber bundles
∙ Staple length length of wool fiber
∙ Sweat gland produces and secretes sweat
∙ Wool top a continuous untwisted strand of combed wool in which the fibers lie parallel and the short fibers have been combed out
∙ WorstedsCloth made from wool that is long enough to comb and spin into yards. The finish is harder than woolens and these clothes hold a press better
∙ Greasy woolwool as it comes from the sheep and prior to cleaning. It contains the natural oils from the sheep
∙ Scoured woolwool that has been cleaned of grease and other foreign materials Review Questions
1. Name the fibers associated with sheep, angora, goats, and hogs.
a. Sheep: wool
i. Rabbits Angora
ii. Goats Mohair
c. Goats: Hair
d. Hogs: Hair
2. What are the characteristics of undesirable fleece?
a. Fleeces that contain off color fibers and are contaminated by foreign material. i. Burry wool contains vegetable matter, such as grass seeds and prickly seeds, which adheres tenaciously to wool
ii. Chaffy wool contains vegetable matter such as hay, straw, and other plant
iii. Cottedwool fibers are matted or entangled
3. How does diet affect wool production?
a. Wool production is decreased when sheep are fed diets having less than 8% protein. When the diet contains more than 8% protein, the amount of energy consumed is the determining factor in wool production
4. What are the primary traits affecting wool quality?
a. Fleece weight
b. Staple length
d. Uniformity of length
e. Fineness throughout the fleece
5. Compare the three methods of determining wool grade. Possible Essay
a. The American grade, or blood (outdated terminology), method is based on the theoretical amount of finewool breeding (Merino and Rambouillet) represented in the sheep producing the wool. The terms fine ½half blood, 3/8 blood, ¼ blood, and low¼ blood are used to describe typical fiber diameter. Wool classified as fine or 5/8 blood has small fiber diameters, whereas ¼ blood wool is coarse
b. The spinning count system refers to the number of hanks of yarn, each 560 yards long that can be spun from 1lb of wool top. These grades range from 80 (fine) to 36 (coarse). Thus a grade of 50 by the spinning count method means that 28,000 yards (560 yd x 50 =28,000 yd) of yarn can be spun from 1lb of wool top
c. The micron diamether method is based on the average of actual measurements of several wool fibers. This is the most accurate method of determining the grade of wool. A micron is 1/25,400 of an inch
6. Describe the domestic and global wool production.
a. The world greasy wool production is approximately 4.5 billion pounds, with the United States producing approximately 27 million pounds. Scoured or clean wool production represents 5060% of the greasy wool produced. Total U.S. wool production on a clean basis has been in decline for nearly three decades. The top 3 countries for production of greasy wool are China, Australia, and the European Union.
Chapter 7: Byproducts of Meat Animals
∙ Composting Process of accelerating natural decay of dead organisms
∙ Edible byproducts byproducts that are appropriate for human consumption ∙ Hides Skins from animals such as cattle, horses, and pigs
∙ Inedible byproducts byproducts that are not appropriate for human consumption ∙ Keds An external parasite that affects sheep and although it is often called a sheep tick, it is actually a wingless fly
∙ Lard the fat from pigs that has been produced through a rendering process ∙ Poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) A high protein byproduct created from rendering of wastage from poultry processing
∙ Rendering A sustainable process to recycle meat scraps, fat, bone, and offal into useful by products
∙ Sheep pelts the natural, whole skin covering including the wool
∙ Skins skins come from smaller animals such as pigs, sheep, goats, and wild animals ∙ Sweetbreadan edible byproduct also known as the pancreas
∙ Tallowthe fat of cattle and sheep
∙ Tripe edible product from walls of ruminant stomach
∙ Variety meatsedible organ byproducts (e.g. liver, heart, tongue, tripe)
1. How does byproduct value impact the economics of livestock production?
a. The use of byproducts in a variety of applications is a highly sustainable practice that allows livestock industries to minimize wastage and lost value
2. Provide examples of edible and inedible byproducts.
i. Variety meats
1. Liver, heart, cheek meat, oxtail, pigs feet, pigs ears, tongue, tripe, and
ii. Meat and bone meal
iii. Blood meal
3. What are the highest valued inedible byproducts?
a. Tallow, hides (skins), and inedible organs
4. What is the role of the rendering industry?
a. Recycle offal, fat, bone, meat scraps, and entire animal carcasses to reduce waste in the livestock industry
5. Describe the approved protocols for disposal of dead livestock.
a. Removed by licensed rendering company
b. Compost the carcass
c. Burn the carcass in an incinerator
d. Bury the carcass at least 4ft deep
Chapter 8: Market Classes and Grades of Livestock, Poultry, and Eggs
∙ Antemortem before death
∙ Barrow a male swine that was castrated before reaching puberty
∙ Beef the meat from cattle other than calves
∙ Boar a male swine of breeding age
∙ Boartaint strong, undesirable flavor often associated with pork originating from mature intact males
∙ Boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts (BCTRC) The amount of carcass that can be fabricated into saleable retail cuts
∙ Break joint denotes the point on a lamb carcass where the foot and pastern are removed at the cartilaginous junction of the front leg
∙ Bull a bovine male; denotes animals of breeding age
∙ Bullock a young bull, typically less than 20 months of age
∙ Calf a young male or female bovine animal under a year of age
∙ Candling the shining of a bright light through an egg to see if it contains a live embryo ∙ Cow a sexually mature female bovine animalusually one that has produced a calf ∙ Cutability grades *same as yield grades*
∙ Exterior quality factors egg quality factors that are assessed visually with external evaluation ∙ Feeder grades visual classifications (descriptive and/or numerical) of feeder animals ∙ Flank firmness and fullness firmness of the flank muscle in lamb carcass evaluation ∙ Flank streaking streaks of fat in the flank muscle of lamb carcasses
∙ Frame size a measure of skeletal size that can be visual or by measurement (usually taken at the hips)
∙ Gilt a young female swine prior to the time that she has produced her first litter ∙ Heifer a young female bovine cow before the time that she has produced her first calf ∙ Interior quality factors egg quality factors inside the egg that are determined via candling ∙ Intermuscular between muscles
∙ Longissimus dorsi *same as the ribeye*
∙ Marbling the distribution of fat in muscular tissue; intramuscular fat
∙ Market classes and grades method to group commodities into two more uniform categories to improve communication of value in the market often by establishing measureable sets of standards
∙ Marketing Process for determining the value of a product to facilitate sale or trade ∙ Maturity a measure of physiological age often determined by the level of ossification of the growth plates of long bones
∙ Meat inspection the process of determining the safety and wholesomeness of meat ∙ Mutton the meat from a sheep that is over 1 years old
∙ Postmortem after death
∙ Quality grades animals grouped according to value as prime, choice, etc., based on conformation and fatness of the animal
∙ Ribeye the surface of this muscle is the use of the calculation of USDA beef yield grades ∙ Sow a female swine that has farrowed one litter or has reached 12 months of age ∙ Stag castrated male sheep, cattle, goats, or swine that have reached sexual maturity prior to castration
∙ Steer a castrated bovine male that was castrated early in life before puberty ∙ Thickness expression of muscle development
∙ Veal the meat from a very young cattle, under 3 months of age
∙ Yield gradesthe grouping of animals according to the estimated trimmed lean meat that their carcass would provide; cutability
1. Define marketing and describe the role of market classification systems and grade standards. a. Marketing is the transformation and pricing of goods and services through which buyers and sellers move livestock and livestock products from the point of production to the point of consumption.
b. The classifications systems and grades standards have been established to segregate animals, carcasses, and products into uniform groups based on preferences of buyers and sellers
2. Compare and Contrast USDA grading and inspection.
a. USDA classes and grades are optional whereas USDA meat inspection is mandatory. b. USDA classes and grades were established to simplify the market place and facilitate communication between buyer and sellers whereas the USDA meat inspection was established to assure the safety and wholesomeness of products entering that supply chain.
c. It gives the consumer peace of mind knowing that everything they are buying is safe and that communication is clear between the seller and the buyer.
3. Discuss the age and sex classes of livestock.
a. In order to save paper when printing and also money when you buy this study guide, please look at the definitions for each of the livestock animals above. They give the
approximate ages and the sex of that animal. Also Table 2.1 from back in chapter 2 is a good review as well
4. Compare and contrast the quality and yield grading.
i. External fat thickness over the ribeye
ii. Ribeye area
iii. Estimate of the percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat
iv. Hot carcass weight
c. Both of these combined allow producers to sell their products based on what the consumer wants.
5. Describe the quality and yield grades of the primary livestock species and the factors used to determine them.
i. Quality grades are based on maturity and marbling and are intended to measure certain types consumer palatability characteristics
a. Softer red bones and a lot of white cartilage is indication of a
b. Categories A, B, C, D, and E
c. As maturity increases, meat becomes less tender
2. Marbling=intramuscular fat
a. Evaluated in the ribeye between the 12th and 13th ribs
b. Ten degrees of marbling, ranging from abundant to devoid
3. Both maturity and marbling are taken into consideration and given a
a. Prime, choice, select, standard, commercial, utility, cutter
ii. Yield grades
1. Estimated the quantity of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the
major wholesale cuts.
2. Range from 1 to 5 with 1 being the best.
3. Determined from:
a. Amount of fat measured over the ribeye muscle
b. Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat
c. Area of the ribeye muscle
d. Hot carcass weight
4. Amount of fat has a great effect on yield grade
1. Based on two criteria
a. Quality characteristics of the lean
b. Expected combined yields of four lean cuts (ham, loin, blade
shoulder, and picnic shoulder)
2. 2 Grades: Acceptable and unacceptable
3. Assessed by observing muscle between the 10th and 11th rib
4. Acceptable are then graded
a. US number 1
b. US number 2
c. US number 3
d. US number 4
1. Grades are based on expected yields of the 4 lean cuts