ARHI 2300 Exam 1 Study Guide
ARHI 2300 Exam 1 Study Guide ARHI 2300
Popular in Art History I: Cave Painting to Michelangelo
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddi Huff on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARHI 2300 at University of Georgia taught by Neely, Elizabeth in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Art History I: Cave Painting to Michelangelo in Art at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People ARHI 2300- Cave Painting to Michelangelo TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE Paleolithic 1. What is art? a. Aesthetic embellishment of a crafted object b. Symbolic thought c. First work of art- red ochre with incised pattern found in Biomos Cave in South Africa 2. Sculpture in the round- work of art meant to be seen from all angles a. Venus of Willendorf- figurine of nude woman found in Austria i. Figurine- small portable sculpture ii. Mobiliary art- art that can be carried form place to place iii. Her abstract face is thought to represent all women. The accentuated features on her body is thought to represent fertility b. Composite creature- Creature made with assorted body parts from different animals usually symbolizes a divinity 3. Parietal art- paintings/engravings often found along cave walls a. Relief- carving into stone slab b. Cave paintings- earliest evidence of art c. The Hall of Bulls- found in the caves of Lascaux in France i. Depicts bison, bulls, stags, lions, etc. ii. Tools used include brushes, ochre paint, and mortal/pestle to grind the ochre iii. Sympathetic magic- The act of drawing animals was thought to bring plentiful herds and successful hunting d. Methods used include: i. Positive and negative prints ii. Outline with dots iii. Monochrome, bichrome, polychrome iv. Twisted perspective- combines profile/frontal perspectives v. Collocation- When placement of form conforms to shape/color of surface contours e. Wounded Bison and Man-Bird i. Is thought to depict the death of a man Neolithic 1. Chauvet Cave, France a. Found by Jean-Marie Chauvet b. Pieces of artwork in found in cave used animal bones 2. Tools were used to draw on (incise) walls 3. Mural painting of aurochs, horses, rhinoceroi, and female figure a. Used profile perspective b. Bichrome (black and white) Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People c. The walls were scratched by bears beforehand, which helped in preparation for painting since the stone underneath is more porous. They were then painted white before the mineral pigments were applied. 4. Stonehenge- monoliths configured into a circle that were found in Salisbury Plain, England a. Stones were thought to have been dragged 20 miles b. Post and lintel- two vertical posts that support a horizontal lintel (connected) c. Trilithon- 3 stone construction (not connected) d. Woodhenge- discovered 2 miles away. It was built the same as Stonehenge but with wooden planks. e. It is though that people would travel from Woodhenge to Stonehenge as a part of a funeral procession 5. Catal Huyuk a. Distinct settlements b. First planned urban area c. Murals painted on walls d. Landscape with Volcanic Eruption- first known documented landscape painting. Is thought to depict volcanic eruption of the twin volcanoes, Hasan Dag i. Was reconstructed with watercolors 6. Mesopotamia “land between the rivers”- divided into 3 major periods a. Sumerian i. Early Writing Tablet- hardened clay receipt for beer written in cuneiform, the first known written language ii. The Flood Tablet- Relates part of the Epic of Gilgamesh. First known written literature. Sumerian 1. White temple of Uruk- would have sat on top of a ziggurat a. Zigguarat- monumental platform for a temple in ancient Mesopotamian architecture that was raised towards the gods b. Constructed for Anu c. Female head- possibly depicts goddess Inanna or Ishtar, found in Uruk i. Made of marble, very expensive and unusual d. Continuous narrative- sequential events grouped together with the same composition e. Statues may have contained in-laid stone eyes (Lapis lazuli, obsidian) and were decorated with plated gold and shells f. Register- one of a series of superimposed bands or friezes in a pictorial narrative; particular levels on which motifs are placed g. Uruk vase- used to bring about fertile land i. Depicts sacred marriage of Inanna and male consort ii. Most important scenes on top iii. Register- iv. Hierarchy of scale- Larger size of figures indicates a greater importance v. Registers divided by ground lines vi. Base of vase is called a foot Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People 2. Ur- City was wealthy due to trade a. City where the biblical Abraham lived b. Excavation of the royal cemetery was led by Sir Leonard Woolley c. Servants and musicians buried with the royalty to service them in the afterlife d. Standard of Ur- Possibly a wooden or music box i. One side depicted peace, while the other depicted war ii. Gods/kings depicted as being much larger e. Bull headed lyre- musical instrument (similar to the harp) found in fragments in the King’s grave i. Decorated with lapis, which is extremely expensive since it is only found in Afghanistan ii. Heraldic composition- a composition which a single, central thing is flanked on either side by symmetrical imagery Akkad 3. Sumer wad conquered by Sargon I of Akkad. The Akkadians adopted Sumerian culture with one exception; leaders were no longer viewed as gods 4. Naram-Sin Victory Steele- First known example of figure on landscape. Intentionally forces view to look at the king with implied lines a. Steele- vertical stone monument or marker often inscribed with text or relief carving 5. Head of Akkadian Ruler- Damaged remains of copper statue, likely destroyed in protest. Babylonians 1. Babylonians- Sumer was reunited by ruler, Hammurabi a. Stele of Hammurabi- found with “law code” of Hammurabi (“an eye for an eye”) i. Depicts sun god giving him law code and therefore the right to rule ii. High relief carving b. Assyrian art i. Citadel of Sargon ii. Throne room of palace was protected by lamassu, man-headed winged bulls 1. Apotropaic- beasts who guard a city from bad luck, evil, and enemies 2. Relief sculpture- image that projects beyond surface iii. Ashurbaipal Reliefs- Depicts the king on an epic lion hunt 1. A form of propaganda 2. Neo-Babylonian art a. Ishtar Gate- glazed brick gate entrance to Babylon i. Decorated with animals ii. Arcuated- arch-shaped Persia 3. Persopolis Palace Complex a. Apadana- great audience hall in Persian palaces Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People Egypt 1. Egypt- Art is consistent for 3,000 years because their natural defenses protected them from interference a. Hieroglyphs- Egyptian alphabet, translated by Rosetta Stone b. Cosmetic palette of King Narmer- Depicts upper Egypt conquering lower Egypt. King wears crown of upper Egypt, while he pulls the hair and stands on top of lower Egypt. i. Also depicts Hathor, mother of pharaohs, which indicates the ruler’s divinity’ ii. Twisted perspective used iii. Palette- stone slab with circular depression on one side (used in ritual) iv. Votive- gift of gratitude to deity v. Low relief sculpture- less exposed stone, more difficult to break vi. First instance of name being written down. vii. Hierarchy of scale- King is more important, and therefore much larger than the other figures c. Mummification- technique used by ancient Egyptians to preserve human bodies so that they may serve as the eternal home of the immortal ka by embalming and drying i. Ka- soul, essence, spirit double ii. Natron- a natural salt used to eliminate moisture from body 2. Evolution of tomb architecture i. Mastaba -> stepped pyramid -> pyramid ii. Mastaba- rectangular structure with sloped sides and burial structure underneath iii. Serdab- where mummy was prepared iv. Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of King Djoser 1. Imhotep- very first recorded artist 3. Old kingdom a. Menkaure (smallest and most recent pyramid) b. Khafre (central) i. Great Sphinx- it guards pharaoh’s tomb, similar to lamassu ii. Composite creature iii. Lion is symbol of sun god, Ra c. Khufu (oldest and largest pyramid 4. Old Kingdom a. Ka figure- idealized statue that serves as resting place for the ruler in which his ka can reside. b. Seated Statue of Enthroned King Kafre i. Horas behind statue because he is the giver of the right to rule and protector of kings. His father, Osiris, represented regeneration. ii. Black stone alludes to Osiris and underworld. c. Menkaure and Wife- Represents the king and one of his wives. Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People i. Also made of black stone ii. Active sculpture, figures are taking steps forward d. Seated Scribe- scribe posed performing his job i. Significantly smaller statue than that of the king ii. Active sculpture, he is in the process of writing e. Vocabulary i. Reductive sculpture- carving way base material ii. Additive sculpture- material added on to clay iii. Closed sculpture- no spaces within the piece iv. Open sculpture- spaces within piece f. Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt- papyrus relief of ruler watching the hunt, in order to give him a hunt in the afterlife i. canon of proportions- grid used in artwork for scale 5. New Kingdom a. Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut- Rock-cut tomb created from hillside i. Hatshepsut was the first female pharaoh ii. Public place of worship after her death b. Temple of Amen-Re- more isolated, intended for priests and noble men i. Pylon temple- name derived from simple, massive gateways ii. Hypostyle hall- hall with roof resting on columns Aegean 1. Cycladic art a. Cycladic female figure- abstract figurine accentuates female figures. Possible funerary or fertility function b. Pubic triangle is emphasized, as well as stomach 2. Minoan a. Palace important for aristocracy, who believed they were better than the less wealthy b. Theseus Fighting the Minotaur- sculpture depicting Theseus defeating minotaur i. Minos prays to Poseidon for white bull to sacrifice. He sacrifices a lesser bull instead, angering Poseidon. His wife is cursed to fall in love with bull, and gives birth to the minotaur. The beast was said to roam the labyrinth c. Palace was similar to mythological labyrinth and extremely complex d. Dressed stone- finely finished cut blocks of stone that create a uniform face e. Minoan palace at Knossos i. Figure leaps over bull, thought to be a part of a ritual ii. Buon fresco- Paint is within plaster and becomes part of the wall 3. Mycenaean a. Citadel at Tiryns i. Cyclopean masonry- stones so heavy and large that it was believed that cyclops must have built it ii. Lion gate- lions overlook people entering the city, similar to lamassu Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People Greece 1. Greeks believed gods were extremely similar to humans, except immortal 2. The many city-states were ruled by different forms of government 3. First Olympic games held at Olympia i. Defines the shift between the dark ages and advanced civilization b. Geometric i. Advanced techniques used for pottery making ii. Geometric krater from Diylom cemetery- depicts very stylized figures, chariots, horses 1. Owned by wealthy person, shows woman with expensive furniture 2. Meander/key pattern- ornamentation of interlocking geometric motifs 3. Black-figure technique- motifs are applied with slip that turned black during firing 4. Slip- clay in liquid form 5. Red-figure technique- the decorative motifs remained the color of clay c. Due to trade, Greeks being to alter their styles i. Ezekias- first known Greek artist 1. Belly amphora with ajax playing dice-first commissioned piece, krater d. Krater- used for pouring libation for deceased individual, funerary object 4. Egyptian influence a. Statue of a Kouros- Uses geometric stylization i. Greeks learned stone carving from Egypt and influence is evident b. Statue of Mentuemhet- Egyptian ka statue. Diorite used so that it could last forever. Shows influence c. Greeks used open form more often than the Egyptians, who preferred closed form d. Over 70 years, Kouros statues grow more realistic and less stylized e. Persians destroyed statues upon invasion so Greeks began to bury them 5. Battle of Marathon- Greeks allied together to end Persian invasion. Beginning of classical Period. a. Greeks were victorious 6. Classical art (golden age) a. Rise of feeling of superiority and historians to record accomplishments b. Peplos Kore- statue of Kore goddess that was buried i. Commissioned Artemis statue for temple as votive offering c. Kritios Boy- statue that uses contrapposto i. Contrapposto- counter balance. step forward depicted realistically with hip tilt d. Lost wax technique- technique used to cast bronze statues i. Other materials used as well to give statues different colors ii. Became more popular than marble because since it is a stronger material, the statues could be free standing 7. Doryphoros (spear-bearer)- Polykleitos used cannon of proportions to create perfect human form Guide: Works of art Vocabulary People a. Roman replica of Greek bronze b. Symmetria- commensurability of parts 8. Parthenon a. Sat on top of Acropolis- sanctuary area with various temples b. Converted into a church, then into a mosque c. The venetians bombed it, leaving only the shell d. Embodiment of cannon of proportions but for architecture e. Curved sylobate f. Entasis- swelling of shaft of a column g. Doric frieze- exterior scene, interrupted by triglyphs h. Ionic frieze- continuous scene i. Shows Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite (daughter of Dione) i. Athena (goddess of war and wisdom) statue in cella 9. Architecture vocabulary a. Peristyle- a colonnade (row of columns) that runs around the stylobate b. Pronaos- the space, or porch, in front of the cella of an ancient Greek temple c. Cella (nous)- chamber at the center of an ancient temple, usually where the statue stood d. Sylobate- base on which columns rest e. Stereobate- base of temple, stairs f. Capital- top part of colums g. Shaft- body of column h. Entablature- base that frieze sits on i. Pediment- triangular portion on top of temple j. Cornice- ledge of pediment k. Frieze- under pediment, has relief carvings l. Metope- square panel on frieze m. Gultae- fluted columns n. Triglyph- grooved part of frieze o. Wet drapery- describes cloth that appears to cling to the female form
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