Anatomy of the Sacred Review
Anatomy of the Sacred Review RELI 10023
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiara Scheuer on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to RELI 10023 at Texas Christian University taught by Yushau Sodiq in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Understanding Religion: Communities in Religion at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Anatomy of the Sacred Key Terms EXAM 1 Propitiation: made efforts to appease or conciliate spirits or powers Monotheism: belief in one god Polytheism: belief in more than one god Genetic fallacy: confusing of the essence, value, or truth of religion with an explanation of its origin Ontology: theory of being Ultimate concern: depth dimension of a life Selftranscendence: selfconsciousness Archetypal: original pattern from which other things such as institutions, beliefs, and behavior are patterned Theology: study of the nature of God and religious belief Textual criticism: art or practice of determining if a text is the original or most authentic version, or a later copy that may have been altered, revised, or edited Documentary criticism: art or practice of establishing whether a writing is a whole or a composite work of more than one author or editor, when and where the work was composed, to whom it was addressed, and for what purpose Taboo: Meaning "Markedoff" or "prohibited," act or object that is considered forbidden Totems: Associating humans tribes or classes with animals or plants from which the group hassome close relationship. Fetish: Literally "skillfully made" (Polynesian). Refers to various objects, both natural and artificial,that are endowed with supernatural power and are capable or averting evil Rudolf otto: Author of The Idea of the Holy, claimed that the "holy" is fundamentally a nonrational and ineffable datum of human experience Numinous: (Otto) describes the uniquely human religious experience/phenomenon Mysterium tremendum and fascinans: (Otto) Mysterium: Experience beyond our capacity to describe orcomprehend, something that is wholly other Tremendum: Particular feeling of dread and awe.Basically, describes a person's religious experience with god. Mircea Eliade: Historian of religion; focus on the way the sacred appears in space and time Hierophany: Literally means something sacred showing itself to us. Also; any act or manifestationof the sacred. Axis mundi: Literally, "The center of the world." Used to describe a place where the sacred andthe profane meet. Think of Jacob's dream of the ladder that connects heaven to earth that hadangels ascending and decending on it. (The wings are just for show, I suppose.) Imago mundi: Literally, "The image of the world." Describes the image of the original world order.This usually manifests in religion as some symbol or mirror of the cosmos or a specific significantact of the sacred. Think of Hindu's erection of Fire Altars, where the water is assimiliated to theprimordial water, the clay represents earth, the lateral walls represent earth, etc. It's construction isequivalent to the creation of the universe. Cosmogony: The study of the origin of the universe Stupa and pagoda: Mounds of dirt that contain a significant Buddhist relic, generally the ashes of aSangha and used as places of meditation. Represents the gateway between several planes ofexistence. Mandala: Symmetrical drawing (usually made of sand) that symbolizes the universe, reality, or the energies that relate to the Buddha, Bodhisattva and sued in meditation. Mount zion Jerusalem: King David brought the Ark of the Covenant here. Mount Zion served asthe axis mundi for for Jews after the temple at Mt. Sinai was destroyed. Signs: forms of expressing meaning; indicates existence past, present, future of a thing Symbols: forms of expressing meaning; functions as a kind of shorthand reminder or signal of some information already known Representational symbols: tie things together without having any connection between the two Presentational symbols: they participate in, or are similar to, the living thing they symbolize Firstorder religious discourse: is richly metaphoric, analogic, and poetic in character; the symbols, myths, and stories require interpretation, elaboration, and commentary Secondorder religious discourse: a more abstract form of discourse that seeks greater clarity and coherence by translating the symbolic and mythic language into concepts and doctrines Metaphor: is communication through which we speak by pointing out resemblences or comparisons Parable: is an extended metaphor; it reveals the same surprise and openness to new insight that we have observed in a true metaphor Extended metaphor: a parable Myth: is a complex of stories that demonstrate the inner meaning of the universe and human life Bronislaw Malinowski: Functionalist, influential anthropologist of early 20th century. Did not ask truth question. What does telling of stories do for/to society? Ends up validating the social order, is the man who said "a myth is not merely as true, but as vulnerable and sacred" Carl Jung: psychotherapist, Apprentice of Freud. Positive and Theoretical. Religion is a means for wholeness as individuals. Psychological Approach, according to this man, the human psyche consists of three layers the conscious mind, the person unconscious and the collective unconscious Archetype: established symbolic and mythic images that reappear in a variety of cultures and historical periods Collective unconscious: inherent potentials in the psychic structure of all human beings; includes materials that are psychically real prior to experience, such as primordial images that are prevelant through out human history; archetypes Individuation: individual psychic healing or selfrealization Doctrines: a set of beliefs taught and held by the church, political party, or group Models: represent the enduring structures of the cosmic order which myths dramatize in narrative form Religious ritual: An agreed on a formalized pattern of ceremonial movements and verbalexpressions carried out in sacred context; Serve as condensed rituals Mantras: Repeated chants used in meditation; a recurring word or phrase used as an incantation Rites of passage: Rituals connected with critical events in life of an individual; generally birth,social puberty, marriage, death Liminal state: (Turner) Literally, "threshold, or transitional" state that represents antistructure.Think about the Ndembu tribe stripping the chiefelect of status, being dressing in ragged clothesand living as a commoner before taking on a higher role, or young men being cast from societyinto the woods as initiation before being accepted as a full member of the tribe. Communitas: (Turner) The spontaneous bond of communication between members of a society.Breaks through the interstices of structure Bar mitzvah: Social Puberty Rite, Jewish ritual that symbolizes thier knowledge andallegiance to the Torah Tonsure: In Chinese Buddhism, Tonsure is the ritual where a monk shaves the head of a layman,often a youth, who thereby enters the Sangha Social puberty rites: Change from childhood to adulthood. This is when they learn their new roles and responsibilities that come with being a man or a woman Lifecrisis rites: Ceremonies performed usually as an act of redemption or atonement, nonperiodic. Shamans: Distinct class of religious specialists that undergo strenuous initiations by which theygain control over the spirits and are able to use them in healing and in flights to the spiritual world. Exorcism: The expelling of evil spirits with use of special ritual or formula or use of a holy name. Seasonal and calendar rites: Periodic rituals based around a specific time, generally with the rhythmic changes of nature, either the sun, seasons, seed time and harvest New Year Akitu Festival: New year's celebration of the ancient Babylonians; Celebrates Marduk4and his creation of the world and his triumph over Tiamat. Propitiation: Act of appeasing, pacifying or making favorable, often through some form of sacrificeto a deity. Expiation (atonement): Atonement; Making right by some rituall act or offering for the injury or sin done tosome other person or god. Closely related to atonement and proptitiation, expiation involves actsof sacrifice to remove pollution or sin. Scapegoat: One "Corporate Personality" who's purpose is to remove the taint and impurity(miasma5) of sins that have first been openly confessed to the community that it is representing. Yom Kippur: Jewish "Day of Atonement," focuses on removal of pollution, atonement for sins, Sacrament: An outward and visible sign of of an inward and spiritual grace; Unlike symbols thatonly represent, there is always an effective change. Scripture: derived from Latin term "scriptura" meaning "a writing"; a written text. Vedas: Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism. Qur’an: Islam's primary sacred text, regarded by Muslims as the direct words of Allah, revealed to Muhammad through the archangel Gabrie Hebrew Bible: term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh, the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament. Written & Oral Torah: Five Books of Moses and commentary Canon (canonical authority): a collection of books accepted as holy scripture especially the books of the Bible recognized by any Christian church as genuine and inspired Analects: a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples Four Books and Five Classics: The analects, Mencius, the Great Learning, The Doctrine of the Mean…5 classicsConfuciunists Sacred texts; IChing (Book of Changes), Book of Poetry, Book ofHistory, Book of Rites, Spring and Autumn Annals. Established by Han Wuti, Logos: In Greek, translated as "word," "speech," "discourse," or "reason"; used by the Stoics to refer to the divine Reason or God. Hadith: (Islam) a tradition based on reports of the sayings and activities of Muhammad and his companions Pentateuch: the first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit Septuagint: the oldest Greek version of the Old Testament Apocrypha: 14 books of the Old Testament included in the Vulgate (except for II Esdras) but omitted in Jewish and Protestant versions of the Bible Vulgate: the Latin edition of the Bible translated from Hebrew and Greek mainly by St. Jerome at the end of the 4th century New Testament: 27 books inspired by the Holy Spirit, written in apostolic times, that make up the second part of the Bible and center on Jesus Christ Hermeneutics: The art or science concerned with the conditions and methods required to understand the meaning of a written text; interpretation. Guru Granth Sahib: eternal holy book of the Sikhs in India Buddha’s Dharma: teachings of the Buddha in his human form Sutra on the Four Reliances: Interpretive guide critically important in Buddhist hermeneutics Fourfold method of biblical interpretation: A system of interpretation through which it was possible to find any of four sense or types f meaning in a particular text or passage: the literal, the allegorical, the moral and the anagogical. Sola scripture: scripture alone Verbal inspiration and inerrancy: Theory that insists the bible's divine inspiration and inerrancyextend to every single word. The Holy Spirit not only inspired in the prophets and apostles thecontent and sense contained in scripture, or the meaning of words... but the holy spirit actuallysupplied, inspired and dictated the very words and each and every term individually. Liberation theology: a movement within the Catholic church to understand Christianity from the perspective of the poor and oppressed, with a focus on fighting injustice Inclusive definition : a definition that is very broad, and includes all religions. Example: " religion is driving towards your ultimate concern" Exclusive definition : A more narrow definition, that excludes one or several religions. " religion is serving an all powering and all knowing god"
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