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Wildlife ecology and conservation study guide for exam 1

by: Devrrae Russell

Wildlife ecology and conservation study guide for exam 1 FW 104

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Devrrae Russell

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About this Document

This guide is to help you prepare for the material on exam 1
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
Ann Randall
Study Guide
Ecology, wildlife, community, ecosystem
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Devrrae Russell on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Ann Randall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Wildlife Ecology and conservation Study Guide For Exam 1  Vocabulary:   ALLELE​ ​­­ one of​                        ​alternative forms of a gene that occupies the same  relative position or locus on  ​                               ​ . In a diploid organism, each individual  inherits one allele from each parent  ANTHROPOMORPHIC ­­ described or thought of as having a human form or human  attributes; ascribing ​                                            ​ to nonhuman things  AUTOTROPHS ­­ producers; organisms that are capable of    ​                                  .  (sugar) by photosynthesis  BIODIVERSITY ­­ diversity of life; includes genetic, species, community, and ecosystem  diversity ​                                ​ processes   BIOLOGY ­­ study of living organisms and their   ​               ​processes (Webster)  BIOTIC ­­ ​                           ​ living   BIOTIC POTENTIAL ­­ maximum rate at ​                                               ​ when no  resources are limiting (rm)   BIRTH OR NATALITY RATE ­­ number of births per number of   ​                            .  period  COMMUNITY ­­ coexisting, interdependent    ​                          ​ of different species  CONSERVATION ­­ sustained   ​                        ​ (and so much more!)  DENSITY­DEPENDENT FACTORS ­­ factors that cause ​                                              .  reduced birth rates as a population becomes more dense   DENSITY­INDEPENDENT FACTORS ­­ factors that ​                                            ​ of  population density  DIPLOID ­­ having two haploid   ​                                                 ​ chromosomes  DISPERSAL ­­ movement of individuals from   ​                                         ​ for another  location (synonymous with emigration, i.e., a one way movement)   ECOLOGY ­­ study of interrelationships among   ​                                   ​their environments  ECOSYSTEM ­­ the biotic community and its   ​                                   ​ as a system  ECOSYSTEM SERVICES ­­ processes through which   ​                                      ​their biota  benefit humans (e.g., welfare factors, but also​                                           ​ commerce,  etc)  EVOLUTION ­­ a change in allele frequency  ​                                                       ​ selection  and producing cumulative changes in characteristics of a population   EXPONENTIAL GROWTH ­­ a constant rate of growth applied to a continuously growing  base over a period of time; population   ​                                                           ​ capacity  until population numbers saturate the habitat  FERTILITY ­­ the potential capability   ​                                                                       ​ of  eggs that are fertile   FOOD CHAIN ­­ pathways over which energy   ​                                                        ​ green  plants to consumer organisms at each trophic level   FOOD WEBS ­­ network of complex   ​                                                                   ​ formed  by a series of interconnecting food chains  GENES ­­ part of DNA that is usually located on a chromosome and that contains  chemical information needed   ​                                                                        ​ influencing  an inherited bodily trait   GENOTYPE ­­ genetic constitution   ​                                                                       .  HABITAT ­­ place where an organism lives; suitable habitat must exist within an  organism’s environment; the habitat ​                                                       ​ special needs;  habitat is species specific  HABITAT COMPONENTS (welfare factors) – life requirements for healthy, productive  wild animals; provided by the   ​                                   ​ ( ​                                         ​ oxygen  in aquatic systems, special factors)  HETEROZYGOUS TRAITS ­­ have different   ​                                               ​ parent (Tt)    HOME RANGE ­­ the total area ​                                                                           ​ its life  cycle, that is the area required for feeding, breeding, and securing refuge   HOMOZYGOUS TRAITS – have   ​                                             ​ from each parent (TT or  tt) IMMIGRATION ­­ arrival of new individuals in    (vs. “emigration” out of an area)   IMMIGRATION RATE ­­ number of animals   ​                                                                    ​ a  specified time period   INDICATOR SPECIES ­­ species that indicate certain environmental conditions, seral  stages, or treatments; can serve ​                                                               ​ or an  ecosystem is changing or being damaged   INVASIVE SPECIES – a non­native species whose introduction does or   ​                     ,  ,                                          ​ harm or harm to human health   KEYSTONE SPECIES ­­ a species whose activities   ​                                                    ​ in  determining community structure  LAW OF THE MINIMUM ­­ refers to limiting ​                                                   ​resources  required by organisms    2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS – as food is passed from one organism to another,  the potential energy contained in   ​                                                        ​the  until all the  energy in the system becomes dissipated as heat  LIFE HISTORY STRATEGY ­­ r & K specialists   ​                                             ​adaptations  to fit their environment. For example, r­selected species have many, smaller young with  little or no parental care while K  ​                                                                ​, larger young  that receive extended parental care.   LIMITING FACTOR ­­ factor or   ​                                                                               ​ factors  in limiting wildlife population growth  LOGISTIC GROWTH ­­ growth of a population that approaches and remains near  carrying capacity, ​                                                                ​ near zero (density  dependence)  MAXIMUM SUSTAINED YIELD ­­ the largest number of fish or wildlife that can be  removed without ​                                                                                                      ​ ½ K,  but not always practical due to dynamic nature  MORTALITY OR DEATH RATE ­­ proportion of a  ​                                                ​ of time  MUTATIONS ­­ random change   ​                                                                 ​ up genes   MUTUALISM ­­ a relationship between   ​                                                       ​both benefit   NATALITY ­­ births;​                                                                  ​ individuals in a population   NATURAL HISTORY ­­ biology, ecology   ​                                                          ​ of a  species NATURAL RESOURCE ­­ product and/or experiences   that have values to humans (renewable and nonrenewable)   NATURAL SELECTION ­­ the process of genetically different individuals with a higher  survival   ; differential survival and reproduction of organisms based on genetic differences  PHENOTYPE ­­ physical expression of a   ​                                              ​ as determined by  genetic constitution and environment  POPULATION ­­ a group of ​                                                                                      ​ area  at a given time with interaction   POPULATION ABUNDANCE ­­ number of   ​                                                           ​ that  occupies a particular area  PRESERVATION ­­ “Hands off” ​                                                ​ of a species or its habitat  PRINCIPLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION ­­ when two or more species   ​                    .  .                                                           ​, one must displace or exclude the other  PRODUCTION ­­ actual number of surviving   ​                                                    ​a  population PROMISCUITY­­ mating between   ​                                                    ​ with no  pair bonds formed  RECRUITMENT ­­ number of new individuals added to a wildlife population by natural  reproduction,​                                                                                  ​ age in the population   RED QUEEN HYPOTHESIS – concept that states organisms must evolve to maintain  their ​                                                                                                              ​(running as  fast as you can just to keep up)  SPECIATION – formation of a new species 1. Long linear change due to environmental  changes 2. Splitting into two  ​                                                                           ​ (geographic  isolation) 3. Reproductive isolation – if geographic isolation is long enough then two  groups may no longer interbreed and begin to diverge because of different selective  pressures until     offspring   SPECIES ­­ groups of populations that  ​                                                                        ​ with  each other and produce viable offspring   SUCCESSION ­­ process of ​                                                                          ​ over time;  often progresses to a relatively stable stage in community development called a climax  community   SUSTAINABLE ­­ meeting the ​                               ​without compromising the ability to  meet the needs of the future   TERRITORY ­­ area defended by an organism; varies among species according to  social behavior​                                                                                     ​ of different species  TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ­­ term used to describe what happens to common  resources as a ​                                      ​which ultimately depletes/destroys a shared  limited resource even though this is not in the long­term best interest of humans and the  earth  TROPHIC LEVELS ­­ feeding levels within a food chain; functional classification of  organisms​                                                                                          ​relationships from  first­level autotrophs through succeeding levels of herbivores and carnivores  WILDLIFE ­­ undomesticated ​                                                                    ​ including  vertebrates and invertebrates   WILDLIFE CORRIDOR ­­ a protected area that connects two or more wildlife preserves,  allowing species to  ​                                ​  to find food, mates, or nesting   WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT ­­ the scientifically based art of manipulating habitats to  produce a desired effect: protect,​                                                            ​ wildlife  populations 


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