Wildlife ecology and conservation study guide for exam 1
Wildlife ecology and conservation study guide for exam 1 FW 104
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Devrrae Russell on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Ann Randall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Wildlife Ecology and conservation Study Guide For Exam 1 Vocabulary: ALLELE one of alternative forms of a gene that occupies the same relative position or locus on . In a diploid organism, each individual inherits one allele from each parent ANTHROPOMORPHIC described or thought of as having a human form or human attributes; ascribing to nonhuman things AUTOTROPHS producers; organisms that are capable of . (sugar) by photosynthesis BIODIVERSITY diversity of life; includes genetic, species, community, and ecosystem diversity processes BIOLOGY study of living organisms and their processes (Webster) BIOTIC living BIOTIC POTENTIAL maximum rate at when no resources are limiting (rm) BIRTH OR NATALITY RATE number of births per number of . period COMMUNITY coexisting, interdependent of different species CONSERVATION sustained (and so much more!) DENSITYDEPENDENT FACTORS factors that cause . reduced birth rates as a population becomes more dense DENSITYINDEPENDENT FACTORS factors that of population density DIPLOID having two haploid chromosomes DISPERSAL movement of individuals from for another location (synonymous with emigration, i.e., a one way movement) ECOLOGY study of interrelationships among their environments ECOSYSTEM the biotic community and its as a system ECOSYSTEM SERVICES processes through which their biota benefit humans (e.g., welfare factors, but also commerce, etc) EVOLUTION a change in allele frequency selection and producing cumulative changes in characteristics of a population EXPONENTIAL GROWTH a constant rate of growth applied to a continuously growing base over a period of time; population capacity until population numbers saturate the habitat FERTILITY the potential capability of eggs that are fertile FOOD CHAIN pathways over which energy green plants to consumer organisms at each trophic level FOOD WEBS network of complex formed by a series of interconnecting food chains GENES part of DNA that is usually located on a chromosome and that contains chemical information needed influencing an inherited bodily trait GENOTYPE genetic constitution . HABITAT place where an organism lives; suitable habitat must exist within an organism’s environment; the habitat special needs; habitat is species specific HABITAT COMPONENTS (welfare factors) – life requirements for healthy, productive wild animals; provided by the ( oxygen in aquatic systems, special factors) HETEROZYGOUS TRAITS have different parent (Tt) HOME RANGE the total area its life cycle, that is the area required for feeding, breeding, and securing refuge HOMOZYGOUS TRAITS – have from each parent (TT or tt) IMMIGRATION arrival of new individuals in (vs. “emigration” out of an area) IMMIGRATION RATE number of animals a specified time period INDICATOR SPECIES species that indicate certain environmental conditions, seral stages, or treatments; can serve or an ecosystem is changing or being damaged INVASIVE SPECIES – a nonnative species whose introduction does or , , harm or harm to human health KEYSTONE SPECIES a species whose activities in determining community structure LAW OF THE MINIMUM refers to limiting resources required by organisms 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS – as food is passed from one organism to another, the potential energy contained in the until all the energy in the system becomes dissipated as heat LIFE HISTORY STRATEGY r & K specialists adaptations to fit their environment. For example, rselected species have many, smaller young with little or no parental care while K , larger young that receive extended parental care. LIMITING FACTOR factor or factors in limiting wildlife population growth LOGISTIC GROWTH growth of a population that approaches and remains near carrying capacity, near zero (density dependence) MAXIMUM SUSTAINED YIELD the largest number of fish or wildlife that can be removed without ½ K, but not always practical due to dynamic nature MORTALITY OR DEATH RATE proportion of a of time MUTATIONS random change up genes MUTUALISM a relationship between both benefit NATALITY births; individuals in a population NATURAL HISTORY biology, ecology of a species NATURAL RESOURCE product and/or experiences that have values to humans (renewable and nonrenewable) NATURAL SELECTION the process of genetically different individuals with a higher survival ; differential survival and reproduction of organisms based on genetic differences PHENOTYPE physical expression of a as determined by genetic constitution and environment POPULATION a group of area at a given time with interaction POPULATION ABUNDANCE number of that occupies a particular area PRESERVATION “Hands off” of a species or its habitat PRINCIPLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION when two or more species . . , one must displace or exclude the other PRODUCTION actual number of surviving a population PROMISCUITY mating between with no pair bonds formed RECRUITMENT number of new individuals added to a wildlife population by natural reproduction, age in the population RED QUEEN HYPOTHESIS – concept that states organisms must evolve to maintain their (running as fast as you can just to keep up) SPECIATION – formation of a new species 1. Long linear change due to environmental changes 2. Splitting into two (geographic isolation) 3. Reproductive isolation – if geographic isolation is long enough then two groups may no longer interbreed and begin to diverge because of different selective pressures until offspring SPECIES groups of populations that with each other and produce viable offspring SUCCESSION process of over time; often progresses to a relatively stable stage in community development called a climax community SUSTAINABLE meeting the without compromising the ability to meet the needs of the future TERRITORY area defended by an organism; varies among species according to social behavior of different species TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS term used to describe what happens to common resources as a which ultimately depletes/destroys a shared limited resource even though this is not in the longterm best interest of humans and the earth TROPHIC LEVELS feeding levels within a food chain; functional classification of organisms relationships from firstlevel autotrophs through succeeding levels of herbivores and carnivores WILDLIFE undomesticated including vertebrates and invertebrates WILDLIFE CORRIDOR a protected area that connects two or more wildlife preserves, allowing species to to find food, mates, or nesting WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT the scientifically based art of manipulating habitats to produce a desired effect: protect, wildlife populations
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