∙ Tissues: composed of one or more cell type with specialized functions ∙ Plants develop from a single cell
∙ Primary apical (root and shoot) meristems arise during embryonic development
∙ Secondary meristems (vascular cambium and cork cambium) continue expansion and develop in woody plants during later development (ex. trees)
∙ Tissues are derived from meristems
o Also are organized regions of cells of similar structure that preform a collective function
∙ Meristematic Cells: divide and then differentiate into other tissues o thin walls and dense cytoplasm
▪ dermal tissues
▪ ground tissues
▪ vascular tissues
o Outermost layer of the plant (skin)
o Epidermis: is usually a single, exterior layer of flattened cells providing protection
▪ also contains specialized cells that regulate gas exchange guard cells- controlling the aperture of pores called stomata ▪ frequently also contains trichromes or leaf hairs that have many different functions
o Cuticle: multilayered structure secreted by epidermal cells of leaves and stems (outside of epidermis, 7 layers, a way layer aka
o In woody plants, when the epidermis cracks, the cuticle comes in and replaces it
o Parenchyma: living cells comprise the bulk of leaves. Where photosynthesis occurs bc its full of chloroplast Don't forget about the age old question of What is habituation in psychology?
o Sclerenchyma: some wall thickening (cellulose) support to young stems, petioles and leaf veins (celery strings) Don't forget about the age old question of What is systematic observation in research?
o Liquid conducting tissues pf plants We also discuss several other topics like What is financial accounting and reporting?
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o Continuous throughout the plant from roots, through stems and into leaf veins
o Water, nutrients, and solutes to move through the plant body ∙ Xylem- moves water and nutrients from roots to shoots
o Conducts water and dissolved minerals from the roots to all parts of plants (transpiration)
∙ Pholem- moves sugars (mainly) from sources to sinks
o Translocation- of food and metabolities from leaves (source) to flowers, roots, storage organs and meristems (sink)
o composed of sieve-tube members (long slender cells with porous ends [sieve plates]) We also discuss several other topics like What toxins does the kidney remove?
o companion cells aid in translocation
o Evolution of planta going for a long time
o Early plants lacked seeds
o Flowering plants are divided into a number of groups based primarily on floral structures
o The monocots and dicots are big groups but differ in jobs