Chapter 1 & 2 notes
Chapter 1 & 2 notes Munm 287 section 002
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lexi Stutzman on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Munm 287 section 002 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Garrett Hope in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 337 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chapter 1 The Roots of Rock and Roll The Early Years of American Pop Music Tin Pan Alley ● A music industry ● originally a place “28th and Broadway” ● Defined popular music in the pre rock and roll era ● Songs sold on sheet music, later in hollywood movies ● Important TPA composers include: ○ Irving Berlin, George and Ira Gershwin, Rogers and Hart/Hammerstein, Cole Porter, etc ○ Al Jolson ○ Rudy Vallee ○ Bing Crosby ■ crooner, pop singer, radio and film star ■ “white christmas” 1942 hit sells 30+ million copies ○ Frank Sinatra: ■ first pop singer to create personal vocal style; macho/womanizing image, extreme mafia connections, got to where he was with mafia, known to always have cigarette in..(rock and roll base themselves off of Sinatra) The Swing Era ● Big band jazz (swing) is the dominant pop music ● Dance fads common ● Benny Goodman ○ first star of the swing e et’s Dance radio program, the Elvis of his generation The Postwar Transitional Years ● 194654: transitional period ● Race music (R&B) and hillbilly music (country) emerge ● Major labels ignore new styles, push mainstream artists ● Independent labels emerge ● Covers: ○ Pat Boone ○ Fats Domino(black) original version/Pat Boone(white) cover version ○ White rich people owned the radio stations, they recorded black people's music with white people and then resold it..sometimes not giving credit to the black people. The Record Industry Record sales ● Dramatic drop during great depression (1930s) ● Rebound during swing era ● Steady during transitional years ● Explosive growth w/ rock and roll ○ Acoustical Process ■ Pre 1925 ■ Acoustic horn ■ No electricity no microphones ○ Electrical Process ■ Post 1925 ■ Microphones used; superior sound ○ 1940s50s: magnetic tape recording; advantages ■ Editing possible ■ Tape is cheap ■ Longer recording times ○ New recording formats ■ albums: introduced by Columbia in 1948; 33 ⅓ rpm ■ single: introduced by RCA in 1949; 45 rpm ■ Albums popular w/adults, singles popular w/teens Record Labels: The Majors and the Independents ● Major labels: near control of marketplace; they include: ○ Columbia ○ RCA Victor ○ Decca ○ Capitol ● Independent labels: tiny, more willing to take risks; they include: ○ Chess ○ Atlantic ○ Sun Hot 100s and Gold Records ● Billboard magazine: begins charting record sales in 1940 ○ 1942: Western and Race ○ 1949: W&R splits into “country and Western” and “Rhythm and Blues” ○ 1958: Hot 100 ● RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) ○ certifies gold, platinum and diamond standards ○ Gold: singles w/sales of one million. Albums w/ sales of 500,000 (gold singles later revised to 500,000) ○ Platinum: albums w/sales of one million ○ Diamond: albums w/sales of 10 million Radio The Birth of Radio and Important Early DJ’s ● 1920: first commercial broadcasts ● Late 1940s/early 1950s: Tv forces radio to focus on local programming ● Disc jockeys (DJs) become popular, developing flamboyant personalities 1950s radio: ● Segregated; small number of black stations catered to black audiences ● White teens begin listening to R&B on black stations ● A few white DJs began playing R&B on white stations to attract teens Alan Freed: ● 1951: The Moondog House Rock and Roll Party, WJW Cleveland ● March 1952: Moondog Coronation Party, one of the first rock and roll concerts ● 1954: T he Rock and Roll Show at WINS, New York; begins calling himself “Mr. Rock and Roll” Top 40: ● Brainchild of Todd Storz ● 1955: first used at KoWH, Omaha ● Homogenizing effect on radio ● Diminishes influence of DJs The Black Roots of rock and Roll The Blues ● Born 18801900, after Reconstruction ended ● Evolved from work songs, shouts, field hollers ● A catharsis for feelings of love jealousy, etc ● Mississippi Delta: the birthplace of the blues ○ The First Blues Singers ■ Country blues ● Earliest form of the blues ■ Solo singers/ guitarists ■ 12 bar, AAB lyric form ■ 1,4,1,5,4,1 ■ W.C. Handy ● First publisher of blues tones, including “Memphis Blues” St. Louis Blues” ○ The First Blues Recordings ■ Classic blues ● First commercially sold blues recordings ● Bessie smith: empress of the blues ○ Playlist: “st. louis blues” bessie smith ○ 1925: first country blues recordings ○ Black snake moan: blind lemon jefferson ● Music cut 1: Cross Road Blues Robert Johnson Jazz ● Jazz: improvised art form of individual expression ● Louis Armstrong: first jazz innovator ● 1930s/40s: the Swing Era ● 1940s: modern jazz(bebop) emerges; architects are Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonious Monk ● Playlist: “Scrapple From the Apple” Charlie Parker ● Miles Davis; Bitches Brew ● Music Cut 2: “Choo Choo Ch Boogie” Louis Jordan and His Tympany Five Black Gospel ● Popularized in 1930s by Thomas Dorsey ● Melisma: singing style common in gospel ● Influential to doowop, early rock and roll, soul Rhythm and Blues ● Faster danceable electric blues ● Term coined in 1949 by Billboard ● Early stars include Lionel Hampton, Wynonie Harris, Louis Jordan ○ Bar bands from Chicago’s south side; muddy waters, howlin wolf ○ Jump bands: smoother, jazzier Doo Wop ● 1940s/50s: a cappella vocal groups form in east coast cities ● influences : ink spots, mill brothers ● Early doo wop groups including the Ravens and Orioles ● Groups often named after cars or birds ● Hank Ballard and the Midnighters, “Annie” records ○ Work with me Annie ○ Annie Had a Baby ○ Annies Aunt Fanny ○ Music Cut 3: “Why do fools fall in love” by Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers The White Roots of Rock and Roll Traditional Rural Music ● Origins: British folk tradition of ballads, lyric songs, work songs ● Also known as hillbilly music ● Exclusive use of traditional acoustic instruments ● “Barbara Allen”, traditional version, Bob Dylan version ● “The Old Religions Better after All” written after the Scopes Monkey Trial, Dayton, TN, 1925 ○ The First Country Recordings ■ Bristol Sessions ● August 1927: Ralph Peer discovers the Carter Family, Jimmie Rodgers at sessions in Bristol, TN ● Jimmie Rodgers: The Father of Country Music; sang w/blues inflections yodeling ● Music Cut 4: Blue Yodel (T for Texas) Jimmie Rodgers 1928 ○ Nashville and the Grand Ole Opry ■ 1920s: radio helps popularize country music w/ barn dance programs ■ Grand Ole Oprybegins broadcasting on WSM Nashville in 1925 as the National Barn Dance; name changes in 1927 ● Live broadcast from the Ryman Auditorium ■ Nashville becomes home base for artists, publishers, songwriters, recording studios as a result Cowboy Music, Western Swing, Bluegrass Cowboy songs ● Commercial western music used in hollywood films ● playlist:”Tumbling Tumbleweeds” Roy Rogers and the Sons of the Pioneers Western Swing ● Jazzinfluenced country popular during the swing era ● Playlist: “new san antonio rose” Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys Bluegrass ● Virtuoso jazz influenced update of hillbilly music invented by Bill Monroe ● Monroe’s band, the Bluegrass Boys, also includes Lester Flatt, banjoist Earl Scruggs ● Playlist:”I’m Going Back to Old Kentucky” Bill Monroe and His Bluegrass Boys Southern Gospel ● Origins with Sacred Harp (shape note music) ● Late 1800s: rebirth of hymn writing known as Gospel ● Early 20th century: music publishers begin using vocal quartets to sell songbooks ● James D Vaughanfather of Southern Gospel music industry ● “Peace in the Valley” The Blackwood Brothers Honkey Tonk ● Originated in Texas roadhouses ● Songs of hard livin’ ● Electric instruments, drums ● Close in sound to rockabilly ○ Ernest tubb, Lefty Frizzell ○ Hank williams: the Hillbilly Shakespeare Music Cut 5: “Your Cheatin’ Heart” Hank Williams 1952 Chapter 2 The Rock and Roll Explosion Postwar America Change and Prosperity ● Post WWII America: ○ Peace and prosperity ○ Consumer goods become necessities ○ Advances in computer science, medicine, space travel, etc ○ TV ● Dependence on the automobile begins ○ Interstate highways, vacations, suburbs, motels, fast food, etc. Teenagers ● 1950s teenagers: ○ First to have own spending money ○ Become targets of mass marketing on TV, radio ○ Adults sense teens do not respect authority, charge juvenile delinquency, sexual permissiveness ○ Generation gap develops Disconnect ● 1950s teens disenfranchised; new role models include: ● Holden Caulfield, cynical hero of Catcher in the Rye ● 1953: Marlon Brando stars in The Wild One ● 954: James Dean stars in Rebel Without a Cause The First Sounds Bill Haley ● Leader of country band the saddleman ● 1952: Saddlemen become R&B oriented Bill Haley and the Comets ● Crazy Man Crazy(#15); first TOp 20 R&B hit by a white and ● 1954: signs w/Decca, records “Shake, Rattle and Roll” (#7) The First Rock and Roll Band ● Playlist: “Rock around the clock” ○ Placed over credits to Blackboard Jungle, recharts, sells 20 million, goes to #1 ● For a brief moment, the Comets are the only rock and roll band in the world The Indies Take Over ● While major labels assume rock and roll is a quickly passing fad, indie labels are quick to jump on the bandwagon Sun Records and Sam Phillips ● Sam Phillips ○ 1950: opens Memphis Recording Service, records songs by local talent, including “Rocket 88” and ‘Bearcat” ○ 1952: starts Sun Records ○ Develops tapedelay echo to enhance vocals ● Music Cut 6: “Rocket 88” Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats, 1951 ● Playlist: “Bear Cat” Rufus Thomas, 1953 ● These recording help define the sound of rockabilly Characteristics of Rockabilly ● Early Sun rockabilly ○ Fast tempo, nervous beat ○ Spare instrumentation: acoustic guitar, electric guitar, slap bass (no drums) ○ Single vocalist, hiccups ○ Baby Let’s Play House Elvis Scoot and ill 1954 ● Bill Haley and later rockabilly ○ Fast tempo, nervous beat ○ Full rhythm section (w/drums); slap bass, saxophones and other instruments ○ Lead vocalist, vocal chants ○ “See You Later Alligator” Bill Haley and the Comets, 1954 Elvis Presley The Cat ● Elvis Aaron Presley ○ Born 1/8/35 Tupelo MS; family is dirt poor ○ 1948: family moves to Memphis; attends Humes HS ○ Exposed to music from variety of sources, hangs out on Beale Street ○ Painfully shy, becomes Southern “cat” ○ August 1953: records “My Happiness” at Memphis Recording Service; tape is kept on file for future reference The Discovery ● Sam Phillips connects Elvis with Scotty Moore, Bill Black of the Starlite Wranglers; rehearsals are unproductive ● July 5, 1954 ○ 1st recording session yields two songs: ● Music Cut 7: “That’s All Right” ● “Blue Moon of Kentucky” ● Phillips takes demos to WHBQ; are immediate hit ● Late 1954/early 1955: Elvis, Scotty and Bill record 10 sides, play Louisiana Hayride, Grand Ole Opry, start to get attention; Elvis incites nearriots are shows ● Marketing dilemma: country or R&B? ● July 1955: 1st #1 hit (country charts): RCA and Colonel Parker ● Mid 1955: Col Tom Parker becomes Elvis’s manager; Parker's goals: ○ Major label contract ○ National TV exposure ○ Elvisthemed consumer products ○ Hollywood movies ● December 1955: RCA buys Elvis’s contract for $40k ● RCA singles lose raw energy of Sun, but are more commercially successful ● First two #1 singles: ○ Heartbreak Hotel (1/56) ○ I Want You, I Need You, I love You (4/56) ● JanuaryJuly 1957: 9 national TV appearances on The Dorsey Brothers Stage Show, The Milton Berle Show, The Steve Allen Show ● 9/9/56: first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show draws 83% of viewers ● Additional Sullivan appearance occur in 10/56 and 1/57 (the “above the waist” show) Sgt. Presley ● 1956: Presley makes Love Me Tender, first of 31 films ● Jailhouse Rock ● 1956: #1 hit singles: ○ Love Me Tender ○ Don’t Be Cruel b/w Hound Dog; first single to hit #1 simultaneously on Pop, R&B, and country charts ● March 1957: purchases Graceland ● March 1958: induction into army, serves 2 years ● 1960s: falls out of touch with youth audience The Presley Legacy ● 2/1/68: comeback TV special ● 1970s: gaudy Las Vegas shows, bland records, increasing isolation, prescription drug use ● August 16, 1977: death at Graceland ● The Presley legacy: ○ Symbolized the American Dream ○ 500 million records sold ○ 149 records charted, 114 make Top 40 ○ 18 #1 singles for combined total of 80 weeks The First Crossover Artists Rock and Roll Explodes ● 1956: as thousands of cats attempt to become the next Elvis, Cashbox magazine states that “Rock and roll may be the great UNIFYING FORCE”. ● Crossover: black artists who have both black and white fans The New Orleans Sound Antoine “Fats” Domino ● Records with Dave Bartholomew at J&M Recording Studio, engineer COsimo matassa ● Born in New Orleans; signs w/imperial, first hit “fat man” sells one million copies ● Easygoing charm; non threatening ● Hits include “Blueberry Hill,” Ain’t that a shame ○ The New Orleans Sound ■ Shuffle, swing like rhythm (jazz) ■ Walking bass (boogie woogie) ■ Tight ensembles Little Richard ● Rocks first androgynous performer ● Raised in devout SDA family listening to gospel music; kicked out at age 13 over his homosexuality ● 1955: signs w/Specialty, records Tutti Frutti at first session Music Cut 8 “Tutti Frutti” ● Often uses stop time ● 195764: retires from music to enter the ministry Chicago R&B Chess Records ● Owned by Polish immigrants Phil and Leonard Chess ● 1947: invest in Aristocrat Records ● 1950: buy Aristocrat, change name to Chess ● Important session players include composer/bassist Willie Dixon ○ The Chess R&B Sound ■ Raunchy, powerful ■ Distorted Bo Diddley ● 1955: first recording, Bo Diddley is #1 R&B hit ● Creator of Bo Diddley rhythm ● guitar/guitar effects innovator Chuck Berry ● Raised in St. Louis listening to Frank Sinatra, Nat King Cole ● 1955: records “Maybellene” at first Chess session, #5 hit Music Cut 9: “Maybellene” ● “Johnny B. Goode” ○ First great rock lyricist ○ Archetype rock guitarist ○ Master showmanthe duck walk ● 1959: arrested for violating Mann Act; imprisoned 196264 Other Important Sun Rockabilly Artist ● Sam Phillips: ○ after nearing bankruptcy, turns his finances around ○ Achieve national prominence with rockabilly artists, country stars such as Charlie Rich and Johnny Cash ○ Fails with Roy Orbison who has success with Monument Records ○ Opens new studio in 1960, sells Sun in 1969 ● Carl Perkins ○ 12/55:records “Blue Suede Shoes”, Sun’s first million seller ○ 3/21/56: auto accident derails career ○ 1964: tour of England; meets the Beatles who cover two of his songs Everybody’s trying to be my baby. ● Jerry Lee Lewis ○ Cousin to Jimmy Swaggart; kicked out of Bible College on first day for play boogie woogie hymn ○ 1956: auditions for Sun ○ 1957:”Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin on” “Great Balls of Fire” ○ May 1958: discovery that he married his 13 year old second cousins; career fizzles ● Buddy Holly ○ Grows up in Lubbock, TX listening to country, R&B; plays in country bands ○ 1955: switches to rockabilly after seeing Elvis ○ 1956: signs w/Decca; unsuccessful recordings in Nashville, ends contract ○ 2/57: records at Norman Petty’s Nor Va Jak Studio in Clovis NM; experiments with studio technology. ● Music Cut 10: “Peggy Sue” 1957 #3 ○ 1958: moves to NYC, marries, work with producer Paul Anka ○ 1958: takes legal action to end partnership with Petty ○ 1959: Winter Dance Party w/Ritchie Valens, Big BOpper ○ 2/3/59: him and his band die in a plane crashes after show at Surf Ballroom in Clear Lake, IA
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