×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Toledo - BIOL 2170 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Toledo - BIOL 2170 - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

TOLEDO / Biology / BIOL 2170 / In biology, what is a polypeptide chain?

In biology, what is a polypeptide chain?

In biology, what is a polypeptide chain?

Description

School: University of Toledo
Department: Biology
Course: Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, Cells, and Inheritence
Professor: Deborah chadee
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide was built for each of his chapter guides and I filled in all the needed information! Happy studying!
Uploaded: 09/09/2016
12 Pages 79 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


Study Guide for exam  


In biology, what is the polypeptide chain?



Chapters 1-4

Chapter 1

All you need from chapter 1 is to review sections 1.1 on the Scientific Method, and  1.4 on Evolution. Know the basic outline and procedures of the Scientific Method.

Chapter 2


Chromosomes consist of?



Important Terms/Concepts: 

A) Atoms

a) All matter is composed of atoms

b) Atoms have volume and mass

I) Composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons

Review Figures 1.8  and 1.9

We also discuss several other topics like What is the national climate data center?

II) Mass of one proton or neutron= atomic mass unit (amu) or 1 Dalton (Da)

III)Mass of one electron= usually ignored

B)Elements 

a) Pure substance containing only one kind of atom b) Elements are arranged in the periodic table  

I) The number of protons identifies an element


Who is oswald avery?



II) Atomic mass is the number of protons + the number of  neutrons

c) Isotopes:

I) Forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons,  thus different mass numbers  

II) Radioisotopes are unstable, they give off energy from the  nucleus

(1) This radioactive decay transforms the atom (2) Energy can interact with surrounding material d) H, C, N, O,P makes up 90% of our mass and all if creations  mass. 

e) Atomic Mass=

I) Average of mass numbers of isotopes in their normally  occurring proportion Don't forget about the age old question of What is the normative dimension?

Atomic number: I) The number of protons identifies an element

Atomic mass: is the number of protons + the number of neutrons  Isotope

The types of chemical bonds: 

a) Chemical Bond: attractive force that links atoms together to  form molecules

b) Covalent Bond: atoms share one or more pairs of electrons,  so that their octet is filled

I) Can be single: share one pair

II) Can be double: share two pairs

III)Can be triple: share three pairs

Electron shells: If you want to learn more check out How many elements do we found in organic molecules?

C)Orbitals:  

a) Describes location of electrons

b) Regions where electron is found 90% of the time c) Have characteristic shapes and orientations, and can be  occupied by two electrons

d) Filled in specific sequence

D) Hydrogen Bond

a) Attraction between the negative end of one molecule and  the positive hydrogen end of another molecule

b) Forms between

I) Water molecules

E) Ionic Bond

a) Ions: electronically charged particles when atoms gain or  lose electrons

I) Cations: positive

II) Anions: negative

b) Ionic bonds are formed by the electrical attraction of positive and negative ions

I) Forms salts

The structures of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. A) Protein We also discuss several other topics like There are how many types of statistics?

a) Functions of the approximately 23,000 human proteins I) Enzymes

II) Cell structure

III)Protection

IV) Defense

V) Signal transduction

VI) Transport

VII) DNA regulation

b) Made from different amino acids

c) Polypeptide chain: single, unbranched chain of amino acids I) A chain is folded into a specific 3D shape to form a  functional protein

II) Some proteins consist of multiple polypeptide chains  known as subunits We also discuss several other topics like What are the different forms or variants of a gene?

B)Carbohydrates

a) Molecules in which carbon is flanked by hydrogen and  hydroxyl groups

I) H-C-OH

II) Serve a structural function in DNA and chitin

b) Types

I) Monosaccharides:

(1) Simple sugars

II) Disaccharides

(1) 2 Simple sugars linked by glycosidic bonds III)Oligosaccharides

(1) Three to 20 monosaccharides

IV) Polysaccharides

(1) Hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides (2) Starch, glycogen, cellulose, are made with glucose monomers

C)Lipids If you want to learn more check out Jacopo peri wrote what?

a) Nonpolar hydrocarbons

I) Fats and oils for energy storage

II) Phospholids are cell membranes

III)Steroids have multiple functions

b) Fats serve as insulation in animals. Lipid nerve coating act  ass electrical insulation, oils repel water and prevent drying

Buffers: 

a) buffer is a mixture of a weak acid and its corresponding base I) help maintain constant pH

Mole: 

F) Mole

a) The amount of substance (in grams), the mass of which is  numericall equal to its molecular weight (mol=g/MW) b) One mole contains 6.02x10^23 atoms

c) M=mol/L 

d) MW=g/mol 

Molarity: 

A)Many important biochemical reactions occur in aqueous  solutions.

a) A solution is a substance (solute) dissolved in a liquid  (solvent).

b) A 1 molar solution (1M) is 1 mole of a substance dissolved in  water to make 1 liter of solution.

Chapter 3

Important Terms/Concepts: 

Nucleotide 

A)Nucleic Acids

a) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

I) Contains deoxyribose

b) RNA (ribonucleic acid)

I) Contains ribose

II) More reactive then DNA

c) Required for the storage and transmission of genetic  information

d) Polymers- the monomeric units are nucleotides

I) Nucleotides consist of a pentose sugar, a phosphate  group, and a nitrogen containing base

DNA and RNA structure 

B)Structure of DNA

a) Molecular structures can be found through x-ray  crystallography  

I) Crystals of a purified substance are generated  

II) Position of atoms is inferred by passing x-rays through the crystal and observing the diffraction patterns

b) Chemical compositions also provide clues to the structure I) DNA is a polymer of nucleotides

c) 1950: Erwin Chargaff found in the DNA from many different  species

I) Amount of A = amount of T

II) Amount of G= amount of C

III)Or, the abundance of purines= the abundance of  pyrimidines

d) The backbone of DNA and RNA consists of the sugars and  phosphate groups, bonded by phosphodiester linkages

I) The phosphate groups link the 3’ carbon in one sugar to  the 5’ carbon in another sugar

e) The two strands of DNA in the helix

I) Run in opposite directions

II) Are therefore antiparallel  

f) Hydrogen Bonds in DNA

I) A and T are hydrogen bonded

II) G and C are hydrogen bonded

C)RNA

a) Usually one strand

b) The sugar is ribose

c) Contains uracil (U) instead of thymine (T)

d) RNA can pair with a single strand of DNA, except that  adenine pairs with uracil

I) Single strand RNA can fold into complex shapes by  internal base pairing

e) Messenger RNA, mRNA forms a complimentary copy of DNA  and carries information to the cytoplasm

I) Made in the process of transcription

Experiments that led to the identification of DNA as the genetic  material 

a) 1920s: chromosomes consist of DNA and proteins b) Is DNA genetic material?

I) It’s in the right place

II) It is present in the right amount

III)Amount varies among species

c) Frederick Griffith

I) Worked with two strains of a bacteria

II) Determines that a chemical transforming principle, from  dead cells of one strain produced a heritable change in  the other strain.

III)Oswald Avery- identifying the transforming principle IV) Treated samples to destroy different molecules V) Only if DNA was lost, was the transforming principle lost d) Hershey-Chase experiment

I) Used the bacteriophage T2 virus to determine whether  DNA or protein is the genetic material

The transcription process 

A)Transcriptions  

a) Requires:

I) DNA template

II) Nucleotide substrates (ATP, GTP, CTP, UTP)

III)The RNA polymerase enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of  RNA

b) Initiation requires a promoter—a special sequence of DNA in  front of each gene

I) RNA polymerase binds to the promoter

II) Promoter tells RNA polymerase where to start and which  strand of DNA to transcribe

c) Polymerization of RNA occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction I) Incoming ribonucleotides are accepted if they correctly  base pair with the template DNA

II) The 3’-OH of the growing strand attacks the high energy  phosphate bond of the incoming ribonucleotides providing the energy to drive the reactions

III)The two phosphates of the incoming ribonucleotides are  released as pyrophosphate

Promoter 

a) Initiation requires a promoter—a special sequence of DNA in  front of each gene

I) RNA polymerase binds to the promoter

II) Promoter tells RNA polymerase where to start and which  strand of DNA to transcribe

RNA processing events 

a) Polymerization of RNA occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction

I) Incoming ribonucleotides are accepted if they correctly  base pair with the template DNA

II) The 3’-OH of the growing strand attacks the high energy  phosphate bond of the incoming ribonucleotides providing the energy to drive the reactions

III)The two phosphates of the incoming ribonucleotides are  released as pyrophosphate

b) Expression of a gene to form a polypeptide (two steps): I) Transcription: making a single stranded RNA copy of a  gene

II) Translation: using RNA sequence information to make a  polypeptide

c) Central dogma: information flows in one direction when  genes are expressed

I) Exceptions:

(1) Viruses: non-cellular particles that reproduce  inside cells, many have RNA as their genetic material

The domain structure of pre-mRNAs and mRNAs 

I) Pre-mRNA

(1) Introns are removed from the final mRNA

b) Messenger RNA, mRNA forms a complimentary copy of DNA  and carries information to the cytoplasm

I) Made in the process of transcription

c) In the nucleus, pre-mRNA is modified at both ends I) G cap is added at the 5’ end (modified GTP)

(1) Facilitates mRNA binding to ribosome

The details of the Hershey-Chase experiments 

a) Hershey-Chase experiment 

I) Used the bacteriophage T2 virus to determine whether  DNA or protein is the genetic material

UTRs in RNA 

a) UTRs

I) Untranslated regions are found at the 5’ and 3’ ends of  mRNA transcripts

(1) Important for the stability and transcription of the  mRNA

Chapter 4

Important Terms/Concepts: 

The four levels of protein structure 

A)Structure of Proteins

a) The primary structure of a protein is the sequence of amino  acids

I) The sequence determines the secondary and tertiary  structure

(1) How the protein is folded

(2) The number of different proteins that can be made from 20 amino acids is enormous

II) All proteins begin with M (Methionine)

b) Secondary structure

I) Localized 3d structure

II) α Helix

(1) Right handed coil resulting from hydrogen bonding III)β Pleated sheet

(1) Two or more polypeptide chains are aligned c) Tertiary structure

I) Bending and folding results in a macromolecule with  specific 3d shapes

II) The outer surfaces present functional groups that can  interact with other molecules

III)Tertiary structure is determined by interactions of R groups

(1) Covalent

(2) Ionic  

(3) Hydrogen bond

(4) Van der Waals forces

d) Quaternary structure

I) Results from the interaction of subunits by all types of  chemical bonds

The types of chemical bonds that hold proteins together 

(1) Covalent

(2) Ionic  

(3) Hydrogen bond

(4) Van der Waals forces

tRNA structure and function 

a) Large subunit has three tRNA binding sites

b) A site

I) Charged tRNA binds to the mRNA

c) P site

I) Chain is transferred to amino acid on the incoming tRNA d) E site

I) Where the tRNA sits before being released

e) Transfer RNA (tRNA) is an adapter between mRNA code and  the amino acids used to make a polypeptide  

I) They carry amino acids for the process of translation II) For each amino acid, there is a specific tRNA

(1) Covalent attachment between amino acid and  tRNA

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases 

a) Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

I) Making tRNA amino acid structures  

The genetic code 

B)Genetic Code

a) How was it deciphered

I) 20 “code words” (amino acids) are written with only four  ‘letter’ (Bases)

II) Triplet code seemed likely

(1) Could account for 4 x 4 x 4 x 4=64

Translation mechanisms (especially how translation starts and  stops) 

a) Start codon

I) AUG – initiation code

b) Stop codons

I) UAA, UAG, UGG

II) Stop translation and releases polypeptide

c) For most amino acids there are more than one codon

Optical isomers 

a) Optical isomers result from asymmetrical carbons

b) “each of two or more forms of a compound that have the  same structure but are mirror images of each other and  typically differ in optical activity”

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here