Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 2170 - 002
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BIOL 2170 - 002
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Veselka on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2170 - 002 at University of Toledo taught by Robert M. Stevens in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 220 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, Cells, and Inheritance in Biology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Study Guide for exam Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1 All you need from chapter 1 is to review sections 1.1 on the Scientific Method, and 1.4 on Evolution. Know the basic outline and procedures of the Scientific Method. Review Figures 1.8 and 1.9 Chapter 2 Important Terms/Concepts: A) Atoms a) All matter is composed of atoms b) Atoms have volume and mass I) Composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons II) Mass of one proton or neutron= atomic mass unit (amu) or 1 Dalton (Da) III)Mass of one electron= usually ignored B)Elements a) Pure substance containing only one kind of atom b) Elements are arranged in the periodic table I) The number of protons identifies an element II) Atomic mass is the number of protons + the number of neutrons c) Isotopes: I) Forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons, thus different mass numbers II) Radioisotopes are unstable, they give off energy from the nucleus (1) This radioactive decay transforms the atom (2) Energy can interact with surrounding material d) H, C, N, O,P makes up 90% of our mass and all if creations mass. e) Atomic Mass= I) Average of mass numbers of isotopes in their normally occurring proportion Atomic number: I) The number of protons identifies an element Atomic mass: is the number of protons + the number of neutrons Isotope The types of chemical bonds: a) Chemical Bond: attractive force that links atoms together to form molecules b) Covalent Bond: atoms share one or more pairs of electrons, so that their octet is filled I) Can be single: share one pair II) Can be double: share two pairs III)Can be triple: share three pairs Electron shells: C)Orbitals: a) Describes location of electrons b) Regions where electron is found 90% of the time c) Have characteristic shapes and orientations, and can be occupied by two electrons d) Filled in specific sequence D) Hydrogen Bond a) Attraction between the negative end of one molecule and the positive hydrogen end of another molecule b) Forms between I) Water molecules E)Ionic Bond a) Ions: electronically charged particles when atoms gain or lose electrons I) Cations: positive II) Anions: negative b) Ionic bonds are formed by the electrical attraction of positive and negative ions I) Forms salts The structures of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. A) Protein a) Functions of the approximately 23,000 human proteins I) Enzymes II) Cell structure III)Protection IV) Defense V) Signal transduction VI) Transport VII) DNA regulation b) Made from different amino acids c) Polypeptide chain: single, unbranched chain of amino acids I) A chain is folded into a specific 3D shape to form a functional protein II) Some proteins consist of multiple polypeptide chains known as subunits B)Carbohydrates a) Molecules in which carbon is flanked by hydrogen and hydroxyl groups I) H-C-OH II) Serve a structural function in DNA and chitin b) Types I) Monosaccharides: (1) Simple sugars II) Disaccharides (1) 2 Simple sugars linked by glycosidic bonds III)Oligosaccharides (1) Three to 20 monosaccharides IV) Polysaccharides (1) Hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides (2) Starch, glycogen, cellulose, are made with glucose monomers C)Lipids a) Nonpolar hydrocarbons I) Fats and oils for energy storage II) Phospholids are cell membranes III)Steroids have multiple functions b) Fats serve as insulation in animals. Lipid nerve coating act ass electrical insulation, oils repel water and prevent drying Buffers: a) buffer is a mixture of a weak acid and its corresponding base I) help maintain constant pH Mole: F)Mole a) The amount of substance (in grams), the mass of which is numericall equal to its molecular weight (mol=g/MW) b) One mole contains 6.02x10^23 atoms c) M=mol/L d) MW=g/mol Molarity: A)Many important biochemical reactions occur in aqueous solutions. a) A solution is a substance (solute) dissolved in a liquid (solvent). b) A 1 molar solution (1M) is 1 mole of a substance dissolved in water to make 1 liter of solution. Chapter 3 Important Terms/Concepts: Nucleotide A)Nucleic Acids a) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) I) Contains deoxyribose b) RNA (ribonucleic acid) I) Contains ribose II) More reactive then DNA c) Required for the storage and transmission of genetic information d) Polymers- the monomeric units are nucleotides I) Nucleotides consist of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base DNA and RNA structure B)Structure of DNA a) Molecular structures can be found through x-ray crystallography I) Crystals of a purified substance are generated II) Position of atoms is inferred by passing x-rays through the crystal and observing the diffraction patterns b) Chemical compositions also provide clues to the structure I) DNA is a polymer of nucleotides c) 1950: Erwin Chargaff found in the DNA from many different species I) Amount of A = amount of T II) Amount of G= amount of C III)Or, the abundance of purines= the abundance of pyrimidines d) The backbone of DNA and RNA consists of the sugars and phosphate groups, bonded by phosphodiester linkages I) The phosphate groups link the 3’ carbon in one sugar to the 5’ carbon in another sugar e) The two strands of DNA in the helix I) Run in opposite directions II) Are therefore antiparallel f) Hydrogen Bonds in DNA I) A and T are hydrogen bonded II) G and C are hydrogen bonded C)RNA a) Usually one strand b) The sugar is ribose c) Contains uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) d) RNA can pair with a single strand of DNA, except that adenine pairs with uracil I) Single strand RNA can fold into complex shapes by internal base pairing e) Messenger RNA, mRNA forms a complimentary copy of DNA and carries information to the cytoplasm I) Made in the process of transcription Experiments that led to the identification of DNA as the genetic material a) 1920s: chromosomes consist of DNA and proteins b) Is DNA genetic material? I) It’s in the right place II) It is present in the right amount III)Amount varies among species c) Frederick Griffith I) Worked with two strains of a bacteria II) Determines that a chemical transforming principle, from dead cells of one strain produced a heritable change in the other strain. III)Oswald Avery- identifying the transforming principle IV) Treated samples to destroy different molecules V) Only if DNA was lost, was the transforming principle lost d) Hershey-Chase experiment I) Used the bacteriophage T2 virus to determine whether DNA or protein is the genetic material The transcription process A)Transcriptions a) Requires: I) DNA template II) Nucleotide substrates (ATP, GTP, CTP, UTP) III)The RNA polymerase enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of RNA b) Initiation requires a promoter—a special sequence of DNA in front of each gene I) RNA polymerase binds to the promoter II) Promoter tells RNA polymerase where to start and which strand of DNA to transcribe c) Polymerization of RNA occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction I) Incoming ribonucleotides are accepted if they correctly base pair with the template DNA II) The 3’-OH of the growing strand attacks the high energy phosphate bond of the incoming ribonucleotides providing the energy to drive the reactions III)The two phosphates of the incoming ribonucleotides are released as pyrophosphate Promoter a) Initiation requires a promoter—a special sequence of DNA in front of each gene I) RNA polymerase binds to the promoter II) Promoter tells RNA polymerase where to start and which strand of DNA to transcribe RNA processing events a) Polymerization of RNA occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction I) Incoming ribonucleotides are accepted if they correctly base pair with the template DNA II) The 3’-OH of the growing strand attacks the high energy phosphate bond of the incoming ribonucleotides providing the energy to drive the reactions III)The two phosphates of the incoming ribonucleotides are released as pyrophosphate b) Expression of a gene to form a polypeptide (two steps): I) Transcription: making a single stranded RNA copy of a gene II) Translation: using RNA sequence information to make a polypeptide c) Central dogma: information flows in one direction when genes are expressed I) Exceptions: (1) Viruses: non-cellular particles that reproduce inside cells, many have RNA as their genetic material The domain structure of pre-mRNAs and mRNAs I) Pre-mRNA (1) Introns are removed from the final mRNA b) Messenger RNA, mRNA forms a complimentary copy of DNA and carries information to the cytoplasm I) Made in the process of transcription c) In the nucleus, pre-mRNA is modified at both ends I) G cap is added at the 5’ end (modified GTP) (1) Facilitates mRNA binding to ribosome The details of the Hershey-Chase experiments a) Hershey-Chase experiment I) Used the bacteriophage T2 virus to determine whether DNA or protein is the genetic material UTRs in RNA a) UTRs I) Untranslated regions are found at the 5’ and 3’ ends of mRNA transcripts (1) Important for the stability and transcription of the mRNA Chapter 4 Important Terms/Concepts: The four levels of protein structure A)Structure of Proteins a) The primary structure of a protein is the sequence of amino acids I) The sequence determines the secondary and tertiary structure (1) How the protein is folded (2) The number of different proteins that can be made from 20 amino acids is enormous II) All proteins begin with M (Methionine) b) Secondary structure I) Localized 3d structure II) α Helix (1) Right handed coil resulting from hydrogen bonding III)β Pleated sheet (1) Two or more polypeptide chains are aligned c) Tertiary structure I) Bending and folding results in a macromolecule with specific 3d shapes II) The outer surfaces present functional groups that can interact with other molecules III)Tertiary structure is determined by interactions of R- groups (1) Covalent (2) Ionic (3) Hydrogen bond (4) Van der Waals forces d) Quaternary structure I) Results from the interaction of subunits by all types of chemical bonds The types of chemical bonds that hold proteins together (1) Covalent (2) Ionic (3) Hydrogen bond (4) Van der Waals forces tRNA structure and function a) Large subunit has three tRNA binding sites b) A site I) Charged tRNA binds to the mRNA c) P site I) Chain is transferred to amino acid on the incoming tRNA d) E site I) Where the tRNA sits before being released e) Transfer RNA (tRNA) is an adapter between mRNA code and the amino acids used to make a polypeptide I) They carry amino acids for the process of translation II) For each amino acid, there is a specific tRNA (1) Covalent attachment between amino acid and tRNA aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases a) Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase I) Making tRNA amino acid structures The genetic code B)Genetic Code a) How was it deciphered I) 20 “code words” (amino acids) are written with only four ‘letter’ (Bases) II) Triplet code seemed likely (1) Could account for 4 x 4 x 4 x 4=64 Translation mechanisms (especially how translation starts and stops) a) Start codon I) AUG – initiation code b) Stop codons I) UAA, UAG, UGG II) Stop translation and releases polypeptide c) For most amino acids there are more than one codon Optical isomers a) Optical isomers result from asymmetrical carbons b) “each of two or more forms of a compound that have the same structure but are mirror images of each other and typically differ in optical activity”
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