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College Composition II: Exam One Study Guide.

by: Lisa Notetaker

College Composition II: Exam One Study Guide. English 220

Marketplace > Kaplan University > ENGLISH (ENG) > English 220 > College Composition II Exam One Study Guide
Lisa Notetaker


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Exam One Study Guide for College Composition II.
College Composition II
Professor James Mason
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to English 220 at Kaplan University taught by Professor James Mason in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see College Composition II in ENGLISH (ENG) at Kaplan University.

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Date Created: 09/09/16
Week One Study Guide:  English Composition 220:   College Composition II.      The Four C’s of writing:   ● Clear:​ ​All writing must be clear to be effective, thorough, and to get the point across.  Specificity is imperative for writing to be considered clear.   ● Complete: ​ ​Writing is expected to be thorough, or complete, when submitted. Fully  developed ideas are the cornerstone of effective and precise writing. It gives the  intended audience the complete picture. Useful ways to employ this are: examples,  details, facts, quotes, statistics, and testimony. These lend credence to the piece and  also give it meaning.  ● Concise: ​ ​Having ideas come across quickly, and effectively. Cutting out wordiness  helps the reader to gain clarity, especially when it comes to paragraphs. Any information  that unnecessary and doesn’t add to the flow, should be removed.  ● Correct: ​ ​ This concerns such things as grammar, capitalization, punctuation and  spelling. This ensures that the piece is free of any and all mechanical, usage, and  grammar errors and that form and content are correct. Grammar, Usage and Mechanics  (GUM) provides the following:   ● Subject­verb agreement.  ● Pronoun reference agreement.  ● Comma Splice.  ● Run­on (fused sentence)  ● Fragments.  This also includes proofreading for such errors as:​   ●  ​Wrong words.  ● Repeated letters.  ● Omitted words.  ● Homonym errors:   ● Their, There, They’re.  ● It’s, Its.   ● Too, To, Two.  ● Make sure the paper if formatted correctly before submitting for class or  publication, according to any given guidelines.       ​Formal Vs. Informal Writing:   Rules generally include the following for formal writing:   ● Avoid contractions.  ● Avoid slang/swear words. ​These may confuse your intended audience and swearing  has no place in formal writing, period.   ● Avoid first person pronouns:  I, Me, My, Mine, Us, Our. ​This rule has logical  grounding: First person pronouns​ , Me, My, Mine) ​ should only be used to relay  personal opinions/experiences. Popular phrases such as :”I believe” “In my opinion” and  “I think” are considered redundancies due to the fact that you are the author, so there is  no need to restate it twice. They can be omitted/deleted from the writing.   ●  Using ​We/​ ​You ​may come off as offensive to the intended audience, due to the fact that  they may feel targeted or identified by the topic being written about. They may not be  able to identify personally with it, or may not want to be targeted by the writing or feel  any sort of connection.    Tone and Voice in writing:     Tone can be considered the mood, or appropriate voice the author engages whether it’s  friendly, polite, professional, formal, informal, conversationally, with dramatic flair, or urgently.  When writing, consider the following:     ● Use a formal, respectful tone when addressing professors or other students,   ● Spell out contractions/chat acronyms.  ● Avoid using exclamation points and emoticons.   ● End the writing respectfully.      Using qualifiers, such as “some” or “many” helps to avoid generalization, which may seem  hasty. Also, “always” and “never” should be avoided for the same reason. Safer alternatives  would be “sometimes”, “typically” or “often.”      Editing Wordiness:     Editing wordiness, reducing prepositions, eliminating passive words such as “be” or “have”, and  instead offering stronger, concrete details makes writing much more effective. Another way to  accomplish this is to offer sensory imagining.      Using language that clearly and thoughtfully paints a picture for the audience is beneficial as it  helps them invest in the writing, and it also appeals to the emotions, or pathos, which work best  when using the five senses: ​Sight, smell, touch, sound and taste​. Analogies are another useful  tool, as they help to explain something that could be considered abstract. Typically, they explain  something using an object/item that is  similar/familiar to the reader/audience.       Avoiding misplaced modifiers is i​ mperative.​ Since authors may place them in the hopes of  adding details, sometimes they are not used properly and leave the reader guessing as to the  intended meaning. These can be in the form of adjectives being added to nouns or pronouns.    Word Choice:     Using a Thesaurus  helps to avoid using the same word repeatedly and risking the annoyance  of the audience. They offer synonyms (different words with the same meaning) which adds  interest and depth to your writing. Be selective as to the word choice, however, as some may  make the audience defensive.        ​Prewriting Strategies.     Prewriting is the process of brainstorming, mind mapping, and writing the first draft. Researching  ideas and knowledge already at hand is one of the best ways to begin, before looking for  outside references and research. This aids in removing/preventing writer’s block by allowing  thoughts and ideas to be written, without the need for editing the material. Freewriting is yet  another way to achieve this goal, as it allows for a maximum of fifteen minutes of uninterrupted  writing and thought flow. Without censorship or editing, thoughts and ideas for the project or  material to be written, flow easily and may provide some inspiration.      ​Brainstorming:​ ​is making simple lists of ideas, words, and phrases  for the material you will be  generating. Bubbling is yet another technique that can be used, which entails making a mind  map of the subject you are writing about. Although they can be large if ideas are plentiful, they  aid in organizing information visually, and can cluster together related information.      ​Clustering: ​ This can be done in the center of a piece of paper or even a board  (chalk/whiteboard) and it is very similar to bubbling, yet it’s accomplished minus the bubbling  effect.     Listing:​ ​Yet another way of brainstorming/prewriting. This can be done by simply listing ideas in  a neat, orderly form that is easier to understand. Same as clustering, but organized.      ​Outlining:​ ​ A style of prewriting whereby ideas are written, organized, and structured in a more  formal format, such as bullet points, numbers, or roman numerals. The choice whether to  include full sentences of simple phrases is unique to the person creating the outline, and solely  up to the writer.      ​Cubing: ​  Yet another way of prewriting, yet with six steps necessary, which allows the writer to  see the material in several differing ways. The following are ways of accomplishing this task:   ● Describe it.  ● Compare it.  ● Associate it.  ● Analyze it.  ● Apply it.  ●  Argue it.    This is a helpful approach when considering ideas for writing the first draft, and also assists in  finding what the writer knows beforehand, and what may need further development.        


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