Computer Science Study Guide
Computer Science Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by ljackson60 Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Georgia State University taught by Kurt Schmitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Intro to Info Systems Intro to Info Systems with Mr. Schmitz Unit Quiz Notes Module I I. Information Systems Components A. Data is the input and information is output in an information system. B. Data, hardware, software, networks, and people make up a computerbased information system. C. Transaction processing systems collect, store, update, and retrieve transaction data such as employee payroll and sales. D. Management information systems provides performance based on results of TPS such as sales data for lower to middle managers. E. Decisionsupport systems focuses on all phases of specific decisionmaking processes and are used by middle to upper managers. F. Executive information systems supports strategic decisionmaking processes of toplevel executives and summarizes data from MIS and DSS. II. Differences Between IT and IS A. Things such as hardware, software, data, and networks make up information technology B. People, processes, hardware, software, networks, and data comprise the six major components of a computer based information system. 1. Competitive advantage, globalization, opportunities for the disabled can be considered positive impacts on life that information technology has had. 2. Alternatively, the cost of technology upgrades, misinformation, and digital divide are negative impacts of the increase of use of information technology. III. Roles of IS in Business A. One of the major functions in business includes marketing and sales where planning, promoting, and selling of goods and services happen to satisfy customer needs. B. In productions and operations the range of activity goes from receiving raw material to shipping finished goods or from production itself to equipment maintenance. C. Financial assets and financial records are maintained in accounting and finance departments. D. Recruiting, training, and maintaining employees and their records is where human resources is involved. E. Note that managers consider structure of the organization, environment, culture, and politics when deciding to implement a new information system. IV. IS Competitive Strategies A. A strategic information system is created to meet a specific business goal and to provide a competitive advantage. B. Five Forces Model Include: 1.) Competitive rivalry threat of new entrants is high when few barriers prevent competitors from entering a business. 2.) Threat of Substitute Products If a lot of choices for consumers exist, then this threat is high. 3.) Bargaining power of customers when consumers have many options from which to buy a product the threat is high. 4.) Bargaining power of suppliers when suppliers have control of their bargaining power this creates a threat. 5.) Intensity of competitive rivalry when there are many competitors in an industry, this threat is high. V. Enterprise System Benefits A. Enterprise resource planning systems tightly integrate functional areas such as accounting, finance, project management, inventory control, purchasing, human resources, customer retention, sales, and marketing into one single, comprehensive system. B. Customer relationship management systems merge marketing with business processes to strengthen customer relationships and organize customer information. C. A supply chain management system is where businesses work together to create a product. D. Knowledge management is the process of sharing knowledge among people for benefits. Module II I. Hardware and Digital Systems Evolution A.) Evolution of computing goes from mainframes to minicomputer to microcomputers. B.) Integrated circuits contain sets of electronic circuits on a chip. II. Hardware Components A.) Are the inner parts of the computer and external components like the mouse. B.) The basic operations in the information processing cycle are: input, output, process, and storage. C.) The CPU is the brain of the computer and executes commands and processes operations. D.) A microprocessor is an integrated circuit that is over a computer’s instruction cycle. E.) A multicore processor is a chip with multiple, independent, CPUs. F.) Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years. G.) RAM is the computer’s primary, but temporary storage for data and instructions. III. Computer System Uses A.) Virtualization is assigning part of a computer system to run different operating systems. IV. IT Global Implications A.) Offshoring is the strategy of having tasks performed by companies in other countries using information technology. B.) Synchronous communication is communication is twoway communication while asynchronous is oneway communications. C.) Factors to consider when outsourcing a job are cultural incompatibility, language barriers, and perceived lack of talent. V. Digital Architecture Trends A.) Radio frequency identification enables a company to track merchandise or inventory by radio frequency. B.) Data mining is an analytic process in which large amounts of data are searched and analyzed in order to find trends or patters. C.) Cloud computing is where a “virtual organization” can be created because data and programs can be shared regardless of a user’s physical location. Module III I. Telecommunications Components A.) Telecommunication is the process of exchanging information between various entities over electrical, electromagnetic, or digital networks. Able to transmit data, voice, and video over long distances. B.) Wide Area Networks are interconnected through the Internet using IP protocol, or through private networks and even though the POTS. C.) Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is the standard communication rule of the Internet. D.) A network protocol designed to handle broadband integrated services such as voice and video is called asynchronous transfer mode. E.) A network host is a computer or a physical node, with an IP address connected to a network. F.) Internet Service Providers offer services to the business to gain access to the Internet through paying for it. G.) A network host is a node in a data communications network and is assigned an IP address. H.) A core router is used to aggregate data and connect the enterprise to the Internet in the backbone in order to handle large amounts of traffic. II. Current Telecommunication A.) Data packets include destination address, relay information, and error detection. B.) The ability for a telecommunication network to carry voice, data, and video is convergence. III. Internet Technical Foundation A.) A communication protocol is defined as a set of rules that allow communication systems to interact. B.) An IPv4 address has 4 bytes that equal 32 bits. C.) The domain name system converts unique IP addresses to domain names. D.) Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the communications protocol at the foundation of all communication of the World Wide Web. E.) Voice over Internet Protocol enables use of a telephone, but only with a high speed Internet connection instead of a standard telephone circuit connection. This also can reduce phone charge for businesses. F.) A virtual private network is a secure tunnel though the Internet using a public network infrastructure. With encryption and Internet connection the software connects remote users or entire remote office to a centralized corporate network. IV. Internet Enables Business Processes A.) Companies use their systems to communicate with suppliers and vendors to manage their inventories and the use an extranet to accomplish this. V. Wireless Technologies in Business A.) Sniffing is the act of eavesdropping on network traffic in order to acquire traffic data packets and decoding. B.) Spoofing attacks occur when network access is obtained without authorization and cone occur on both wired and wireless networks. C.) Denial of service attacks are a means to disrupt, interrupt, or suspend services of an Internet host computer and are common threats to business and government websites. VI. Benefits and Risks of Wireless A.) LAN networks are simple to install because there is no cable installation through walls or ceilings. They also support the mobility of the onsite workforce, which increases productivity. B.) Wireless sensor networks are location or spatially distributed sensors that emit wireless signals with specific information and are used to monitory physical or environmental condition in pro C.) Radio frequency identification technology is used in logistics and inventory management applications whereas wireless sensor networks
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