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USC / Management / LIM 150 / What are the impacts of rising sea levels?

What are the impacts of rising sea levels?

What are the impacts of rising sea levels?

Description

School: University of Southern California
Department: Management
Course: Climate Change
Professor: Lowell stott
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: natural and Science
Cost: 25
Name: GEOL150 week3
Description: week3
Uploaded: 09/09/2016
10 Pages 46 Views 5 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x8gfylncmary-1,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x8gfylncmary-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x8gfylncmary-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bdsswqynfrte-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-5}.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_k0rpx346qgta-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_40ts3qj4zwks-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_bdsswqynfrte-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bdsswqynfrte-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-7}.lst-kix_bdsswqynfrte-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_bdsswqynfrte-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_m5b6z845c-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6h3d18ohayv1-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tvuygino29y3-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_6h3d18ohayv1-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6h3d18ohayv1-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-2}.lst-kix_xvbib2lqarb-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_6h3d18ohayv1-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6h3d18ohayv1-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tvuygino29y3-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_tvuygino29y3-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_6h3d18ohayv1-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6h3d18ohayv1-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6h3d18ohayv1-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_6h3d18ohayv1-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xvbib2lqarb-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_u8sefxvmu4f2-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_bs4ajjlo8v3u-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_bs4ajjlo8v3u-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gn8qsa3v8pkq-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_o8rc2kjyxf0p-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_820p9g3how29-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-6,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gn8qsa3v8pkq-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_h78j6kv1j7l0-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-4}ul.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-1,lower-latin) ") "}ul.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_bs4ajjlo8v3u-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_40ts3qj4zwks-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_o8rc2kjyxf0p-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-6,decimal) ". 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"}.lst-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-8,lower-roman) ". 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"}ul.lst-kix_xvbib2lqarb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xvbib2lqarb-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xvbib2lqarb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xvbib2lqarb-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-8}.lst-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-5}.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_x8gfylncmary-7,lower-latin) ". 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0}ul.lst-kix_vzjo8076llub-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vzjo8076llub-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mqyh0i4qal59-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xvbib2lqarb-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vzjo8076llub-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xvbib2lqarb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vzjo8076llub-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-8 0}.lst-kix_o8rc2kjyxf0p-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-5 0}.lst-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-0,decimal) ") "}ol.lst-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-2 0}ol.lst-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-3 0}ol.lst-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-1 0}ol.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bdsswqynfrte-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-3}ol.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jq22vxeg7vuv-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-2 0}ol.lst-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-8 0}.lst-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-1}.lst-kix_bdsswqynfrte-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-0}.lst-kix_bdsswqynfrte-6 > li:before{content:"● 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"}ol.lst-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-2 0}ul.lst-kix_tvuygino29y3-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tvuygino29y3-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q8qok9tvp6t8-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_x8gfylncmary-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_x8gfylncmary-0}.lst-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-0,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vqcjqgj6xp44-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_o8rc2kjyxf0p-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fbzrh5lrvm7i-7 0}.lst-kix_gn8qsa3v8pkq-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_s09qv23c4kbb-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_bs4ajjlo8v3u-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_bs4ajjlo8v3u-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_o8rc2kjyxf0p-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_h78j6kv1j7l0-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_h78j6kv1j7l0-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_40ts3qj4zwks-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_820p9g3how29-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_6ptl74txw0gb-8,lower-roman) ". 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Mountain Glaciers If you want to learn more check out What is the normative dimension?

  1. More than 100,000 glaciers exist around the globe
  2. There has been a widespread loss of glacier mass globally
  3. The European Alps have lost -30% to 40% of surface area and 50% of volume since the 1850’s

We also discuss several other topics like In chemistry, what are the isomers?

Permafrost

  1. 20% of landman is affected by seasonal and permanent permafrost
  2. There are clear signs that some areas are starting to warm and melt
  3. Since 1900, the maximum area covered by frozen ground has decreased by  8% during the Northern Hemisphere winter and by up to 15% during spring

  • Depth a few meters to > 1,000 m
  • Too lower temperatures increased by as much as 3C
  • Snow covers permafrost much of the year
  • High albedo, reflects as much as 90% of the sun’s energy
  • Earlier onset of spring - like temperatures, exposes soils with low albedo
  • Heats the surface and accelerates the process of melting
  • Melting releases greenhouse gases
  • Lakes and pools from as permafrost melts
  • Bacteria release methane into the atmosphere

We also discuss several other topics like There are how many types of statistics?

Changing Patterns of Climate

  • Global Patterns Emerging: 

  • Single event could be due to natural causes
  • New Trend: fewer cold days

                    More warm nights If you want to learn more check out Who determined that dna was the carrier of genetic info?

                    Fewer frost days

                    More heat waves If you want to learn more check out Syncopation is a note just of what?

                    More wildfires

                    Longer growing season

We also discuss several other topics like What is the importance of homologies?

Wave Model of Radiation Transfer  

E- hv

  1. Frequency = v
  2. Wavelength λ
  3. Speed of light C

  • The planck relation can also be expressed as E= hc/λ
  • Planck Constant:

Temperature:

A measure of Average Kinetic Energy of System

  • Temperature measures the kinetic energy associated with molecular motion in a gas

  • Definition of the absolute temperature of a gas (T) on the Absolute or Kelvin Scale:

  • k = Boltzmann’s constant m= mass of one molecule (g)
  • v= speed of a molecule (m/s)

    < > Denote an average value computed over a large number of molecules

Electromagnetic Radiation (Energy)

  • The amount and the wavelength depend on Temperature

Changing Patterns of Climate

  1. Changes in Precipitation
  2. Water vapor in air increases 7% per 1C
  3. More intense rainfall
  4. Increased flooding

Some areas will see increased drought

  • Africa (the Sahel)
  • Amazon Basin
  • South Africa
  • Southern Europe

Hurricanes: 

  • Increase in intensity Iskely
  • Increase in frequency less certani
  • Formation depends on many factors

  • Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation which can increase regional storm frequency
  • El Nino, which decreases storm frequency
  • Complete melting of Greenland Ice sheet would raise level by 7.2 m but would happen very slowly (1000 years)

Antarctic Ice Sheet

  • Contains 30 million km3 of ice
  • On average, 1.6 km thick
  • Is 1.4 times the area of Europe
  • Holds 90% of all freshwater- enough to raise sea level by 200

Two main ice sheets:

  1. West Antarctic Ice Sheet
  2. East Antarctic Ice Sheet- stable

West Antarctic Ice Sheet

  • Contains 13% of Antarctic ice
  • Melting would raise sea level by 6 meters
  • Rests on a volcanic archipelago
  • Less stable than the East Antarctic Ice Sheet
  • Ice streams flows from interior

The Antarctic Peninsula

  • Temperature has risen 2.5 C in 50 years (fast)
  • Larsen B is a 12,000 year old ice shaft that collapsed in 2002
  • Larsen B contained 720 billion tonnes of ice
  • The ice shelf area has decreased by 12,500 km2 since 1976
  • Warming ocean caused melting from beneath ice
  • Wake up call for climate scientist
  • Ice sheets more dynamic
  • Rapid collapse possible
  • Sea level rise possibly faster

Changes in Sea Level

  • ZPCC estimates of sea level rise do not take into account the possibility of rapid ice sheet collapse

  • Many scientists believe these could be sudden ice collapse leading to rapid sea level rise as much as 2 meters this century

  • If Greenland or West Antarctic ice sheets collapse, in the next 100 years it would raise sea level by 6-12 m

Sea Level change is normal

  • Ocean basins expand and contract due to plate tectonics
  • Ice sheets growth and decay
  • Regional tectonic movement
  • Regional subsidence
  • Thermal expansion of oceans

End of Last Glacial Period:

  • Ice sheet collapse
  • Rapid sea level rise
  • Rapid melt rates pulses

Recent Changes

  • Mostly thermal expansion
  • Increasingly from meltwater

Increase in rainfall on continents

  • Lowers sea level over the short term
  • Sea level soon recovers

National Climate Data Center (NCDC)

  • Global Historical Climatology Network
  • 3,832 records span 50 years
  • 1,656 records span 100 years
  • 226 records span of 150 years

  • Merged land and ocean temperature data
  • Temperature anomalies from 1880 to present
  • Problems with missing data, Arctic and Antarctic
  • Climate Research Unit Model assumes Arctic temperatures vary in proportion to the rest of Northern Hemisphere
  • Goddard Institute for Space Studies estimate Arctic temperatures by extrapolating data from weather station up to 1200 km way
  • The year 2015 was the hottest since 1880
  • Land surface temperature were more than 1C above the 1901-2000 average
  • Every year in 21st century so far has ranked the 12 warmest since 1880
  • The climate is changing rapidly and greenhouse gases are the most cause likely

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