CSD 1080 Exam 2 Study Guide
CSD 1080 Exam 2 Study Guide CSD 1080
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Allis on Friday March 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CSD 1080 at Ohio University taught by Dr. McCarthy in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 375 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communication Science Disorders in Communication at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 03/27/15
CSD 1080 Exam 2 Study Guide What does it mean when a sound is voiceless o No vocal fold vibration sound source is noise eg b p d What are fricatives stops nasals and glides o Fricatives are hissing types of noises produced by forcing air through small space in oral cavity 0 Stops are produced by completely closing off the air ow building up pressure in the oral cavity then releasing it o Nasals are produced with velopharyngeal port open where air comes out through the nose 0 Glides are produced by gradually changing the shape of the articulators Gg quot37quot o All refer to the manner of articulation What is the difference of air ow between a stop and a fricative o Stops completely close off all air ow while fricatives force air through a small space in the oral cavity Which kinds of sounds develop first for children 0 Vowels are acquired first stops nasals and glides develop early What is an allophone 0 Variations of a phenome phenome smallest unit of speech sounds o Eg cap ph aspirated puff off air cap p unreleased unaspirated Define bilabial labiodental linguadental linguaalveolar linguapalatal linguavelar and glottal Bilabial place of articulation between 2 lips Labiodental between lips and teeth Linguadental between teeth interdental Linguaalveolar tip of tongue amp alveolar ridge Linguapalatal between blade of tongue and hard palate Linguavelar between dorsum of tongue and soft palate Glottal produced by letting air pass through vocal folds 0000000 What are phonological processes Are they a part of typical development 0 Phonological processes are patterns of speech sound substitutions or omissions o Are a typical part of early speech and sound development many disappear by age 3 and most by age 6 What are examples of stopping fronting and substitution 0 Stopping stops are substituted for fricatives o Yery 9 berry say 9 tay o That 9 dat o Fronting front sounds are substituted for back sounds 0 Q0 9 doe 0 Key 9tee o Substitution included in stopping and fronting What types of articulation errors do children who have a hearing loss often exhibit o Voicing confusion difficulty with fricatives difficulty with vowels What is developmental apraxia of speech Do these individuals exhibit weakness of their articulators What is the cause Does it severely impact speech 0 Developmental apraxia of speech is a motor programming disorder 0 No weakness or paralysis of the speech muscles 0 Causes is probably neurological 0 Severe speech disorder What is Dysarthria 0 Also known as cerebral palsy is paralysis weakness or incoordination of the speech muscles slurred speechquot FLUENCY DISORDERS Is stuttering a speech language swallowing or articulation disorder 0 Speech disorder prevents easy effortless and smooth ow of speech What are 2 important factors to consider in the nature of stuttering 0 Physical behaviors and emotional reactions When do dis uencies commonly occur Beginning or ends of sentences 0n consonants or vowels 0n shorter or longer words On more or less frequently occurring words 0 Occurs most commonly on beginning words of phrases or sentences 0 On consonants o On longer words 0 On less frequently occurring words What are the various types of dis uencies o Repetitions o Partword repetitions I am a jujujujuniorquot o Wholeword repetitions Mymymy major is psychologyquot 0 Phrase repetitions I haveI haveI have a coldquot o Prolongations 0 Sound syllable prolongations I have to sssstudyquot 0 Silent prolongations blocks A struggling attempt to say a word when there is no sound 0 Interjections 0 Sound syllable interjections I have umuma testquot 0 Whole word itnerjections School is well finequot 0 Phrase interjections The test was you know hardquot 0 Silent pauses 0 An abnormally long silent duration between words and sentences no struggling as there is with a block I ve known pause him for yearsquot 0 An abnormally long silent duration within words She is a sophpause morequot What are secondary behaviors How do they come about Do they promote uency 0 Associated secondary behaviors become associated with overcoming a stuttering moment 0 Person stutters performs a secondary behavior eg blinks grimaces and is able to get the word outquot o Are effective in promoting uency but become entrenched o Are indicative of chronic stuttering Do normal speakers have dis uencies What percent of words stuttered do listeners consider to be abnormal On average what percent of words do people with uency disorders stutter 0 Both normal people and people who stutter have dis uencies o Listeners consider 5 or more of words to be abnormal 0 People with uency disorders are dis uent on 10 of their words What is the prevalence of stuttering in the US Ratio of males females 0 Approximately 1 of the US population stutters 23 million people 0 Higher incidence in males then females 41 ratio How should you react when talking to someone who stutters Do s and donts 0 DON T finish sentences or fill in words for the person your action could be taken as demeaning 0 DON T make remarks like slow down as patronizing and is not constructive 0 Maintain normal eye contact try not to look embarrassed or alarmed wait patiently and naturally until the person is finished 0 Be aware that people who stutter have more trouble speaking on the phone 0 If you do not understand do not be afraid to say I m sorry I didn t understand what you just saidquot 0 Set a relaxed pace when possible using a moderate rate of speech yourself H H take a breathquot or relax can be felt 0 Let the person know by your manner and actions that you are listening to what he she is saying and not how he she is saying it 0 Be yourself be a good listener What are the 2 major theories of stuttering What does each theory have to say about why people stutter Which one has support in current research 0 Organic theories behavioral theories 0 Organic theories are said to have a geneticphysiological cause in which stuttering or a predisposition to stuttering is inherited has support in current research 0 Behavioral theories say that stuttering is a learned response It is diagnosogenic meaning that negative reactions causes anxiety for the child leading to more stuttering has not been verified Under what conditions do people who stutter generally not stutter 0 Singing whispering speaking in chorus when they do not hear their own voice no accepted explanation of these phenomena What therapy methods are used for children 0 Direct therapy 0 Explicit attempts to change child s speech Identifies hard speechquot vs easy speechquot and increase easy speech 0 Indirect therapy 0 Do not explicitly try to change child s uency provides slow relaxed speech as model for child don t pressure the child to perform verbally encourages parents to reduce communicative pressure What therapy methods are used for adults 0 Stuttering modification 0 Goal is to stutter more uently normal uency may not be an appropriate goal for those who stutter emphasis on reduction of speech fears avoidance behaviors o Fluency shaping 0 Teach techniques to be more uent goal is to maintain uency emphasis on stutterfree speech start with sounds amp words amp build No need to address feelings and attitudes Decrease speech rate by prolonging syllables and delayed auditory feedback DAF VOICE DISORDERS What are the 4 vocal parameters 0 Pitch loudness quality resonance What is pitch and how is it measured 0 Pitch is the psychological perception of frequency of vocal fold vibration 0 Measured in Hertz Hz or cycles per second What happens to the vocal folds when pitch is increased 0 Increase in tension and length of vocal folds What is the psychological perception of volume 0 Loudness What creates a louder volume 0 Greater subglottal air pressure What creates a breathy voice 0 When vocal folds don t close completely What is resonance Hyponasality Hypernasality Do the resonating bodies nose mouth pharynx produce sound to create resonance 0 Resonance Modification of sound by the structures through which sound passes Resonating bodies do NOT produce sound they only affect its quality 0 Hyponasality decrease in nasal resonance 0 Hypernasality excessive nasal resonance What voice disorders are associated with vocal abuse 0 Laryngitis Vocal nodules and polyps What are vocal nodules Where do they occur 0 Vocal nodules are small bumps that develop on the vocal folds caused by the vocal folds coming together with great force What is a polyp o A mass that grows out and bulges out from the surrounding tissues often softer than nodules and usually removed surgically What is spasmodic dysphonia 0 Very tight adduction of the vocal folds which prevents air ow through the vocal folds Air ow is jerky strained What is a laryngectomy 0 Partial or total removal of the larynx leaves the patient without the normal mechanism of sound generation CLEFT PALATE What does cleft mean 0 A split or separation What is VPI o Velopharyngeal Incompetence incapable of separating the oral and nasal cavities during swallowing and speech production What does VPI have to do with cleft palates o VPI is a frequent result of palatal clefts How many syndromes are associated with clefts o More than 300 How many babies are born with clefts o 1 in 750 births Are clefts a normal part of development 0 Clefts are a normal part of embryonic development however during normal development the clefts fuse together What is the primary palate Secondary palate What structures are included in each 0 Primary palate lip and gum ridge closes at 7th gestational week cleft lipquot 0 Secondary palate hard and soft palate and uvula closes between 10th12th gestational week cleft palatequot Define unilateral cleft bilateral complete incomplete cleft o Unilateral cleft cleft is on one side of the nose 0 Bilateral cleft cleft is on both sides of the nose 0 Complete cleft into the oor of the nostril o Incomplete cleft not into the oor of the nostril What is the most severe type of cleft o Bilateral complete What does a palatal lift do 0 Elevates the velum into full contact with the posterior pharyngeal wall or positions the velum such that pharyngeal wall movement is sufficient to achieve closure What types of feeding problems do children who have clefts experience 0 Food and uids enter the nasal cavity due to inadequate velar closure or opening in palate 0 Need to use compensatory feeding strategies eg adapted bottles special techniques What types of voice problems do children with clefts experience 0 More prone to vocal abuse may develop nodules or other pathology What is soft voice syndrome Why does it occur 0 Soft voice syndrome reduce intensity to reduce nasal emissions 0 Occurs due to loss of air through velopharyngeal port What is a submucosal AKA submucous cleft 0 Tissue covering the palate hides a cleft of the hard palate soft palate or both Palate appears normal but uvula appears to be split in half bifurcated DYSPHAGIA What does dysphagia mean 0 An impairment in the ability to chew or swallow solid foods and or liquids o phagein to eatquot 0 dys disorder reduction of Why are we discussing dysphagia in a communication disorders class 0 Because many people with dysphagia also have communication disorders Who is mainly responsible for treating swallowing disorders 0 SpeechLanguage Pathologists because they have knowledge of anatomy and physiology of oral pharyngeal and laryngeal mechanism What are the phases of the normal swallow in order 0 Anticipatory phase oral phase pharyngeal phase esophageal phase What are the key events in each stage 0 Anticipatory stage preparation before eating hunger stimulated sets the stagequot for eating 0 Oral stage oral respiratory stage food is chewed and broken down gathered into a ball bolus on the tongue oral transport stage tongue propels the bolus back into the back of the mouth swallow re ex is triggered o Pharyngeal phase soft palate elevates to prevent food from entering nasal cavity bolus enters pharynx larynx moves up and forward to protect the airway vocal folds close to prevent bolus from entering trachea epiglottis bends to cover the entrance to the larynx and directs the bolus to esophagus food moves into esophagus o Esophageal phase food is pushed down into the stomach by peristaltic wavelike motions of the esophagus What happens if the velum is down during swallowing o Nasal regurgitation What problems are characteristics of dysphagia 0 Respiratory complications aspiration pneumonia 0 Malnutrition o Dehydration o Emotional decreased enjoyment of eatingsocializing fear choking etc What causes dysphagia o Congenital disorders 0 Cerebral palsy o Spina bifida 0 Developmental delay 0 Cleft lip amp palate 0 Acquired disorders 0 Stroke 0 Cancer 0 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS o Parkinson s disease 0 Dementia What disorders are associated with dysphagia o Congenital disorders acquired disorders What phases of the normal swallow may be impacted by dysphagia 0 Any of all of the phases What might disordered swallowing look like in each phase 0 Anticipatory phase 0 Lack of interest in food 0 Problems with positioning 0 Sensory impairments may interfere with readiness to accept food 0 Oral phase 0 Poor lip closure 9 drooling 0 Problems chewing 0 Insufficient saliva 0 Poor tongue control 0 Pharyngeal phase 0 Swallow trigger may be absent or delayed 0 Failure to elevate palate o Esophageal phase 0 If peristalsis is slow or absent the complete bolus may not be transported leaving residue behind Are swallowing disorders always apparent 0 Not always readily apparent What is aspiration What is silent aspiration o Aspiration penetration of food or liquid into the trachea and lungs 0 Silent aspiration aspiration occurs without a cough being triggered What is video uoroscopy o Radiographic procedure that is videotaped by moving picture xrays of swallowing function can follow food as it is transported through esophagus to stomach How might cold food or drink help a person with dysphagia o Colds foods and drinks sometimes improve tongue movement How is dysphagia treated o Modification of body and head positioning 0 Modification of food and beverages o Oralmotor exercises and swallowing techniques 0 Medical and pharmacological approaches How can food and beverages be modified 0 Eliminate food that is difficult to swallow from diet 0 Change consistency of diet puree foods thicken liquids o Decrease amount of food taken in per swallow no straws small utensils 0 Foods of varying temperatures cold foods 0 Change placement of food in mouth in area where patient has adequate muscle strength How might the bodyhead be positioned 0 Chin tuck helps prevent food liquid from entering airway o If someone has a problem on only one side tilt or turn the head to help swallow What is a supraglottic swallow 0 Patient holds breath while swallowing used for individuals who don t achieve glottal closure during swallow What is the Mendelsohn maneuver 0 Patient manually raises larynx NEUROANATOMY Locate features of the brain on a dia ram Pons Cerebellum Medulla Cerebellum The nervous system can be divided into 2 main systems What are they 0 Central nervous system brain and spinal cord 0 Peripheral nervous system cranial nerves spinal nerves What is another name for nerve cells 0 Neurons What are the 2 main components of the CNS central nervous system 0 Brain and spinal cord Name and locate the 4 lobes of each cerebral hemisphere motor sensory arietal frontal corx 4 p lobe 39 I I broca39s 3 occlpltal 39 lobe cerebellum Locate and describe the functions of Broca s area and Wernicke s area 0 Broca s area specializes in language expression located in left hemisphere o Wernicke s area concerned with language comprehension also located in left hemisphere What happens in the brain stem What are the 2 main structures 0 Medulla oblongata controls breathing heart rate and other automatic activities of the body 0 Pons lies just above the medulla connects brain stem with cerebellum Locate and describe the function of the cerebellum 0 Attached to the back of the brain stem regulates and coordinates movement of the body How many pairs of cranial nerves are there do not need to know specific cranial nerves 0 12 pairs
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