Psychology chapter 1 part 2
Psychology chapter 1 part 2 PSYC 1101
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Patterson on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Sorensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
1) Cross cultural and gender psychology a. Culture shapes our personal standards and attitudes towards different sexes b. Culture: Shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next c. Shared biological heritage unites us as one 2) Positive Psychology a. Happiness is a by-product of a pleasant engaged, and meaningful life b. Use of scientific methods to explore the meaning of “good life “and “meaningful life” 3) Levels of analysis a. Biopsychosocial approach i. Biological, psychological, and social culture factors ii. Biological (genetics) 1. Natural selection of adaptive traits passed through generations 2. Genetically influenced traits iii. Psychological (cognitive) 1. Emotional responses 2. Learned fears and other expectations iv. Social-cultural (society) 1. Cultural, societal, and family expectations 2. Peer influences 4) Psychology’s subfields a. Basic Research: Understanding something out of curiosity b. Applied Research: Studies that are trying to solve a particular problem c. Counseling psychologists: Help people cope with challenges to improve their personal and social functions d. Clinical psychologists: assess and treat people with mental, emotional, and behavior disorders. e. Psychiatry: a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy. f. Community psychology: a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups. 5) Review a. How do the scientific attitude's three main components relate to critical thinking? i. The scientific attitude equips us to be curious, skeptical, and humble in scrutinizing competing ideas or our own observations. This attitude carries into everyday life as critical thinking, which puts ideas to the test by examining assumptions, appraising the source, discerning hidden biases, evaluating evidence, and assessing conclusions. b. What were some important milestones in psychology's early development? i. Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory in 1879 in Germany. Two early schools were structuralism and functionalism. c. How did psychology continue to develop from the 1920s through today? i. Early researchers defined psychology as "the science of mental life." In the 1920s, under the influence of John B. Watson and the behaviorists, the field's focus changed to the "scientific study of observable behavior." Behaviorism became one of psychology's two major forces well into the 1960s. However, the second major force of Freudian psychology, along with the influences of humanistic psychology and cognitive psychology, revived interest in the study of mental processes. Psychology is now defined as the science of behavior and mental processes. d. How has our understanding of biology and experience, culture and gender, and human flourishing shaped contemporary psychology? i. Our growing understanding of biology and experience has fed psychology's most enduring debate. The nature– nurture issue centers on the relative contributions of genes and experience, and their interaction in specific environments. Charles Darwin's view that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies led to evolutionary psychology's study of our similarities because of our common biology and evolutionary history, and behavior genetics' focus on the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. Cross-cultural and gender studies have diversified psychology's assumptions while also reminding us of our similarities. Attitudes and behaviors may vary somewhat by gender or across cultures, but because of our shared human kinship, the underlying processes and principles are more similar than different. Psychology's traditional focus on understanding and treating troubles has expanded with positive psychology's call for more research on human flourishing and its attempt to discover and promote traits that help people to thrive. e. What are psychology's levels of analysis and related perspectives? i. he biopsychosocial approach integrates information from three differing but complementary levels of analysis: biological, psychological, and social-cultural. This approach offers a more complete understanding than could usually be reached by relying on only one of psychology's current perspectives (neuroscience, evolutionary, behavior genetics, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and social- cultural). f. What are psychology's main subfields? i. Within the science of psychology, researchers may conduct basic research to increase the field's knowledge base (often in biological, developmental, cognitive, personality, and social psychology) or applied research to solve practical problems (in industrial-organizational psychology and other areas). Those who engage in psychology as a helping profession may assist people as counseling psychologists, helping people with problems in living or achieving greater well-being, or as clinical psychologists, studying and assessing people with psychological disorders and treating them with psychotherapy. (Psychiatrists also study, assess, and treat people with disorders, but as medical doctors, they may prescribe drugs in addition to psychotherapy.) Community psychologists work to create healthy social and physical environments (in schools, for example).
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