Bio 3 Exam 1 study guide
Bio 3 Exam 1 study guide Biology 1130
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Nord on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 1130 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Farnsley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology III in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Bio 3 Exam 1 Study guide Chap 6,7,8,9 Chapter 6 1. Cells communicate through cell signaling, this is a 4 step process a. Cells signaling (which can be done 3 different ways) i. Direct contact 1. Cells come in contact with each other to send signals. 2. Ex; muscle cells ii. Neurotransmitters ( signals sent thorough neurons) 1. the signaling neuron releases a chemical to the target neuron 2. Ex; dopamine & serotonin iii. Hormones 1. These signals are sent from the signaling cell a long distance. Which is then received by the target cell 2. usually done through the bloodstream b. Reception (highly specific process) i. Only a specific signal will fit in a specific receptor 1. Think of it like a puzzle. Only a certain piece will fit in a certain spot ii. the same signal can be sent to different cells, but it’s up to the target cell on how the signal is interpreted iii. reception can be done on the surface or as a intercellular receptor (the receptor of the target cell is inside the cell) 1. cell surface receptors are part of hydrophilic cells 2. intercellular receptors are part of hydrophobic cells iv. cells can regulate reception 1. up regulation; the cell increases the number of receptors 2. down regulation; the cell decreases the number of receptors c. Signal Transduction i. The signal is relayed through molecules through a signaling pathway. Protein kinases and 2 messengers help with this process. 1. Kinases; enzymes that catalyzes the transfers of phosphate groups. So protein kinases work with proteins. 2. Signaling pathway; each component acts like a switch. The switch becomes activated; it does its job and then must be deactivated so that a component can accept more signals. If not deactivated there can be malfunctions in a cell. ii. 2 messengers amplify the message that is being transducted. iii. Phosphorylation; the addiction of a phosphate group d. A response i. Signaling molecules activate transduction to bring a certain response ii. 3 categories of response 1. Ion channels a. Ion channels open and close allowing ions to flow i. Ex. Neurotransmitters 2. Enzymes are altered a. Immune system i. Ex; Receptor on white blood cells will alter there pathway to attack and kill bacteria that’s invading the body 3. Specific genes may be turned on or off a. Cortisol in the bloodstream. It is an intermolecular receptor to take stores glucose and put it where it needs to be iii. Signals can have different responses 1. A signal can lead to one response 2. A signal could branch and lead to two different responses 3. A signal could crosstalk a. One pathway can activate/inhibit a pathway 4. A different receptor which leads to a different response iv. Various ways to turn off pathways 1. Endocytosis a. Cells absorb molecules i. Packed in vacuole and sent to lysosomes b. Simplest ways to remove 2. Down regulation a. Receptors are sent to the lysosomes 3. Silence the molecules a. Inhibit phosphorylation from occurring Chapter 7 1. Characteristics of life a. All organisms are made up of cells, grow and deveopl and have regulated metabolisms 2. Energy is the capacity to do work. Or a change in state/motion a. Expressed in kilojoules (kJ) b. 6 forms of energy i. Mechanical ii. Thermal iii. Chemical iv. Nuclear v. Electromagnetic vi. Electrical 3. Potential vs. Kinetic Energy a. Potential energy is energy that is stored to be used later i. pulling back a sling shot b. Kinetic energy is work being done i. letting the sling shot go 4. Laws of Thermodynamics a. 1 law states energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transferred and transformed b. 2 law states that the total amount of energy available to do work in a closed system decreases over time. Most of it is useable energy, but a little of it s heat energy which is UNUSABLE. c. Remember ,10% of energy is transferred to the next trophic level 5. There are 3 types of systems in the world a. Open i. freely exchanging matter AND energy with surroundings 1. Humans or a bowl of soup b. Closed system i. ONLY exchanges energy 1. a boiling pot of water with a lid on it c. Isolated system i. NO energy OR matter is being exchanged 1. a thermos of coffee 2. universe is an isolated system 6. Metabolism a. the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life b. metabolism comes in 2 forms i. Anabolism is building larger molecules out of smaller one (this requires energy). ii. Catabolism is breaking down large molecules into smaller ones (the release energy) 7. Entropy, Enthalpy and Gibbs free energy a. Enthalpy is total potential energy in a system b. Entropy is the measure of energy disorder. i. High entropy = more disorder ii. Low entropy = less disorder c. Gibbs free energy (G) is available energy used for work i. Entropy + Free energy (G) = Enthalpy ii. As entropy INCREASES free energy (G) DECREASES and vice versa 8. Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions a. Exergonic reactions are outputs of energy that would be a catabonic reaction. This is an increase in entropy. i. An example would be digesting food ii. Diffusion (going from a high to a low concentration) is an exergonic process b. Endergonic reactions require some kind of input of energy. This is an anabolic reaction that CANNOT be done by itself, so it is always paired with exergonic reactions. i. An example would be a plant performing photosynthesis 9. Chemical Structure of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) a. ATP is a nucleotide that has 3 highly negative charges that are very close to each other. The 2 and 3 nucleotide are closest and when the bonds are broken you are left with ADP 10. Transfer of Electrons a. Electrons are transferred through redox reactions where one substance donates and electron (oxidized) and the other accepts the elections (reduced) b. OIL RIG or LEO goes GIR 11. Enzymes a. Biological catalysts that speed chemical reactions in the body, without being consumed. They increase the reaction rate and lower the activation energy. i. Activation energy is the energy required to break bonds and start a reaction ii. Active sites are substrates that bind to the enzyme causing an induced fit (the enzyme changes shape) b. When an enzyme has made enough products a substrate attaches to the allosteric cite acting like a competitive or noncompetitive inhibitor. i. Allosteric cite is a regulating site that can influence the active site on the enzyme to change shape ii. Competitive inhibitor has to beat the substrate to the active site and takes its place. Which stops the substrate from forming on the active site iii. Noncompetitive inhibitor binds to the allosteric cite causing the active site to change shape. So, when to substrate makes it to the active site, it cannot bind properly to the enzyme. Chapter 8 1. Cellular respiration is how nutrients are turned into ATP. a. C H6O 12 66 6CO2 + 6H O 2 energ2 2. Exergonic reactions a. Aerobic Respiration (the main focus in this chapter) i. Aerobic respiration is the process in which the electrons from the glucose to the oxygen b. Anaerobic Respiration i. Reducing inorganic molecules without oxygen c. Fermentation i. Reducing organic molecules 3. Aerobic Respiration a. This is a 4 step process i. Glycoysis ii. Formation of acetyl CoA iii. Citric acid cycle iv. Electron transport 4. Glycoysis a. This is where glucose is turned into pyruvate in the cytosol (the area outside the mitochondria). This process is done twice, meaning glucose will be turned into 2 pyruvates. Glycolysis is done in 2 stages. i. In the energy investment phase (phase 1), 2 ATP molecules combine with glucose to create 2 separate G3P molecules ii. In the energy capture phase (phase 2), the 2 separate G3P molecules are combined with NAD and ADP to create pyruvate 5. Formation of acetyl CoA a. The pyruvate goes into the mitochondria and is converted into acetate b. Once the pyruvate is converted into acetate, it’s combines with NAD and coenzyme A to created Acetyl CoA 6. Citric acid (Krebs) cycle a. This cycle is a closed loop cycle where acetyl CoA is combined with oxaloacetate. These two then create citrate and coeenzymeA. b. Since this is a closed circle system the citrate is mixed with ATP to become oxaloacetate that will be reused in the cycle. 7. Electron Transport Chain a. Electrons are passed along a chain of NADH and FADH to oxygen. This process releases energy which creates a proton gradient (or build up) in the intermembrane of the mitochondria b. The protons are then defused from the intermembrane back to the matrix through the ATP synthases where they are phosphorylated into ATP 8. Parts of the Mitochondria a. The maze like inner membrane is the matrix. The reason for all the folds is so that there is more surface area for more reactions. 9. Other nutrients a. Different nutrients go through aerobic respiration differently. Some are more complicated, like carbohydrates, and others are simpler. b.
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