Sociology Study Guide - Test 1
Sociology Study Guide - Test 1 SOCY 1000 - 003
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SOCY 1000 - 003
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayden Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 1000 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Carl Backman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Sociology Study Guide – Test 1 In Class Notes and Emphasis • Thomas theorem o What someone is going to do next based on what they THINK is going on now • Culture o Tells people what to do o Provides context of meaning • How do you know what to do? o To a large extent, culture tells them what to do o We were TAUGHT this • Backman o Culture: the established ways of thinking, believing, feeling, and acting that are widely understood and followed by a member of society • Schaefer: o The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material • Key characteristics of culture: o It is shared o It is learned and taught o It changes over time o Usually it is not monolithic i. Subcultures make society fun • 3 aspects of culture o Material dimension o Normative dimension o Symbolic dimesnion • Material dimension o Physical residues of behavior in a culture • Objects used for subsistence § Ex: stethescope for a doctor • Normative Dimension o Concerned with the rules of society uses to evaluate behavior and other things o 2 components • Cultural values • Norms o Cultural values • Beliefs and the feelings that are widely accepted o Norms • Expectations shared by members of a group that specify behavior that is considered appropriate o U.S. cultural values • Freedom of speech, religion • Materialism - we like nice things • Activism - it is desirable to shape your world through intense effort • Egalitarianism - everyone should have an equal chance to succeed • Achievement -it is desirable to have and accomplish personal goals • Humanitarianism -desirable to help others • Others: progress, morality, freedom o Japanese values • Belonging § Nation, family, company, and school • Social integration § Bringing individuals together and keeping them together o Value conflicts • Humanitarianism vs. materialism § We want to help others but keep all of our stuff • Egalitarianism vs. achievement § Want all equal rights but want to be better than the next o Ends • Desired outcomes, often culturally valued o Means • Behavior directed toward achieving means o Personal values • Individual's feelings about what is important to his or her identity or well being • Do not have to be congruent with cultural values § Ex: whole family shoplifts, then so will you o Norms and Thomas Theorem • The two go together • What's going on? Followed by: What do I do next? • Behavior depends on the definition of the situation - Thomas Theorem § Actor must be able to define the situation § Actor must remember what is appropriate behavior in situations § Behavior put into motion • Social Sanctions o Responses to behavior, responses that enforce social norms • May be positive (rewards) or negative (punishments) o Typically negative o Formal sanctions • Based on written rules • Administered by persons recognized to have authority o Informal sanctions • Not formal § Most sanctions we receive are informal o Negative sanctions • Reasons why we tend to follow norms o Possibility of positive sanctions is another • We like to get them § Emotionally rewarding § Facilitate continuing to do what we've been doing • Symbolic dimension of culture o System of meanings a group has for interpreting and making sense of the world around them and for communicating meaning o Most important element: language o Others: body language, cultural icons, collective memories • Language o Most important medium for learning culture o Expands possibilities of vicarious learning • Learning through the experiences of others • You don’t have to be there with language (story) o We think in language • Difficult to think of things in which we have no words • Not impossible just difficult o Whorf - Sapir Hypothesis • Categorizes our minds use to process information are given by our language § Language controls how our senses operate • Called " linguistic relativity hypothesis" by some • Navaho's had many different words for red § Made us believe they were able to "See" better than us but they really just had more words for it which facilitates thinking o Social Boundaries • Language can create and maintain boundaries § Subculture boundaries can be recognized through Argots • Specialized vocabulary of a group § Some societies divided by language • Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, South Africa § Accent can identify class position o Other symbols • Gestures • Physical distance • Deferential behavior § Symbolizes recognition of hierarchy and actors' place in a hierarchy • Flags § We can develop strong emotional attachments to symbols • Culture o Refers to the ways of a society • Mainstream or "dominant" culture o Subcultures • Collective smaller societies that often have distinctive context of meaning • Cover smaller ranges of behaviors and symbols than overall culture § Group of friends has norms - but not whole languages • Aware of overall culture • May be in opposition to mainstream culture • Subcultures o Can be analyzed in similar ways to culture o Deviant subculture • Norms are contrary to that of the dominant culture • Cultural values and Norms o Norms are often specific reflections of abstract values • We value friendship; we acknowledge our friends o Norms can tell you how to handle conflicting values o Technical Norms • Some norms may have no direct link to value § Reduces uncertainty § Ex: cold water being on the right side • Ideal culture vs. Real Culture o Ideal • What people and institutions should do according to cultural norms and values o Real • What people and institutions ACTUALLY do o Typically these two differ o Tension between the two • This tension can lead to changes in either, or both • Ex: § Secularization/ revival of religious denominations • Successful churches tend to get involved in non -church issues • Property, training and supervising employees, & fund raising • Secularization • Loss of spiritual focus can lead to revival movements • Many churches trying to restore spiritual focus § Theory vs. practice in general • Culture and Uncertainty o Culture helps makes the world more predictab le • We have a physiological need for predictability o The more we follow the norms, the more predictable • If we're unpredictable, others don’t know what to think or do • This is another reason we follow the rules, it makes the world more predictable • Functional Prerequisite o An outcome that is necessary for the continued existence of society o Ex: water for a plant o 5 function prerequisites • Meet biological needs of members § Food, water, and shelter • Obtain new members ( recruitment) • Train members (socialization) § Training new members to the culture's norms • Resist environmental threats § Protect yourself from the elements § Protect yourself from other threats, such as people stealing • Maintain social integration • Culture and functional prerequisites o Culture establishes mechanisms for meeting functional prerequisites • Provides motivations to participate • Social Institutions o Organized patterns of beliefs and behaviors centered on basic social needs, such as replacing personnel (the fam) o Major social institutions • Family § Contributes to new members and social integration • Economy § How we make food, get water, etc. • Religion § Helps with social integration • Gathering people together • Political Order § Government • Education § Schools o Problems that occur • Often happen from difficulties that institutions are having § Ex: daycare not taking care of children • Cultural Terms o High Culture • Set of cultural products, mainly in the arts, held in the highest esteem by a culture § Arts and what not o Cultural Lag • A situation when one institu tion has not adapted to changes in another o Cultural Universals • Patterns that are found everywhere § Ex: all societies have sports, cooking, and religion § Not specific to any culture Other Sciences and How They Relate to Sociology • Human Social Behavior - Sociologist o Group decision making (political science) • Political science - the science that studies the distribution of social power § Political scientist interested in larger scale o Subsistence and exchange(economics) • Economics - studies the distribution of scarce resources § Only seems to be the study of money § Economics is extremely mathematical o Both • Subsets of sociology - they are both studying humans social behavior • Political economy • But even bigger than all of these studies is Psychology (study of Human Behavior) • Psychology o The science of the mind • Mind of the individual, not some collective o Science of human behavior • Anthropology o Science of humankind • Concerned with all human behavior o Anthropologist • Tend to be more holistic • Anthropologist want to see how things are all together as opposed to sociologist like to look at a small part of society • Study smaller groups • Less likely to generalize from N(# of observations) of 1 § Sociologist tend to know a lot about 1 society § Drawing conclusion from an N of 1 is an over generalization (bad logic) • Animal Behavior o Humans are animals • Eat • Drink • Procreate • Use the bathroom • Sociobiology o The science concerned with the biological bases of social behavior • Another word for this is behavioral genetics o Sociologist were not convinced that biology had to to with sociology • Twin studies - those who didn’t grow up together are remarkably similar • Social construction o Different define gender roles differently o Some societies recognize different sexes • There can be more than just XX or XY chromosomes • Intersexes • Some babies are born without external genitalia § Our society makes them one or the other • Sex vs. Gender - TEST QUESTION o Sex • Determines the biological differences between males and females § Size, hormones, etc. o Gender • Social or cultural differences between males and females • History o Study of the past, specifically as it relates to humans • Interprets the past • Want to understand the details o Idiographic vs. Nomothetic • Idiographic § Interested in specifics • Nomothetic § Interested in general laws • Borders between these different sciences are porous o Biology of the brain o Interaction process o Language o Power Overview of Sociological Analysis of Societies • Questions asked 1. How many people? Age? i. Japan, Mexico over 100 million ii. Germany, Eygpt - near 100 million iii. Nambia 2 million iv. Size affects what you can and what you must do v. Age 1. Old and younger people have different needs and interests a. Ex: old people talk retirement, young people probably not 2. Only women have babies, only women of certain age a. Eygpt - 23% women (15-44) b. German - 17% women (15-44) 2. How does a society make a living? 3. What are the parts of the society? i. Social institutions 1. Family 2. College 3. Holidays 4. Economy ii. Social networks 1. Friendshid 4. How are things evaluated in the society? i. For individuals 1. Fame 2. Love 3. Godliness ii. For collectives 1. Being #1 2. Efficiency 3. Providing jobs 5. What are the cultural values? i. Often widely shared 1. Family 6. Divisions within the society? i. Gender - men and women lead different lives ii. Division of labor - more complex society, less likely everyone does the same thing 7. Cohesion within the society? 8. History of the society? i. Collective memories 1. Residue of social behavior a. G.W. Bush called for a "crusade" against terrorism i. This is not okay because it annoyed many people in the middle east remembered the crusades. It refers to a time when we tried to take back to holy land 2. Often are struggles over the past a. What we remember i. Such as auburn being racially integrated in 1964 9. Changes in the society? i. Sources of change 1. Social movements a. Civil rights movement 2. Revolutions a. Ex: American Revolution 3. Technology a. Automobile b. Industrail revolution in Britain 4. Competition a. Inspiration to do better to keep up with others 5. Growth a. Population changes b. Economy i. China - unrecognizable compared to what it was in 1990 6. Miscellenous things can change a society • Socialization o Societies teach their people the norms as they are raised • Social integration o 2 sources: • Sentiment - integration generate by feelings of belonging together • Interdependence - Integration generated by needs for each other § Ex: workers vs. the market • Make the good ---> distribute the goods • Social networks o Reflect and reinforce both sentiment and interdependence • Overview o Culture tells us about meanings and bhr patterns that surround us o Demography Tell us about numbers and types of bodies that surround us • Preliminary principles o People with different demographic characteristics tend to behave differently • Ex: Age, Sex, income, education, etc. o Corollary • Changes in population size are likely to change in social structure of a particular economy • Behavior and Characteristics o Crime • 15-24 o Attend college(mainly female) • 18-21 o Suicide • Older males o Do paid work • 19-64 (especially males) o Eats Grits and cornbread • Southerners o Be a legislator • Non-Hi spanic white male • Special behaviors o Consumption • Different people buy different things § Concert tickets, dog food, rental houses, etc. o Elderly • Serious illness • Hospitalization • Prescriptions • Debilities § Old people aren't as mobile o Young adults • No insurance § People don’t need the same healthcare as the older people • Don't go to Doctor as much • 3 most important behaviors to Demographers (3 ways population changes) o Birth o Death • Old people likely to go first, or maybe the newborns o Move-ins • Young adults with their children typically are the move-ins • Age is among the most important characteristic of a person o Affects many behaviors o Affects dependence • Both old and young depend on those in the middle • Old and Young o Old populations - 12% or more that are 65 or older • Ex: Japan - 25%, Germany - 20%, U.S. - 13% • Low fertility achieves this population § More important than low mortality • Issues: § Shrinking population - elderly = no babies § Retiree support • Working class must support these people § Healthcare - expensive o Young population - 35% or more 14 and under • Ex: Africa - 40%, Namibia - 33% (youngish population) • Created by baby boom/high fertility § Africa, added 3.4% to population in 2015 § US, added 1.2% • Issues § Expanding population § Education § Finding work for the young adults to support the dependents o Dependency • Child dependents - ages 0-14 • Eldery dependencies - ages 65 and up • Working age - ages 15-64 § These ages arent quite appropriate for the USA but they fit the world as a whole well o Measures of Age • Dependency ratio - how many dependents for every working age person? § How many people does each working person have to support? Population and Demography • Demography o The study of the size structure and change of human populations o Also can refer to a particular entity o Size • # of people o Structure • Geographic distribution § How the people are spread in spance • Age-sex structure § How many 0 year old males and how many 0 year old females, etc. o Change • Change in size or structure o Population sizes to know • World - 7.3 billion • USA - 325 million • Alabama - 5 million • Demography o More Population sizes to know • Japan - 127 million • Mexico - 122 million • Namibia - 2.4 million • Egypt - 92 million • Germany - 81 million o How does population grow? • When more babies are born than people who die • Which societies will grow? § Many women of child-bearing age § Not too many of death prone age § Opportunities for migrants • Job opportunities for migrants o Principles that give demographic explanations of behavior and their power • People with different demographic characteristics tend to behave differently o Demographer's estimating equation • Population at some time (t) = § + births between the two times § - deaths of 2 times § + in-migrants between the two times § - out migrants between the 2 times • Thinking about the demographer's estimating equation § Births - death + innies - outies (this all equals overall change) o Demographic events • Things that happen to individuals that directly or indirectly affect the size or structure of the population § The more direct the effect, the more important to demographers § 3 most important events • Birth • Directly increased population • Death • Directly decreases population • Migration • Directly increases or decreases population • Other events § Age • Ex: person getting older - affects age structure § Marriage • Increases the chance of having a baby § Graduating • Increases the chance of moving § Getting sick • Sick people are more likely to die § Getting a job • We will move to take a job o Demographic Characteristics • Attributes of individuals that directly or indirectly affect the rate of occurrence of demographic events § 2 Most Important • Age • Old and newborns more likely to die • Women in 20s most likely to have babies • 15-49 = baby making age • Sex • Only women have children • Women typically live longer than men • Men move greater distances § More characteristics • Race/ethnicity • Whites and hispanics live longer • Marital status • More likely to have children • Education • More likely to get a job somewhere else and migrate • Health • The healthier the more likely you are to live o Demographic rates • How many events there were per person § K = constant chosen to reduce number of zeros • Ex: (deaths in 2013)/ (total population in 2013) x 1000 • This will give you deaths per thousand • (2,596,993/ 316,128,000) * 1000 = 8.215 per thousand people = .8% § Rates are often interpreted in terms of probability • Helps us find the chances of dying o How to count everybody • Count everyone § Census • Attempt to count on all people of interest in an area • Most population figures are not taken from census • They quickly become out of date • Estimates are more likely than projections to be accurate • The first U.S. census • 1790 • Required by the constitution • Required for the house of representatives 1. Determines how many representatives each state gets • Taken every 10 years - years ending in 0 (Ex: 2010) • European countries now take censuses to • Information for individuals is EXTREMELY confidential • 72 years past - files are no longer protected • From 1940-2000 two census forms • Short forms: age, sex, race, ethnicity • Long form: income, education, occupation, and much more 1. Important to government, business, research 2. Based on "new" sampling ideas • 2010 • Census efforts split into two separate massive data collection programs 1. Decennial census 1. Every 10 years 2. Replaces short form 3. Meets constitutional counting requirements 2. American Community survey 1. More up to date (every month - doesn’t count everyone) 2. Replaces long form 3. Based on samples • How US gov't uses this • Distribution by feds of $400 Billion a year • Census prerequisites • Must care - must have a purpose for the census • Ability to do arithmetic • Keep ongoing track of everyone § Population register • Keeping tabs on people when they move around § Guess, make estimates • Estimating equation • Surveys
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