Biology 101, study guide
Biology 101, study guide 103
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kierra Thompson on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 103 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Emily Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Biology & Society in Science at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Exam 1 study guide Biology 1. What conclusions can be drawn from hypothesis? Evidence reject, then it can be removed from the list If there is data to support, then it’s accepted until furthering testing suggest otherwise 2. Study was conducted to determine growth Rate. Growth rate is referred to as…. Dependent variable 3. Designing a scientific research, ideal control group should be…. Identical to the experiment group but receive placebo 4. In scientific study, evaluating the beneficial effects of caffeine on the elderly best describes to test Elderly men and women 5. Maximum number of atoms to which a single carbon can bind 4 6. Organic molecules defined as having… A carbon backbone and at least one carbon-hydrogen bond 7. Example of a nucleic acid DNA 8. Which structure is found in prokaryotes and not in animal cells Cell wall 9. DNA is found in All cells 10. Process of molecules going from a high to low concentration using a specific membrane protein that requires no energy Facilitated diffusion 11. Stages of the manufacture of a membrane transport Nucleus > Rough ER>Golgi apparatus > Cell membrane 12. Macronutrients are What the body needs in large amounts 13. Define essential nutrients Nutrients your body can't make, receive from food! 14. ______ reactions break down food and release subunits that can be used in _____ reactions Catabolic, anabolic 15. Would a mutation in an enzyme that changes shape of its active site change? Yes 16. Inputs for aerobic respiration Glucose and oxygen 17. Stages of aerobic respiration in order Glycolysis> citric acid cycle > electron transport chain 18. Oxygen is most important for which stages of aerobic respiration? Glycolysis and electron transport chain 19. Organism that can carry out photosynthesis Autotrophs 20. Which molecules are produced by autotrophs during photosynthesis? Glucose and oxygen 21. Photosynthesis would not occur if… Absence of light, carbon dioxide and water 22. What is science? A process without a single definition 23. What does science focus on? The natural world 24. What does science rely on? Ideas that are testable by carefully designed experiments or observations 25. Scientific method Ask a question, read up,construct hypothesis, perform experiments to test hypothesis,analyze data, if data support, write paper, if not start over 26. What's experimental group? Group being tested 27. What's control group? Experience no treatment, receives placebo often 28. Define biology study of life 29. What is considered living? Grow, reproduce, maintain homeostasis, sense and response to stimuli, obtain and use energy 30. Life on Earth is composed of the same what? Chemical building blocks 31. Define matter? Anything that takes up space and has mass 32. What is matter made of? Elements 33. What are elements? Substances that cannot be chemically broken down further 34. What gives an element it's identity? The number of subatomic particles 35. Protons are… positively charged 36. Neutrons are… Negatively charged 37. What makes up the atoms dense core or nucleus? Protons and neutrons 38. How many protons and neutrons does carbon have? 6 of each 39. What are the six elements that make up most of humans? Oxygen , carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur 40. Whats a covalent bond? Strong chemical bond resulting from share electrons between 2 atoms 41. What are atoms linked by covalent bonds? Molecule 42. Is glucose organic or inorganic? Organic 43. What organic molecules make up living things? Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids 44. What do you call the organic molecules that make up living things? Macromolecules 45. What subunits make macromolecules? Monomers 46. How is a polymer created? Monomer + monomer 47. What is the monomer and polymer for carbohydrate? Monomer is monosaccharides and polymer is polysaccharide 48. What is the monomer and polymer of protein? Amino acid is the monomer, some proteins is the polymer 49. What is the monomer and polymer of nucleic acid? Nucleotide is the monomer, Dna & rna is the polymer 50. What help define cell boundaries? Phospholipids 51. Basic structural unit of life Cell 52. What's the cell theory? All cells are derived from other cells 53. What maintains the separation of water-based interior from a chemically distinct water-based exterior cell membrane 54. Diffusion of water… osmosis 55. Movement of small uncharged molecules across membrane from area of greater concentration to less Simple diffusion 56. When molecules are too large to pass through the membrane what is needed? Transport proteins 57. What is passive transport? When no energy is required 58. Which transport proteins move molecules against concentration gradients? Active transport 59. Nucleus definition Encloses the cells DNA 60. Mitochondria Cells power plants, convert energy into a useful form 61. Endoplasmic Reticulum An extensive membranous intercellular to produce proteins 62. Rough ER ribosomes help make proteins 63. Smooth ER Where lipids are made 64. Golgi apparatus Receive, process, package and prep proteins 65. Lysosomes Break down worn out cell parts or molecules 66. Cytoskeleton Cell support, cell movement and movement of structures within the cell 67. What is peptidoglycan ? polymer made of sugars and amino acids 68. Bacteria cells are either… gram-positive, gram-negative 69. Define gram positive Cell wall with layer of peptidoglycan that retains the gram stain 70. Define gram negative Cell wall layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by lipid membrane that does not retain the gram stain 71. What interferes with prokaryotic ribosomes? Streptomycin 72. The goal of a scientific experiment is to prove that a hypothesis is true. True or false False 73. Where are the most reliable scientific results published? In peer-reviewed scientific journals 74. A correlation in a scientific study indicates… a possible link between two variables 75. What is found in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells? Nucleus 76. Can antibiotics be used to treat viral infections? No 77. What is a consequence of not eating or not eating enough? Malnutrition 78. The chemical building blocks our body need to live,grow, and repair themselves… Nutrients 79. Process which macronutrients must be broken down into smaller units and then used as building blocks or energy digestion 80. Which macronutrients are broken down into amino acids? Proteins 81. Which macronutrients are broken down into simple sugars? Carbohydrates 82. Which macronutrients are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol? Fats 83. The sum of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body? Metabolism 84. Proteins that speed up rate of chemical rxns? Enzymes 85. Molecule to which an enzyme binds and on which it acts? Substrate 86. Where does the substrate binds? Active site 87. What is the energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed Activation energy 88. Nutrients that organism must ingest in small quantities Micronutrients 89. What are inorganic elements required by organisms for normal growth,reproduction, and tissue maintenance minerals 90. what are some examples of minerals calcium, iron, potassium, zinc 91. What are organic molecules required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance vitamins 92. Minerals act as _____ while vitamins act as_____ Cofactors, coenzymes 93. What's the energy called that our body use? ATP 94. What does food provide us with? Building blocks, energy 95. What happens during the glycolysis stage? oxygen and glucose pass from a blood vessel through a cell membrane 96. What happens during the citric acid cycle? A series of reaction strips high energy electrons from C-H bonds 97. What happens during the electron transport chain? ATP is produced 98. How does your body store energy it doesn't need? Glycogen and triglycerides are stored in your liver and muscle tissue 99. How do you avoid weight gain? Energy in should match energy out 100. What are some diseases related to excess fat or obesity? Diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, asthma, cancer 101. What's the link between fats and Type ll diabetes? Insulin resistance 102. What do you call spontaneous mutations in single genes which regulates appetite control, food intake, and energy homeostasis? Monogenic obesity 103. What do you call spontaneous mutations in a number of genes that are associated with obesity? Common obesity 104. What is energy stored as in food? Chemical energy 105. What do you call the bonds that hold the food molecules together? Potential energy 106.What is photosynthesis? When autotrophs are able to use energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in energy-rich organic molecules 106. What are the two steps in photosynthesis? Photo and synthesis 107. What happen in the “photo” step Light energy is captured in chemical form 108. What happens during the synthesis step? Captured energy is used to generate sugars 109. Does synthesis require energy? No 110. What is the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation? Light energy 111. What is the conversion of inorganic carbon into organic forms? Carbon fixation
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