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How money goes to the states?

How money goes to the states?


School: Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi
Department: Political Science
Course: State and Local Government
Professor: Paula arledge
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: political science, State Government, Texas Government, federalism, Constitutions, and Government
Cost: 50
Name: POLS 2306 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This is the completed study guide with terms from the book. The topics covered are political cultures, Federalism, and state constitutions.
Uploaded: 09/10/2016
8 Pages 170 Views 2 Unlocks

Exam 1 Study Guide

How money goes to the states?

Chapter 1


Political ideology


• Advocates government action to  improve the welfare of individuals and  support civil rights

• High gov’t regulation of the economy • Tolerant of social and political change


Political ideology


• Limited role of gov’t in taxation,  economic regulation, and social services • Traditional values and lifestyles • Cautious of social change


System of ideas and ideals 

How changes to the constitution can be proposed?

• TX is 48% conservative, 20% liberal • Texans support capitalism, tax breaks  for businesses, and spending on  

infrastructure (education and  




Oil well near Beaumont

• Changed the state economy, now  centered around oil 

• Caused continuous growth in the Gulf  Coast

• Stimulated out-of-state investment and  local wealth


• A person of both Spanish and Native  American lineage 

• The first TX cowboys were Native  American/Mestizos

What the constitution means?

We also discuss several other topics like What is the role of pituitary gland?


• Factories in Mexico where US  corporations employ cheap Mexican  labor 

• Benefits the economy of the Border • Lax environmental/safety standards  lead to high levels of air/ground/water  pollution



• Supreme Court ruled racial  

discrimination in the electoral process  unconstitutional (including primaries) • Allowed African Americans to  participate in the TX Democratic  



• Decorated WWII casualty Don't forget about the age old question of How to calculate by looking at a list of accounts with balances and determining the total amount of?

• Was supposed to be buried in the  “Mexican Section” of the Three Rivers  Cemetery (separated from the “Whites”  section by barbed wire)

• Funeral home director refused the  family’s request to use the chapel (it  would anger white citizens)

• Spark that led Latino Texans to fight for  civil rights 



Harris County

• Two men were arrested for having sex  in their own home (in violation of TX’s  anti-sodomy statute)

• Justice Kennedy said that the law  violated the due process clause of the  14th amendment (protects personal  relationships)  

• Invalidated sodomy laws in 13 other  states (protected same-sex behavior in  every state/territory of the US)

Exam 1 Study Guide

Chapter 2

CONFEDERAL SYSTEM Don't forget about the age old question of What did the freedmen's bureau do?

• First system of government adopted by  Americans after independence

• After British rule, Americans feared a  strong central government

• State or regional governments hold  most power 

• The only powers of the central  government are those that the state  governments choose to delegate to it 


• Article 1 Section 8 of US Constitution • Grants implied powers to federal gov’t o implied powers: powers not expressly  named in the Constitution 

McCulloch v. MARYLAND: 


• MD attempted to tax the Second Bank  of the United States (created by the  federal government) to limit  Don't forget about the age old question of What do i look for to tell if something is alive?

competition with state-chartered banks • Argued that the Constitution did not  give the federal gov’t the power to  create a national bank

• Chief Justice John Marshall said that the bank was constitutional, citing the  necessary and proper clause 

• Expanded powers of the federal gov’t 



• Supreme Court ruled that segregation  was not unconstitutional, as long as  facilities for both races were equal (Separate-but-equal doctrine) 

o 14th amendment: no state can deny any  person the equal protection of the laws • Allowed continued discrimination  against African Americans 


• Any change to the rules governing  elections must be submitted for pre approval to either the US Department of  Justice or the US District Court for DC

• Only required for certain states • 1965: AL, GA, LA, MS, SC, VA If you want to learn more check out What is the data base?

• 1975: Added AK, AZ, TX



• Voting Rights Act (VRA, 1965) Section 5  required pre-clearance 

• Conservatives argued it violated the  10th amendment (singled out a small  number of states/political subdivisions)  

• formula was based on data that didn’t reflect present-day conditions

• Supreme Court agreed that the criteria  needed to be updated, but didn't rule  Sec. 5 unconstitutional If you want to learn more check out How genetic and environmental influences come together to create an organism’s physical appearance and behavior?

• Until new formula is developed, Sec. 5 is  inoperative

• Allowed Texas to pass the Voter ID law  (denied pre-clearance, negative affect  on Hispanic voters)

• Democrats say this is evidence that VRA  is still needed, Republicans say the laws  are efforts to prevent voter fraud

Exam 1 Study Guide

Chapter 3


• Property acquired during marriage is  owned equally by both spouses 

• This was an element of Mexican law  that was adopted by the Republic of  Texas

• Later absorbed into American political  culture


• A court order requiring that an  individual be presented in person and  that legal cause be shown for  


o i.e., a prisoner must be brought before the  court to determine if their imprisonment is  lawful 

• May result in release from unlawful  detention

• Part of the Texas Constitution


• Regular legislative sessions scheduled  by the constitution 

• Held for 140 days, January-May/June, in  odd numbered years (relatively short) • Many other major states have no limits  for the length of sessions

• Some important legislation may be  rushed, and some may never even reach  the floor

• Frequently the TX Senate and House use  this to block legislation it does not want  passed instead of voting against it on  the floor


• Inoperable provisions in state constitutions 

• Voided by conflicting US constitutional  law or made irrelevant by changing  circumstances

• Distrust of legislature in our early  history hindered states’ ability to cope  with 21st century problems

• Voters must approve amendments to  remove (difficult)


• An executive branch where power is  divided between several independently  elected officials

o Governor, lieutenant governor, attorney  general, comptroller of public accounts,  commissioner of the general land office,  three railroad commissioners

• Weakens the power of the chief  executive (Governor)

• TX is one of seven states lacking a  formal cabinet

Exam 1 Study Guide

Lecture Overview

Key ideas Definitions Court Cases 

HOW STATES DIFFER (8/26-8/29): 

• Measurements of Public Health

o Population Growth (consistent growth = healthy)

o Income

o Education

• Political Ideologies

o Conservative

▪ Distributive Policy: provides benefits based on what was paid in 

o Liberal

▪ Redistributive Policy: provides government resources based on need 

• Political Cultures: What is expected of government 

o Individualistic: self-interest, large bureaucracy, low participation 

o Moralistic: public interest, large bureaucracy, high participation 

o Traditionalistic: preserve existing order, small bureaucracy, low participation o Texas is a mix of individualistic and traditionalistic

• Population Composition

o Hispanics are the largest minority group in US

o Three major groups: Mexican Americans (D), Puerto Rican Americans (D), Cuban  Americans (R)

o TX will become majority Hispanic in the near future (could turn blue/purple) • Major Migration Patterns

o Immigration (from other countries): most come undocumented, overwhelm state  resources and unfunded mandates

o Frost Belt → Sun Belt: left industrial northeast to move to the southwest o African American Exodus (early 1900s): started moving north for political and social  freedom, as well as better jobs

o Central City → Suburbs: post-WWII conditions (highways) led to the creation of suburbs

FEDERALISM (8/29-9/2) 

• US Constitution

o National government: Exclusive powers (named in the Constitution), Implied powers  (“Necessary and Proper Clause,” not named powers)

o State Government: Reserved powers, not given to nat’l gov’t (NG) 

▪ Tax, borrow, and spend money

▪ Legal (passing/enforcing laws)  

▪ Intrastate commerce (within the state)

▪ Police powers (regulate for the public safety and welfare)

o Concurrent powers: shared by states and NG (taxation)

o Great Conflict: implied powers vs reserved powers

▪ South Dakota v. Dole: Sup. Ct. ruled NG couldn’t force states to raise the drinking age, but states also  have no right to federal funding 

▪ NG can withhold funding to encourage states to comply with national initiatives 

• Stages of Federalism

Exam 1 Study Guide

Lecture Overview

o Dual I:  

▪ Limited interaction between states and NG 

▪ States held most power 

▪ Independence → Civil War

▪ Commerce clause: the only area where NG aggressively pursued power o Dual II:

▪ Limited interaction 

▪ Federal gov’t has most power 

▪ Lasted until FDR’s New Deal (massive regulation of the economy, needed states’ cooperation)  

o Cooperative Federalism

▪ Partnership 

▪ NG still had more power 

▪ Ended in the 1970s when people said states should have more power  ▪ 1980s-Reagan ran on a platform of devolution (returning power to states) o New Federalism

▪ Equal partners 

▪ Sometimes the federal government still overpowers states (NCLB, Real ID Act) • Fiscal Federalism: transfer of money from the NG to the states 

o 16th amendment allows the NG to assess an income tax

o Matching Grants (how money goes to the states): states put up a portion of the money  for projects

▪ Categorical Grants: can only be spent for a specifically defined purpose, most restrictive ▪ Block Grants: to be spent in a specific policy area, states have more discretion 

• Constitutional Guarantees to States

o Republican Government: representative, officials are accountable to the people  through free and open elections

o Protection from Invasion: not as much of a worry now

o Help in Domestic Violence: in the event of large amounts of lawlessness, federal troops  can help maintain order

o Senate Equality: each state has an equal number of senate seats (2)  o Territorial Integrity: guarantees state borders (can’t be divided without consent of both  the state and the NG)

▪ TX is an exception

o Court Immunity: 11th amendment, a state cannot be sued by a citizen of another state o Ratification Powers: 3/4 of states must approve amendments to the Constitution • Interstate Relations: Constitutional requirements of states to prevent conflict o Full Faith and Credit Clause: a state must honor the legal actions/records of other states o Privileges and Immunities: a state may not discriminate against a citizen of another  state

▪ exception: in-state tuition for universities

o Extradition Clause: escaped prisoners must be returned to the state they are from ▪ Puerto Rico v. Branstad: ruled that it is mandatory, not optional

Exam 1 Study Guide

Lecture Overview

o Interstate Compacts: arrangements between multiple states to help solve problems  they share

▪ can’t overstep federal supremacy (as long as the NG is doing something within their authority, it  supersedes the states) 


• Fundamental state law

o Stands above any other law passed by state legislation or governor action o Limited by federal supremacy 

o US Term Limits v. Thornton (1980s): Arkansas tried to put term limits on its Congress  members, but it violated the Constitution (no term limits for Congress) 

• Functions

o Guarantees Individual rights

▪ States’ Bill of Rights can give more freedom than NG, but can’t be more restrictive

▪ Duplication of some federal rights allows citizens to go to nat’l or state courts

o Structures Gov’t

▪ Separation of powers between executive, legislative, and judicial branch ▪ Favors legislation

i. History: there was a distaste for executive power when most states were formed

ii. Constitutions are written by the legislation 

iii. Interest groups have a better chance of impact through legislature than executive power o Allocate power

o Limit power

• Criticisms

o Unnecessarily restrictive

▪ Difficult for states to act in times of crisis (especially financially) 

▪ Prop. 13: Limited property tax in CA, so they were unable to raise money when they were in danger  of going bankrupt

o Unrealistic citizen involvement

▪ Citizens must approve changed to state Const., but the technical language is difficult to understand o Confuse fundamental with statutory

▪ Fundamental: basic principles

▪ Statutory provision: should be dealt with by legislature

▪ State constitutions are much longer with many more amendments than the federal constitution  because a lot of unnecessary provisions are included (interest groups are a large part of the problem) o Archaic agencies/structures

▪ Archaic = outdated

o Haven for interest groups

▪ Constitutions show which interest groups are powerful (they are protected)

• How changes to the Constitution can be proposed:

o Legislative assembly (most common): TX requires 2/3 vote in both houses to propose  change

o Constitutional Convention (rare today): expensive and time consuming ▪ Election on call: voters must approve a convention,s must have a specific reason to meet (ex: funding  for universities) 

▪ Election on members: voting on who will be a delegate, “super delegates” like governor are automatically involved

Exam 1 Study Guide

Lecture Overview

o Initiative petition: voters skip legislature, must have signatures equal at least 10% of the  voters in the last governor’s race

▪ Common when there is no legislative support (Prop. 13)

o Constitutional commissions: unbiased advisory groups provide opinions to state  legislature on what should be changed

Exam 1 Study Guide

Lecture Overview


• Constitutional Change → voters decide

• Obstacles to revision

o Proposal is difficult

o Opposition: opposing interest groups can be more organized/funded than supporters • Alternatives to amending  

o Judicial interpretation: state supreme courts have the final say on what the constitution  means

o Statutory amplification: legislation interprets to give themselves power o Ignore provisions: getting around the “fluffiest” and most restrictive language o Non-Constitutional initiative: the people put things on the ballot themselves, not  changing the Constitution itself

▪ TX does not allow statewide initiatives (local opinion can still impact cities/towns) ▪ TX citizens directly vote on

i. State income tax

ii. Legislative salaries

iii. Constitutional amendments

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