Chemistry I Exam 1 Study Guide
Chemistry I Exam 1 Study Guide CH 1213
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katerina Kushla on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CH 1213 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Eric Van Dornshuld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Chemistry I Exam 1 Tuesday, September 13 2016 This exam covers chapters 2 and 3, and basic principles from chapter 1 are used. Need to Know: Vocabulary: Solution, solute, solvent, dilution, concentration Molarity Molar mass (grams per mole) Anions (negative) and Cations (positive) Familiarity with periodic table How to read Common elements Polyatomic Ions Basic atomic theories Percent Composition Mass to moles, moles to mass Solids and solutions Naming compounds Binary Acid, oxyacid Covalent Bond, Ionic Bond Neutral charged compounds Molecular Mass and Formula Mass Deriving formula from mass or moles Solution – homogenous mixtures of a solvent and a solute Solute – a component of a solution that is not the solvent Solvent – the component of a solution that has the largest concentration relative to the other components Concentration – the relative amount of a given solution component; generally given as molarity Diluted – qualitative description – relatively low concentration Concentrated – qualitative description – relatively high concentration Mol solute Molarity = M = L solution Ions – atoms that exhibit a charge Cations – Atoms with a positive charge Anions – atoms with a negative charge POLYATOMIC IONS Basic Theories – - Dalton’s Atomic Theory - - Cathode Ray Tube o Discovered electrons - Oil Drop o Charge of electrons o Atoms exhibit no charge o Must contain positive particles (protons) - Radiation o Alpha Rays – positive o Beta Rays – negative o Gamma Rays - neutral - J.J. Thompson’s Plum Pudding Model - Gold Foil Experiment o Large concentration of positive charge at center o Nucleus – core of an atom Isotopes Isotopes – isotopes of the same elements with different masses Percent Abundance – percent of specific isotopes found in nature Determining amu (atomic mass unit found on periodic table) Atomic mass = ∑ (fractional abundance) + (isotopic mass) * Just plug in the known values Conversions: Molarity from moles M = Mol solute Molarity from mass L solution Moles and Mass from Molarity Volume of Solution from mass of solute and molarity Find Concentration of dilute solution Volume of Diluted solution C 1 1 C V 2 2 Find Volume of concentration solution needed for dilution Finding Formulas In General: 1. Convert mass to moles* 2. Divide by smallest number 3. Multiply by and integer to get all whole numbers * If not specified always assume a 100g sample Naming Compounds Covalent Bonds - Molecular compounds - Two non-metal atoms - “Shared” electrons Ionic Bonds - Ionic compounds - Metal and a Non-metal - Electrically neutral Monatomic Ions - Cation/metal followed by anion - Replace ending with -ide - Carbon dioxide Polyatomic Ions - No change in the ending - Sodium bicarbonate Metal Ions with a variable charge - Parenthesized roman numerals - Mercury(II) Oxide 1 mono- 6 hexa- Two Non-metals 2 di- 7 hepta- - Replace ending with -ide 3 tri- 8 octa- - Prefixes indicate number of atoms 4 tetra- 9 nona- - sulfur hexafluoride 5 penta- 10 deca- Binary Acids - composed of H and one other non-metal 1. Change “hydrogen” to “hydro” 2. Change ending of nonmetal to -ic 3. Add the word acid HCl hydrochloric acid Oxyacid - Contains, H, O, and some other element - Start with root of anion - Replace -ate with -ic or -ite with -ous - Add word “acid” on the end HPO 4 Phosphoric acid
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