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by: RanjuD



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Exam 1 study guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by RanjuD on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 150 at University of North Dakota taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
For exam 1, you should be able demonstrate an understanding of the following  concepts and be able to apply this knowledge 1. Scientific Method a. Make an observation b. Ask a question c. Propose a hypothesis  d. Make predictions e. Test the predictions f. Iterate: use the results to form a new hypothesis or predictions 2. Properties of Living Things a. Cells – i.  organisms are made up of membrane­bound  ii. regulates the passage of materials between exterior and  interior spaces  b. Energy – i. Organisms uses energy to stay alive and grow ii. Ex. Plants absorbs sunlight, animals ingest food c. Information –  i. Organisms process hereditary or genetic information, coded in genes  d. Replication – e. Reproduces ­  f. Homeostasis – response to stimulus in the environment  g. Evolution – i. Organisms population continue to evolve 3. pH and what pH values present a. measure how acidic or basic a substance is b. Acidic = pH less than 7 c. Basic = pH greater than 7, Decreases concentration of H+, donate a  hydrogen ion(H+) to another compound d. Neutral = pH 7 (pure water) 4. ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds a. Ionic  i. one or more electrons from one atom are removed and  attached to another atom (positive & negatives ions attract  each other) ii. Cations: Positively charged atoms or molecules  iii. Anions: Negatively charged atoms or molecules iv. Cations & Anion attract one another  b. Covalent  i. one or more pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms.  Sharing of an electrons ex. (H+H =H2) ii. c. Hydrogen  i. Hydrogen doesn’t have neutrons  5. The molecular structure of Water a. H20 & check the notes 6. Saturated fats.  a. Butter b. Carbon atoms have all the hydrogen they can hold 7. Unsaturated Fats a. Carbons are double bonded to other carbons  8. The Four Levels of Protein Structure. a. Primary Structure­ sequence of amino acids in that particular  proteins­ all proteins have different sequence of primary structure  which makes them unique b. Secondary Structure: Alpha Helix­ helical shape i. Pleated Sheet: have segregated cardboard shape c. Tertiary Structure: refers to overall three dimensional configuration  of protein. Many types of bonds involved in configuration, ex. Ionic  bond, covalent bond, disulfide  i. Also hold subunits together in a stable complex to form the  complete protein d. Quaternary Structure: “Hemoglobin Molecule” – the number &  arrangement of the individual polypeptide chains, subunit of protein. i. Any 2 or more subunits working together is called quaternary  structure. 9.  Complimentary base pairing in DNA.  a. DNA ­  A always bonds with T, G always bonds with C 10. Structural features of DNA and RNA. a. DNA & RNA are made up of four nucleobases, a phosphate group  and a deoxyribose sugar. b. DNA ­  A always bonds with T, G always bonds with C c. RNA – A always bonds with U, G always bond with C 11. explain (briefly) how penicillin works.  a.   12. The Cell Theory. a. All living organisms are made up of cells  b. all cells come from preexisting cells 13.structure of fats and phospholipids.  a.   14.enzyme activity and regulation.  a.   15. endergonic and exergonic reactions.  a.   16. ions, isotopes, atomic number, and atomic mass a. Ions: When atoms have equal number of protons and neutrons b. Isotopes: atoms with same number of protons but different number  of masses and diff. number of neutrons  i. Lithium­6, Lithium­7, and Lithium­8  c. Atomic Number: the number of proton in an elements d. Atomic Mass: total number of protons & neutrons in an element’s  nucleus  17.isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions a. Isotonic ­   i. Solution with the same solute concentration as the inside of a  vesicle or cell ii. Does not affect membrane shape  b. Hypertonic ­ i. Outside solution has a higher concentration than the interior  does ii. If solutes are unable to diffuse across the membrane, the  water will leave the vesicle, causing it to shrivel iii. Solutions that shrink cell c. Hypotonic ­ i.  Solutions are less concentrated than the vesicle or cell  interior  ii. If membrane is not permeable to the solute, water will flow into the vesicle or cell iii. Celll will swell and perhaps burst 18. facilitated diffusion and active transport. You should also be able to answer questions based on the ALAs completed in  class (especially the DNA and Lipids activities). Exam Questions  Ch. 1 P.14 # 1,2,3  Ch. 2 P.76 #1,2  Ch. 4 P.105 #1,6,7  Ch.5 P,117­118 #4,15,16  Ch. 6 P.138­139 #2,9,15 Chapter 1 1. Anton van Leeuwenhoek made an important contribution to the  development of cell theory. How? a. He invented more powerful microscope and was the first to describe  the diversity of cells. 2. What does it mean to say that experimental conditions are controlled? a. All physical conditions except for one are identical for all groups  tested. 3. What does it mean to say that a characteristic is heritable? a. The characteristics can be passed on to offspring Chapter 2 1. What occurs when a covalent bond forms? a. Electrons in valence shells are shared between atoms 2. What statement is true If a reaction is exothermic? a. The products have lower potential energy than the reactants Chapter 4 1. What are the four nitrogenous bases found in RNA? a. Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine, Uracil (C, G, T, U) 2. What would be the sequence of strand of DNA that is made from the  following template: 5’­GATATCGAT­3’? (Answer must be written in  5’3’) a. ATCGATATC IN DNA  b. How would the sequence be different in iRNA were made from  this DNA template? i. The sequence would be same except the T would be  replaced by U. Chapter 5 1. What are three ways monosaccharides differ from one another? a. The location of their carbonyl group b. The number of carbon atoms they contain c. The orientation of their hydroxyl group 2. What type of bond is formed between two sugars in a disaccharide? a. Glycosidic Linkage 3. What holds cellulose molecules together in bundles large enough to  form fibers? a. Hydrogen Bonds 4. What are the primary functions of carbohydrates in cells? a. Cell identity b. Energy Storage c. Structure d. Building blocks for synthesis Chapter 6 1. If a solution a cell is hypertonic relative to the inside of the cell, how will water move? a. The water will move out of the cell via osmosis.


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