JOUR 301, Test 1 Study Guide
∙ 1450s – Johannos Gutenberg invents the movable type (printing press). The invention has been called the third revolution. The Gutenberg bible, known as the 42line bible, was the first major book printed using massproduced movable type. (Fellows pg 2)
∙ Europes governmental control was not centralized because of the changes between King Henry VIII, Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, and then King James I. Religion changed constantly (Fellows pgs 67). During Queen Elizabeth’s reign, the Star Chamber was established (Fellows pgs 78). CENSORSHIP.
∙ William Caxton – publisher, printed what many believe to be the first book in English (Fellows pg 5).
∙ Corrantos – was printed in Amsterdam by George Veseler and Broer Jonson. Criticized James I and prompted a prompt crackdown, name means current and put together in Latin (Fellows pg 7).
∙ John Milton – wrote pamphlets attacking the Church of England and the ruling of Charles I (Fellows pg 8). Called for freedom of speech.
∙ Thomas Hobbes and John Locke (pgs 910) – Both philosophers who had different views concerning government. Hobbes wrote Leviathan (1651), he thought democracy is chaos, wanted and supported a strong central monarchy that could create order, could elect leader but could not overthrow him afterwards. Locke thought that the people could elect a leader but could also have the power to overthrow the leader if he is wrongful.
∙ “Cato’s Letters” – written by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon. Called for freedom of speech (Fellows pgs 1011).
∙ Early press in the colonies (CHAPTER 1) Word of mouth leaflets and news sheets ∙ Gov. John Winthrop (Fellows pg 16) – called democracy “the meanest and worst of all forms of government.”
∙ Roger Williams (Fellows pg 16) – wanted religious freedom and the separation of church and state. Was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for expressing religious opinion different form the official Puritan doctrine, established Rhode Island in 1636. Don't forget about the age old question of customer relationship management (crm) is the process of identifying prospective buyers, understanding them intimately, and developing favorable long-term perceptions of the organization and its offerings so that
∙ Cotton and Increase Mather (Fellows pgs 1819) – Son and father who published religious sermons and dominated religious publications, literature about the Salem Witch Trials, fed hysteria, later helped to stop the murders over witchcraft, and helped establish selfrule for the people.
∙ Benjamin Harris (Fellows pgs 2021) – wrote the first semblance to the newspaper in the colonies, Publick Occurrences: Both Foreign and Domestic. Lasted only one issue because he criticized French monarchy and the Native Americans.
∙ John Campbell (Fellows pgs 2122) – Had a more boring but long standing paper that was authorized by the government, he did not rock the boat. First continuously published newspaper in the country.
∙ James Franklin (Fellows pgs 2225) – Was incarcerated after taking on the Mather family about smallpox inoculation. We also discuss several other topics like comm3020
∙ Ben Franklin (Fellows pgs 2529) – took over his brother, James’, paper after he was incarcerated. Know basically EVERYTHING about him because he did many important things in his life: psydonyms, many newspapers, (look at the American Media Profile on page 26 and 27). Don't forget about the age old question of o Why do perceptions of effort matter?
∙ William Bradford (Fellows pgs 2930) – Gov. of Plymouth Colony, wrote Of Plymouth Plantation.
∙ John Peter Zenger (Fellows pgs 3034, Muckraking pgs 305306) – READ EVERYTHING! Challenged Gov. Cosby, Andrew Hamilton was attorney, Truth should be right, power of jury (mentioned in court) Case began the thoughts about truth and how it sits with seditious libel. If you want to learn more check out What is sociological imagination?
∙ Role of women in journalism (Fellows pgs3536) – They usually took over when their husbands would die or get jailed.
∙ (CHAPTER 2; Fellows pgs 4042) Revolution thoughts spread through word of mouth in taverns then through papers, Seven years war: British win but loses most of their finances, Britain taxed colonies (Sugar and Stamp Taxes), angered publishers and lawyers
∙ Tories, Whigs, Patriots (Fellows pgs 4353)
∙ Samuel Adams (Fellows pgs 5152) Patriot voice, “Master of the Puppets” , (VERY IMPORTANT) We also discuss several other topics like meredith burr
∙ Thomas Paine (Muckraking pgs 264269) – Patriot voice, “Common Sense” “Crisis”, cry for independence, helped encourage soldiers to fight, helped America defeat Britain. (VERY IMPORTANT)
∙ James Rivington (Fellows pgs 4446) – Tory voice If you want to learn more check out george frantziskonis
∙ Hugh Gaine (Fellows pgs 4648) – Tory voice
∙ John Dickenson (Fellows pgs 4850) – Whig voice, not revolutionary by nature but did not like taxes affected consumer items.
∙ Isaiah Thomas (Fellows pgs 5051, Muckraking pg 261) – Patriot voice, started as a Whig, The Massachusetts Spy, passionately called for a revolution but very accurate, after war, continued to be a voice, center publication for revolutionary viewpoints, detailed account of Battle of Lexington and Concord (1775), hang out at Green Dragon Pub to discuss revolutionary ideas
∙ Boston Tea Party (Fellows pg 5657) – Protest tariffs on tea, (1773) ∙ Declaration of Independence (Fellows pgs 5859, Muckraking pg 266) – Written mostly by Thomas Jefferson
∙ Out of the revolution merges difference of editorial/feature stories and news stories ∙ William Goddard (freedom of press conflicts)
∙ (CHAPTER 3) 1781 – end of revolution with the Battle of Yorktown for eight years, operated under the Articles of Confederation
∙ 1787 – U.S Constitution adopted, stronger unified country
LOOK AT WEEK 3 NOTES FOR MORE DETAILS ON FEDERALISTS AND ANTI FEDERALISTS
Two Party System
Led by Alexander Hamilton (wanted to protect property and commerce), articulated Federalist cause in the “Federalist Papers”
First three terms of presidency is Federalist (George Washington then John Adams) Alien and Sedition Acts enacted under Adams’ presidency, control French immigration and cracked down on treasonous viewpoints of newspapers
Led by Thomas Jefferson who believed aristocracy would lead to dictatorship Wanted a true democracy
President after Adams
Jefferson wanted to get away of “British monarchy” like government Got rid of Alien and Sedition Acts
∙ 1791 Bill of Rights (was an antifederalist victory)