Social Psychology Test 1 study guide
Social Psychology Test 1 study guide Psyc 3580
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ivy Notetaker on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3580 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Gitter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/09/16
Social Psychology Test 1 Study Guide From Review on Canvas: 1. The tendency to favor things that resemble the self is called: implicit egotism 2. When writing “I am” statements, a person from a(n) collectivistic culture is more likely to focus on social relationships while a person from a(n) individualistic culture is more likely to focus on personal attributes. 3. At a party you see that your friends are drinking. You personally don’t agree with the idea of drinking, but your friends are strongly encouraging you to drink. For a few moments you waver back and forth between your own personal beliefs and the desire to put forth an image to your friends that they will accept. This wavering back and forth and your ultimate decision is your argentic self. 4. You prefer that professors post everyone’s exam scores, rather than just returning exams individually. It always makes you feel better to see how you measured up against other students. You are gaining information about your self-concept using: Social comparison 5. For most people, going to college requires sacrificing immediate comforts and pleasures for the sake of a better future life. That is, for most people, college is an exercise in delay of gratification. 6. Which of the following is NOT true of people who would be classified as having low self-esteem? a. They suffer from self-concept confusion. b. They score below the midpoint of the Rosenburg self-esteem scale. c. They focus on avoiding failure. d. They really like positive feedback. - Social psychology- the scientific study of how people think about others, influence others, and relate to one another. History - Norman Triplett- “grandfather of social psychology”; first social psych experiment o Experiment: bike racing- cyclists have better times when competitor or other racers is around; social facilitation - Ringlemann- humans use less effort when working together; social loafing o Sucker effect- no one wants to put in the most effort o Comparative studies- comparing animals and humans in studies - William James- “Father of American psychology”; functional and structural psychology - Cooley- studied self-concept; practiced by thinking about studying behavior, not experimented - B.F. Skinner- helped start “School of Radical Behaviorism”; believed we should only study behavior, not the thinking or reasoning behind it; started doing research like psychology of today Cognitive Revolution - After World War II- increased interest in personality assessment; used to give solders jobs - Holocaust- interest in obedience and conformity - Nuremburg War trials- “someone (superior) told me to do it” - Milgram Obedience study- social influence; participant was instructed by superior to administer (what they thought was) a shock to another participant; the participants almost always did what the superior told them, just because he was in authority and wearing a lab coat. - Stanford Prison experiment- went horribly wrong because experimenters were involved in the experiment with no mediator; ethical conditions were horrible for participants; let psychology know that ethical standards had to be set - Tuskegee Syphilis experiment- participants weren’t given cure or treatment when it was discovered The Scientific Method - Theories- integrated principles that explain and predict observed events based on: o educated guesses on how things work o previous researchmore common, more likely to support existing theory - Hypothesis- testable predictions; more specific that theories; allows theories to be tested 1. Generate a theory. 2. Form a hypothesis. 3. Design and conduct a study. - Confound- any other variable that can influence results - Random assignment- each participant has equal chance for each condition; eliminated experimenter bias - Proof of concept- evidence that there is some change in the variable we are studying 4. Analyze the data. 5. Report the results- peer review journals, conferences 6. Start over again Multi-method approach - Quasi-experimental- in real world; limitations on other variables - Correlational (cross-sectional)- not manipulating anything; just measuring; easier - Longitudinal- measuring people’s behavior over time Three Requirements of Causality 1. Covariation- variables change together in a predictable way; all studies do that-easy to show a. Experiments, Longitudinal, and Correlation 2. Temporal Precedence- one variable is first then leads to other a. Ex. video games cause violent behavior. Could just be that violent people like to play violent video games b. Experiments, Longitudinal 3. Elimination of spuriousness- another factor (or factors) that make it look like a relationship between variables, but really isn’t (confounds) a. Ex. parenting styles influence violent behavior and violent video games b. Third variables- something changing at the same time and influencing study c. Experiments Nature and Nurture - Interactionist perspective- both nature and nurture contribute to behavior - Adaptiveness influences evolutionary fitness in 2 ways: o Increases chances of survival- food, water, air, shelter, and safety Ex. Camouflage variations of moths on different colored trees. Does NOT ensure passing on of genes. o Increases reproductive success Sexual selection- evolutionary derived traits that are passed on through reproduction - Error management theory- the importance of avoiding crucial mistakes, but sometimes bringing in other problems o Based on Signal Detection Theory - Inductive reasoning- from observation to theory o Ex. Darwin noticed different finches’ beaks and made theory about adaptive characteristics. - Deductive reasoning- from theory to prediction to observation o Better option, tests more conservative, harder to succeed, better results - “just-so theories”- Ex. find out something about environment and make up story for it to fit with evolutionary theory; Watch out for these! Culture- enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions; shared by a large group of people; transmitted from one generation to the next - Individualists- more physical and attributive statements- U.S.A., Europe; personal traits in isolation; self-contained identity - Collectivists- more social statements- Asia, Central American, Africa; identity is in relation to others; other-containing identity - Some people can be both depending on gender, families, etc. Norms- rules for expected and accepted behavior; prescribe proper behavior; describe what others do. Nature AND Nurture? - Nature vs. Nurture: FALSE DICHOTOMY (opposites); more of a sliding scale than one or the other - Interactionist perspective- the effect of one factor depends on another factor; what we’re taking in this class - GenesEnvironment Culture and Nature - Nature prepared us for culture. - Dunbar study: analyzed brain size in animals compared to their body weight. o Larger brains=more social animals o Conclusion: Our larger brains are designed to help us relate to each other. Mate Strategies - Problem for Males- not mating when opportunity is available o Men will be more active in pursuing sex. o R-selectionists - Problem for Females- mating with someone who is unwilling and able to provide o Women will be choosier and require more for sexual behaviors o K-selectionists Gender Differences: Nurturing and Child-rearing - Gender identity- our sense of being male or female; often leads to gender-typing; traditional male or female role; not exclusively a result of parenting - In more developed countries, there is less of a gender gap than in underdeveloped countries. Nature vs. Culture - Nature says GO, culture says STOP. - Ex. We don’t act on our sexual desires. Constructing the Self - Intrapersonal social psychology- inside the person; sociological theories of the self and its behaviors - Interpersonal social psychology- how people interact with each other The Self: individuals’ understanding of themselves, personalities, strengths, weaknesses, relationships and how they use it to satisfy their needs - Mirror test- put ash on animals’ forehead and put child or animal in front of mirror, some know to wipe it off- ability to recognize self - Self is Composed of 3 Major Components: 1. Reflexive consciousness- self-knowledge, self-concept; retains info about who you think you are o Private self-awareness- attending to info about the self; looking in a mirror 2. Interpersonal self- how you relate who you are to others o Public self-awareness= looking glass self Looking to others to attain info about the self o Self- presentation- how we show off the self to others Theory of planned behavior: norms, personal standards, and desired impression 3. Argentic self- attends and corrects the self o Self-control- self’s ability to override impulse Three motives for assessing info about ourselves: 1. Appraisal motive- gauging abilities; regardless how positive or negative it is o Self-efficacy- perceived ability to perform in a certain domain; self-confidence 2. Consistency motive- double checking the self; regardless of positive or negative o Self-verification- actively working to confirm beliefs about the self 3. Self-enhancement motive- info used to bolster the self; we prefer to see ourselves positively Three symptoms of self-enhancement gone hay-wire: 1. Better-than-average- people rank themselves higher than average on their skills 2. Illusion of control- people think they have more control than they actually do o Ex. riding a motorcycle or doing other dangerous things 3. Unrealistic optimism- idea that good things will happen to you o Ex. not believing marriage will ever end in divorce - Everyone sees the world through a biased lens. Measuring Self-Esteem - Explicit SE- asking people how they feel about themselves o Rosenburg Self-Esteem scale- most widely used scale in social psychology- 10 questions ranked 1-5 (agree-disagree) - Implicit egotism- unconscious gravitation toward people, places, and thing that resemble or have anything to do with the self o Ex. Someone named George lives in Georgia. - Implicit SE- unconscious self-esteem Self-certainty - HSE- know who they are; number on scale consistently high; will bounce back from negative feedback; self-enhancing; seek success and take risks - LSE- self-concept confusion; results on scale vary per day; changes/fluctuations- but usually more realistic; take negative feedback personally; self-protective; avoid failure and use caution - Most people are in between LSE and HSE, and vary depending on the situation. Self-esteem myths or questions: - Gender differences- not as big as people think; result of experiences - Self-esteem and aggression- bullies don’t necessarily have LSE o Unreasonably high SE aggression o Threatened egotism- almost addicted to how much you love yourself; when someone insults you, it’s a threat to egomust prove them wrongaggression - Narcissists- most really love themselves, some hate themselves deep down (research still being done) o Poor relationship partners, tend to be successful, very aggressive, very prejudice, very persistent and stubborn Narcissist Personality disorder- Problem: won’t go to treatment or will go for affirmation of his greatness; don’t usually grow out of it What is SE good for? - Feeling positive about you. - Proxy for your success? o Brown and Dutton (1994) Top-down- self-esteempositive attributes Bottom-up- positive attributesself-esteem o Studies done with children being praised in class- didn’t work! The wrong type of praise can be counterproductive. - Entity theorists- believe you have natural abilities and that cannot change - Incremental theorists- believe you can improve with more practice or effort What Self-Esteem is good for: - Encourages people to take risks with possible positive benefits. o HSE- new friends and relationships - Resource stock: greater resiliency to negative feedback o HSE- can bounce back from a hit Need to Belong: - Baumeister and Leary (1995) - Fundamental human motivation o Just like eating, sleeping, and breathing o Lack of social relationships related to psychological and health problems. Sociometer theory - Leary and Baumeister (2000) - SE as a gas gauge for social acceptance. o SE fluctuates with gains and (especially) losses in relationships. o Can be miscalibrated. Narcissists- set too high Depressed- set too low Fighting Temptation - Automatic vs. Controlled - Self-regulation- self’s capability to monitor and alter responses 4 main categories: 1. Thought control o Auto: let your mind wander o Cont: focus and study for exam 2. Affect regulation o Auto: I’ll cry if I want to o Cont: Keep emotions inside. Ex. don’t laugh at a funeral 3. Impulse control o Auto: I want that cake! o Cont: I need to stick to my diet. 4. Performance control- persistence; continuing to do something o Auto: I should give up o Cont: I think I can. Delay of Gratification (Mischel) - Tempt people measure response 3 ingredients of self-regulation: 1. Standards- guidelines of what we (and our society, parents, friends) set for ourselves 2. Monitoring- self-awareness o Self-Discrepancy theory (Higgins, 1986) Multiple selves: ideal (wants, wishes, desires) and ought (what’s appropriate) Monitor, compare to actual self, and look for discrepancies Actual/Ideal discrepancysadness, depression Actual/Ought discrepancyworry, anxiety Monitoring system is emotional responses Discrepant self-viewsEmotional responseMotivates self-change 3. Strength- mental resources; “will-power” o Capability to delay instant gratification for long-term gratification. - Limited Resource model- self-regulation is like a muscle, with use it becomes fatigued - Alternative predictions 1. Priming- engaging in self-regulation primes the process and makes it more likely to occur o SR exertion should increase subsequent SR 2. Skill model- SR is a skill independent of resources o SR exertion shouldn’t affect subsequent SR 3. Depletion- SR draws on a limited resource common to all SR efforts o SR exertion should decrease subsequent SR - Dependent variables (DV) o DVs (independent studies) Persisting at impossible puzzle tracing exercise Restricting emotion to funny or sad video Drinking bad tasting beverage because it’s healthy o In all cases, those in the self-regulatory depleted condition fared worse: persisted less, showed more emotion, drank less - Ego-depletion is domain independent o Enacting self-regulation in one domain, temporarily depletes your ability to regulate in other domains - Ability vs. Motivation o Baumeister suggests that self-regulatory depletion results from a decrease in the ability to sustain performance o Motivation is also important. Self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci) Self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura) When we lack the motivation or lack the expectation of success, self-regulation “failures” are likely. Ways to regulate better: 1. Change situation to require less energy. Ex. If you’re trying to quit smoking, don’t go to a bar or have cigarettes at home. 2. Avoid the double whammy. Ex. Don’t try to cut out alcohol and cigarettes at the same time. 3. Avoid alcohol/drugs when trying to regulate. Impairs decision making 4. Strive for delayed gratification. Builds self-control over time Ex. display clothing that you’ll be able to wear when you lose weight 5. Make behavior automatic! If you do something enough, it becomes a habit and does not require as much self-regulation. 6. Use cognitive strategies.
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