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Psych Exam 1 Study Guide

by: April Sapp

Psych Exam 1 Study Guide 81067

April Sapp

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About this Document

This study guide covers chapter 1-3 of the Introducing Psychology book.
General Psychology (PSY 121)
Jason E. Strickhouser
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology, Psychology, sensation and perception, sensation, perception, neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology, social, Psychology; the brain, mind, behavior
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by April Sapp on Friday September 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 81067 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Jason E. Strickhouser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 121) in Psychology (PSYC) at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.


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Date Created: 09/09/16
Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 Chapters 1-3 Chapter 1 – Psychology: Evolution of a Science Psychology: the scientific study of mind and behavior Science: procedure for finding truth using empirical evidence (observations) Behavior: observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals Mood: private inner experience of perceptions, thought, memories, and feelings Philosophical Theories of Mind (Non-scientific) Ancient Nativism: The mind is innately filled with knowledge (Plato) Greek Times Philosophical Empiricism: The mind is a blank slate on which experiences are written (Aristotle) Around Dualism: The mind is non-physical and separate from the body (Descartes) Renaissance Times Materialism: The mind is what the brain does (Hobbes) Early Philosophical Theories of Mid 1870s-1920s Structuralism: The mind is made of discrete components that combine like chemical compounds (Wundt) • Scientifically analyzes the basic elements of the mind Functionalism: The mind is a tool for survival and reproduction (James) • Functionalism scientifically studies the adaptive purpose of mental processes Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalytic Theory: The mind is principally composed of and controlled by the unconscious • Unconscious: operates outside of awareness, but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions ◦ Not a scientific theory, no way to test empirically Psychoanalysis: Therapy that tries to bring unconscious material into the conscious awareness to treat psychological disorders. Rise of Behaviorism Behaviorism: The mind cannot be studies scientifically, can only study observable behavior (Watson, Skinner) • Tried to make psychology more like the psychical sciences • Studied how complex behaviors are learned through conditioning The Cognitive Revolution Cognitive Psychology: The mind is like a computer • Stores, retrieves, processes, and outputs info • Study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning Emerging Neuroscience The mind is what the brain does • Links psychological processes to activity in the nervous system • Cognitive Neuroscience: links cognitive processes and brain activity Additional PsychologicalApproaches Developmental Psychology: Study of continuity and changes across the lifespan Personality Psychology: Study of an individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling Social Psychology: Study of how an individual's behaving, thinking, and feeling is influenced by the presence of other people Clinical Psychology: Study of psychological disorders and how we treat them Chapter 2 – Methods in Psychology Science is based on empirical observations Essential elements of the scientific method: • Theory: a potential explanation of a natural phenomenon • Hypothesis: An empirical prediction made by a theory that could potentially be shown to be false (falsifiable) • Research: The systematic and careful collection of empirical data to test a hypothesis Natural Phenomenon→ Theory→ Hypothesis→ Research→ Empirical Results A good theory produces a wide variety of testable hypotheses. Measurement Operational Definition: Description of a property in concrete, observable terms • Validity: How close an operational definition is to the original property • Reliability: Tendency for an operational definition to result in the same measurement whenever is it used to measure the same thing Types of Studies To test a hypothesis, there are three main study designs: • Descriptive: observe and record behavior in the real world (examines variables separately) • Cor relational: observe the relation between two variables in the real world ◦ CAN NOT DETERMINEACASUAL RELATION • Experimental: researcher manipulates one variable to observe its influence on a second variable ◦ CAN DEMONSTRATEACASUAL RELATION The Ethics of Science: First Do No Harm • When scientists select a research method, they must know the ethical issues involved • They must also adhere strictly to the relevant ethnic guidelines maintained by all colleges, universities, and research institutes • Institutional Review Boards (IRBs): Review all proposed research to ensure that it meets scientific and ethical standards Chapter 3: Neuroscience and Behavior Behavior Neuroscience: an approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system Synapse Neurons do not touch at the synapse, electrical signal stops • Converted from an electrical signal to a chemical signal (by neurotransmitters) in order to carry on to the next neuron SynapseAKASynaptic gapAKA Synaptic cleft Interneurons→most common type of neuron The Spinal Cord The beginning of the central nervous system, connecting to the brain • Divided into four main sections; each controls different parts of the body • Damage higher in the spinal cord usually means greater impairment Spinal reflexes DO NOT involve the brain Structure of the brain Moving from the bottom to the top, from simpler functions to the more complex Hindbrain: coordinates spinal cord information and controls the basic functions of life Midbrain: orientating to stimuli and moving toward or away from stimuli Forebrain: complex cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor functions Subcortical Structures Thalamus: relays and filters info from the senses and transmits the info to the cerebral cortex Hypothalamus: regulates body temp, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior Hippocampus: critical for creating new memories and storing them in other parts of the cerebral cortex Amydala: plays a central role in many emotional processes, particularly emotional memories The Cerebral Cortex Four lobes of the cortex are each responsible for different sensory information. Occipital Lobe: vision Parietal Lobe: touch, spatial relations Temporal Lobe: hearing, language Frontal Lobe: smell and taste • Motor Cortex – movement • Prefrontal Cortex – abstract thinking, planning, judgment, inhibiting impulses, social behavior, personality Feature Detectors: Individual neurons that identify presence of a single sensory element AssociationAreas: integrate feature information


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