A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/9/16 Ballpark Numbers - Erythrocytes, Leucocytes, and Thrombocytes
What are they?
-are a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolytes dissolve into cations and anions.
What is the measurement used?
-the measure is used in terms of milliequivalents of solute per litre of solvent (or
milliNormal, where meq/L = mN). This is especially common for measurement of compounds in biological fluids.
Most important Cations
is most abundant cation in extracellular fluid
is most abundant cation in entire body. Why is the number so low in the plasma? The number is so low because it’s being store in the bones. Think of it as a CA bank. Plasma is absolutely essential for nerve transmission and muscle contraction. That is why there is a little floating in the plasma. Balance is essential so that is why PTH and Calcitonin (hormones) work together to regulate the blood CA.
Potassium is the most abundant cell in the intracellular fluid. If you have a dramatic influx of potassium it means you have something wrong with your kidneys, you blew up cells, or you did something weird to your diet. Sense Potassium and NA are on opposite sides of barriers. ex. Ca will
spill into the cytoplasm then you get a fever and you get edema. ex. Football you played with the kids they roughed up you, the cells are being blown up and that’s going to drive the Potassium levels up. The Potassium level should be low because it’s inside your cell. If it’s high that’s a bad thing.
If you want to learn more check out When does the government have the right to suspend individual freedom?
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A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/9/16
Most important Anions
Chloride is the same mm as NA. Because they CL and NA go together. Ex. You’ve tasted the “saltly” flavor of blood.
-buffer in plasma. Broken down into CO2. You hid the CO2 the bicarbonate in order to get it through your blood plasma. If it hides it, it can help maintain the pH of your blood. It’s clever!
-Reversible reaction. Next to lungs there’s not a lot of CO2. Next to heart more CO2.
-Ex. When you take a bucket of water out of one side of the pool, the water shifts. So the CO2 can be moved around, but still shifts.
We also discuss several other topics like What is hm’s short-term memory?
1. O2 is 2% in plasma. RBC’s carry 98% of O2.
2. CO2 is 7% in plasma. HCO3- is the 70%. CO2 has been converted to HCO3- and that’s why most of the CO2 is being carried by HCO3- in blood.
1. Glucose 100mg normal fasting blood.
2. Cholesterol 200 mg/dl 200 (HDL 40+, LDL 160-) These two combined.
-Found in plasma of blood. Kidney decides what is waste. Even excess good molecules kidney will flush out.
-Urea, uric acid, ammonium - all these have nitrogen and major waste products. Bad smell in pee or sweat is the ammonia. That’s the urea or uric acid. Nitrogen is being thrown out. -Lactic acid - when your body does not have O2 when working out, lactic acid builds up.
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A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/9/16 Buffy layer
Thrombocyte (platelets or blood clots)
What are they?
-They are cell fragments. Little bit of cytoplasm and cell membrane. NO nucleus. Size: We also discuss several other topics like How does temperature affect protein structure and function?
If you want to learn more check out What are the significant figures of rules?
-2-4 micrometers. micro = 1 millionth of a meter. Microns. 250,00/mm3 volume of thrombocyte. Characterists:
-NOT moving = thrombocyte
-Moving clot = embolus
Leucocytes (“white cells”) 8000 cells.
-They DO have a nucleus. Defense.
Ex. Clear plastic bag filled with water in a swimming pool. It would be hard to see it. That’s why they would stain the color. Deferential stain. Wright’s stain. 2 colors. Blue and Red.
1. Neutrophil - PMN. Polymorphonucleus. Many shaped nuclues. 60%
-Young ones are called “bands” - acute infection (recent infection)
-Old ones are called “segs” -chronic infection (long term infection)
2. Eosinophil 3% - absorbs red dye bilobed - allergic reaction or worms.
3. Basophil <1% - looks black. Mast cells - histamine
Not grainy cytoplasm.
1. Lymphocyte T cells and B cells (smart cells) Specialists or SWAT teams. B cells - antibodies. Gamma gobulins If you want to learn more check out What is the good way to calculate skew?
2. Monocytes - HUGE. floating brain looking nucleus. When they leave the blood stream they turn into macrophages. Junk yard dogs.
White blood cells 1 to RBC 700
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A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/9/16 Hematocrit
-Not technically cells because they don’t have a nucleus. They are made in red bone marrow.
Where and how the RBC’s are made:
-Hemocytoblast - can become RBC, WBC, or Platelets.
-Baby RBC’s are making a lot of hemoglobin that will help it in its jobs later on. -Shaped in a biconcave disc. We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of social work?
ex. looks like a swished marshmallow.
-Rough ER makes a freckle pattern called reticulocyte. Represents about 1% of RBC’s. New recruits on the street for the first time.
When they stop making hemoglobin, and the cell is left with a package of hemoglobin the name gets changed to Erythrocyte which represents 99%. All it can do is carry the respiratory gasses. They are perfect for increasing surface area, like a sponge.
ex. Like putting a drunk in a tube and sending it down the river. He’s relatively safe, because the tube bumps on the sides. Like the RBC bumping around.
RBC’s have a 120 days lifespan. The outside gets ratty like someone who wears the same clothes every day.
Amount you find:
5,000,000, mm3 - most abundant elements. HUGE number of ratio.
Hemoglobin like a taxi - O2. and CO2 carrier.
65% Iron is in RBC.
Hemoglobin concentration 15 g/100ml
Both RBC and WBC are formed by:
Myeloid source of all the cells. They all go into the circulating system. Lymphocytes go to Lymphoid tissue.
Type O most abundant Rh+ 85%
Type A - Antigen called A (Antigen means a target) Makes a antibody for B. Type B - Antigen B Makes an antibody for A.
Type AB - Antigen AB no antibody - universal recipient
Type O - NO antigen makes antibody against both. - universal donor
The thing that attacks the antigen is the antibody. Antibody is a weapon.
Rh + = antigen
Rh - = NO antigen
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A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/7/16
Ballpark Numbers - Plasma contents
pH below 7.35 acidosis - above 7.45 alkalosis
-Viscosity = thickness.
ex. grains of sand turning into sandpaper.
-machine that spins blood sample until all the different weighted molecules are in line. -Before 1980’s students could do blood tests in lab. Sadly, they were getting HIV. -Separates into 3 levels. It uses density to separate them.
ex. Stop quickly in the car while holding a bacon. The head and the balloon goes opposite directions. Head is more dense.
1. Plasma 55%
2. Buffy layer <1
3. Erythrocytes 45%
What makes up Plasma?
-High heat capacity
-Slowly heats up or cools down
-Ex. Put a hat on head for maximum warmth of body, not feet. Because blood carries heat.
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A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/7/16
Proteins of Plasma
-Al “white” as in the white of the egg. It’s clear, but when you fry it it’s white. That’s the protein.
-Albumin is made in liver
-In capillaries albumin is needed to create the osmotic pressure. The osmotic pressure is important because it allows the fluids back into arteries. Without the pressure pulling back in, all the fluids would drain out and cause edema. -People who’ve been drinking, take tylenol, or have had Hep B will have problems with liver.
-Buffers from harmful acids like the acid in dill pickles. Helps balance that pH.
-made by liver
-Alpha and Beta are the escort service
Protein plus a lipid are a lipoprotein. They can travel across the plasma membrane if connected.
-Lipoproteins come in two forms
-HDL (Happy- High density lipoproteins)
-LDL (Lossy - Low density lipoproteins)
-Iron (free ion can be dangerous, but with a carrier it’s fine. Don’t give a kid an adult vitamin. ex. escort prisoner in a jail.)
- B cells and T cells are Lymphocytes
-Ig - Immunoglobulin - Antibodies
-made by liver
-alcohol makes spotty skin
-suffix -ogen means not active.
Thrombin means active.
Thrombin activates fibrin to blood clot.
-This one is breaking down the fat and protein. The fat is being used as fuel for the muscles. Fat is constantly being broken down from the fat cells and being put into the blood for availability to muscles. In order to burn this fat for good, make big muscles which require more fat as fuel. Loose weight. 2. Complement
-Complement to the antibodies
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