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TYLER JUNIOR COLLEGE / Biology / BIOL 2402 / Which plasma protein maintain the blood ph?

Which plasma protein maintain the blood ph?

Which plasma protein maintain the blood ph?

Description

School: Tyler Junior College
Department: Biology
Course: Anatomy and Physiology II
Professor: Cates
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Blood, Anatomy & Physiology II, and Leucocytes
Cost: 25
Name: Week 3 notes - Chapter 18 - Blood
Description: Monday was a holiday, so these notes include Wednesday and Friday class notes. He mainly went over the handout that was called "Ballpark Numbers." That would include Red Blood Cells, White blood cells, Thrombocytes, basically the composition of blood and what each part consists of.
Uploaded: 09/10/2016
7 Pages 47 Views 3 Unlocks
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A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/9/16 Ballpark Numbers - Erythrocytes, Leucocytes, and Thrombocytes  


Which plasma protein maintain the blood ph?



Other Solutes

Electrolytes:  

What are they?

-are a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a  polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolytes dissolve into cations and anions.

What is the measurement used?

-the measure is used in terms of milliequivalents of solute per litre of solvent (or  

milliNormal, where meq/L = mN). This is especially common for measurement of compounds in  biological fluids.

Two components:

1. Cations:  

Most important Cations

Cation

Normal range

About

Na+ (Sodium)

140

is most abundant cation in extracellular fluid

CA++ (Calcium)

5

is most abundant cation in entire body. Why is the number so low in the  plasma? The number is so low because it’s being store in the bones.  Think of it as a CA bank. Plasma is absolutely essential for nerve  transmission and muscle contraction. That is why there is a little floating  in the plasma. Balance is essential so that is why PTH and Calcitonin  (hormones) work together to regulate the blood CA.

K+ (Potassium)

4

Potassium is the most abundant cell in the intracellular fluid. If you have  a dramatic influx of potassium it means you have something wrong with  your kidneys, you blew up cells, or you did something weird to your diet.  Sense Potassium and NA are on opposite sides of barriers. ex. Ca will  

spill into the cytoplasm then you get a fever and you get edema. ex.  Football you played with the kids they roughed up you, the cells are  being blown up and that’s going to drive the Potassium levels up. The  Potassium level should be low because it’s inside your cell. If it’s high  that’s a bad thing.

Mg++  

(Magnesium)

2


What happens to co2 when it arrives in the lungs?



If you want to learn more check out When does the government have the right to suspend individual freedom?

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A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/9/16

2. Anions:

Most important Anions

Anion

Normal range

About

Cl- (Chlorine)

100

Chloride is the same mm as NA. Because they CL and NA go together.  Ex. You’ve tasted the “saltly” flavor of blood.

HCO3-  

(Bicarbonate)

24

-buffer in plasma. Broken down into CO2. You hid the CO2 the  bicarbonate in order to get it through your blood plasma. If it hides it, it  can help maintain the pH of your blood. It’s clever!  

-Reversible reaction. Next to lungs there’s not a lot of CO2. Next to heart  more CO2.

-Ex. When you take a bucket of water out of one side of the pool, the  water shifts. So the CO2 can be moved around, but still shifts.

HPO4-2

(Hydrogen  

phosphate)

2

Least important

SO4-2 (Sulfate)

1

Least important


What toxins does the kidney remove?



We also discuss several other topics like What is hm’s short-term memory?

Respiratory gasses:  

1. O2 is 2% in plasma. RBC’s carry 98% of O2.

2. CO2 is 7% in plasma. HCO3- is the 70%. CO2 has been converted to HCO3- and that’s why  most of the CO2 is being carried by HCO3- in blood.  

Nutrients: 

1. Glucose 100mg normal fasting blood.

2. Cholesterol 200 mg/dl 200 (HDL 40+, LDL 160-) These two combined.

Wastes: 

-Found in plasma of blood. Kidney decides what is waste. Even excess good molecules kidney  will flush out.  

-Urea, uric acid, ammonium - all these have nitrogen and major waste products. Bad smell in  pee or sweat is the ammonia. That’s the urea or uric acid. Nitrogen is being thrown out. -Lactic acid - when your body does not have O2 when working out, lactic acid builds up.

Page 2 of 4

A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/9/16 Buffy layer

Thrombocyte (platelets or blood clots)

What are they?

-They are cell fragments. Little bit of cytoplasm and cell membrane. NO nucleus. Size: We also discuss several other topics like How does temperature affect protein structure and function?
If you want to learn more check out What are the significant figures of rules?

-2-4 micrometers. micro = 1 millionth of a meter. Microns. 250,00/mm3 volume of thrombocyte.  Characterists:

-NOT moving = thrombocyte

-Moving clot = embolus  

Leucocytes (“white cells”) 8000 cells.  

-They DO have a nucleus. Defense.  

Color:

Clear cells.  

Ex. Clear plastic bag filled with water in a swimming pool. It would be hard to see it.  That’s why they would stain the color. Deferential stain. Wright’s stain. 2 colors. Blue and Red.

2 types:

1.Granulocytes  

Grainy cytoplasm

1. Neutrophil - PMN. Polymorphonucleus. Many shaped nuclues. 60%

-Young ones are called “bands” - acute infection (recent infection)

-Old ones are called “segs” -chronic infection (long term infection)

2. Eosinophil 3% - absorbs red dye bilobed - allergic reaction or worms.

3. Basophil <1% - looks black. Mast cells - histamine  

2.Agranuloctye  

Not grainy cytoplasm.  

1. Lymphocyte T cells and B cells (smart cells) Specialists or SWAT teams. B  cells - antibodies. Gamma gobulins  If you want to learn more check out What is the good way to calculate skew?

2. Monocytes - HUGE. floating brain looking nucleus. When they leave the blood  stream they turn into macrophages. Junk yard dogs.  

Ratio:  

White blood cells 1 to RBC 700  

Page 3 of 4

A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/9/16 Hematocrit

Erythrocytes 

-Not technically cells because they don’t have a nucleus. They are made in red bone marrow.  

Where and how the RBC’s are made:  

-Hemocytoblast - can become RBC, WBC, or Platelets.  

-Baby RBC’s are making a lot of hemoglobin that will help it in its jobs later on.  -Shaped in a biconcave disc.  We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of social work?

 ex. looks like a swished marshmallow.

-Rough ER makes a freckle pattern called reticulocyte. Represents about 1% of RBC’s. New  recruits on the street for the first time.  

When they stop making hemoglobin, and the cell is left with a package of hemoglobin the name  gets changed to Erythrocyte which represents 99%. All it can do is carry the respiratory gasses.  They are perfect for increasing surface area, like a sponge.  

 ex. Like putting a drunk in a tube and sending it down the river. He’s relatively safe, because  the tube bumps on the sides. Like the RBC bumping around.  

Sizes:

Thrombocyte 4

RBC 8

WBC 16

Lifespan:

RBC’s have a 120 days lifespan. The outside gets ratty like someone who wears the same  clothes every day.  

Amount you find:  

5,000,000, mm3 - most abundant elements. HUGE number of ratio.

Hemoglobin like a taxi - O2. and CO2 carrier.  

65% Iron is in RBC.

Hemoglobin concentration 15 g/100ml

Both RBC and WBC are formed by:

Myeloid source of all the cells. They all go into the circulating system. Lymphocytes go to  Lymphoid tissue.

Blood Types

Type O most abundant Rh+ 85%

Type A - Antigen called A (Antigen means a target) Makes a antibody for B. Type B - Antigen B Makes an antibody for A.

Type AB - Antigen AB no antibody - universal recipient  

Type O - NO antigen makes antibody against both. - universal donor  

The thing that attacks the antigen is the antibody. Antibody is a weapon.  

Rh + = antigen

Rh - = NO antigen

Page 4 of 4

A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/7/16

Ballpark Numbers - Plasma contents

pH below 7.35 acidosis - above 7.45 alkalosis  

Blood viscosity 

- 5x  

-Viscosity = thickness.  

ex. grains of sand turning into sandpaper.  

Centrifuge 

-machine that spins blood sample until all the different weighted molecules are in line.  -Before 1980’s students could do blood tests in lab. Sadly, they were getting HIV. -Separates into 3 levels. It uses density to separate them.  

 ex. Stop quickly in the car while holding a bacon. The head and the balloon goes opposite  directions. Head is more dense.  

-Three layers

1. Plasma 55%

2. Buffy layer <1

3. Erythrocytes 45%

What makes up Plasma?

-Water

-92%

-Universal solvent

-High heat capacity  

-Slowly heats up or cools down

-Ex. Put a hat on head for maximum warmth of body, not feet. Because blood carries  heat.

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A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/7/16

-Proteins  

Proteins of Plasma

Kind

Percentage

About

Albumin

58%

-Al “white” as in the white of the egg. It’s clear, but when you  fry it it’s white. That’s the protein.

-Albumin is made in liver

-In capillaries albumin is needed to create the osmotic  pressure. The osmotic pressure is important because it allows  the fluids back into arteries. Without the pressure pulling back  in, all the fluids would drain out and cause edema. -People who’ve been drinking, take tylenol, or have had Hep  B will have problems with liver.  

-Buffers from harmful acids like the acid in dill pickles. Helps  balance that pH.

Globulin

37%

-made by liver

-transport system.  

-Enzymes  

-Alpha and Beta are the escort service  

Protein plus a lipid are a lipoprotein. They can travel across  the plasma membrane if connected.  

-Lipoproteins come in two forms

 -HDL (Happy- High density lipoproteins)

 -LDL (Lossy - Low density lipoproteins)

 -Transport metals

 -Iron (free ion can be dangerous, but with a carrier  it’s fine. Don’t give a kid an adult vitamin. ex. escort prisoner  in a jail.)

-Gamma  

 - B cells and T cells are Lymphocytes

 -Ig - Immunoglobulin - Antibodies

Clotting

4%

Fibrinogen  

 -made by liver

 -alcohol makes spotty skin

 -suffix -ogen means not active.  

Thrombin means active.  

Thrombin activates fibrin to blood clot.

Other

<1%

1.Enzymes  

 -Lipoprotein lipase  

 -This one is breaking down the fat and protein. The fat  is being used as fuel for the muscles. Fat is constantly being  broken down from the fat cells and being put into the blood for  availability to muscles. In order to burn this fat for good, make  big muscles which require more fat as fuel. Loose weight.  2. Complement  

 -Complement to the antibodies

3. Hormones

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